Latin for beginners (1911)/Part III/Lesson LXI
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
342. In addition to the indicative, imperative, and infinitive moods, which you have learned, Latin has a fourth mood called the subjunctive. The tenses of the subjunctive are
Active and Passive
343. The tenses of the subjunctive have the same time values as the corresponding tenses of the indicative, and, in addition, each of them may refer to future time. No meanings of the tenses will be given in the paradigms, as the translation varies with the construction used.
344. The present subjunctive is inflected as follows:
|Conj. I||Conj. II||Conj. III||Conj. IV|
|2. amē´ris (-re)||moneā´ris (-re)||regā´ris (-re)||capiā´ris (-re)||audiā´ris (-re)|
- a. The present subjunctive is formed from the present stem,
- b. The mood sign of the present subjunctive is -e- in the first conjugation and -a- in the others. It is shortened in the usual places (cf . § 1 2), and takes the place of the final vowel of the stem in the first and third conjugations, but not in the second and fourth.
- c. The personal endings are the same as in the indicative.
- d. In a similar way inflect the present subjunctive of cūrō, iubeō, sūmō, iaciō, muniō.
345. The present subjunctive of the irregular verb sum is inflected as follows:
The Indicative and Subjunctive Compared.
- The two most important of the finite moods are the indicative and the subjunctive. The indicative deals with facts either real or assumed. If, then, we wish to assert something as a fact or to inquire after a fact, we use the indicative.
- On the other hand, if we wish to express a desire or wish, a purpose, a possibility, an expectation, or some such notion, we must use the subjunctive. The following sentences illustrate the difference between the indicative and the subjunctive ideas.
Indicative Ideas Subjunctive Ideas
|Indicative Ideas||Subjunctive Ideas|
He is brave
May he be brave
Fortis sit (idea of wishing)
We set out at once
Let us set out at once
Statim proficīscāmur (idea of willing)
You hear him every day
Cotīdiē eum audīs
You can hear him every day
Cotīdiē eum audiās (idea of possibility)
He remained until the ship arrived
Mānsit dum nāvis pervēnit
He waited until the ship should arrive
Exspectāvit dum nāvis pervenīret (idea of expectation)
Cæsar sends men who find the bridge
Caesar mittit hominēs quī pontem reperiunt
Cæsar sends men who are to find (or to find) the bridge
Caesar hominēs mittit quī pontem reperiant (idea of purpose)
Note. From the sentences above we observe that the subjunctive may be used in either independent or dependent clauses; but it is far more common in the latter than in the former.
Which verbs in the following paragraph would be in the indicative and which in the subjunctive in a Latin translation?
There have been times in the history of our country when you might be proud of being an American citizen. Do you remember the day when Dewey sailed into Manila Bay to capture or destroy the enemy’s fleet? You might have seen the admiral standing on the bridge calmly giving his orders. He did not even wait until the mines should be removed from the harbor’s mouth, but sailed in at once. Let us not despair of our country while such valor exists, and may the future add new glories to the past.
- pervenīret, imperfect subjunctive.