Latin for beginners (1911)/Part III/Lesson LXVIII

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383. The verb fīō, be made, happen, serves as the passive of faciō, make, in the present system. The rest of the verb is formed regularly from faciō. Learn the principal parts and conjugation (§ 500). Observe that the i is long except before -er and in fit. a. The compounds of facio with prepositions usually form the passive regularly, as,

Active cōnficiō, cōnficere, cōnfēcī, cōnfectus
Passive cōnficior, cōnficī, cōnfectus sum

384. Observe the following sentences:

  1. Terror erat tantus ut omnēs fugerent, the terror was so great that all fled.
  2. Terror erat tantus ut nōn facile mīlitēs sēsē reciperent, the terror was so great that the soldiers did not easily recover themselves.
  3. Terror fēcit ut omnēs fugerent, terror caused all to flee (lit. made that all fled).

a. Each of these sentences is complex, containing a principal clause and a subordinate clause.

b. The principal clause names a cause and the subordinate clause states the consequence or result of this cause.

c. The subordinate clause has its verb in the subjunctive, though translated like an indicative. The construction is called the subjunctive of consequence or result, and the clause is called a consecutive or result clause.

d. In the last example the clause of result is the object of the verb fēcit.

e. The conjunction introducing the consecutive or result clause I.'ut' = so that; negative, ut nōn = so that not.

385. Rule. Subjunctive of Result. Consecutive clauses of result are introduced by ut or ut nōn and have the verb in the subjunctive.

386. Rule. Object clauses of result with ut or ut nōn are found after verbs of effecting or bringing about.

387. Purpose and Result Clauses Compared. There is great similarity in the expression of purpose and of result in Latin. If the sentence is affirmative, both purpose and result clauses may be introduced by ut; but if the sentence is negative, the purpose clause has and the result clause ut nōn. Result clauses are often preceded in the main clause by such words as tam, ita, sic (so), and these serve to point them out. Compare


Tam graviter vulnerātus est ut caperētur

He was so severely wounded that he was captured


Graviter vulnerātus est ut caperētur

He was severely wounded in order that he might be captured

Which sentence contains a result clause, and how is it pointed out?




  1. Fit, fīet, ut fīat, fīēbāmus. 2. Fīō, fīēs, ut fierent, fierī, fīunt.
  2. Fīētis, ut fīāmus, fīs, fīemus.
  3. Mīlitēs erant tam tardī ut ante noctem in castra nōn pervenīrent.
  4. Sōl facit ut omnia sint pulchra.
  5. Eius modī perīcula erant ut nēmō proficīscī vellet.
  6. Equitēs hostium cum equitātū nostrō in itinere contendērunt, ita tamen[1] ut nostrī omnibus in partibus superiōrēs essent.
  7. Virtūs mīlitum nostrōrum fēcit ut hostēs nē ūnum quidem[2] impetum sustinērent.
  8. Hominēs erant tam audācēs ut nūllō modō continērī possent.
  9. Spatium erat tam parvum ut mīlitēs tēla iacere nōn facile possent.
  10. Hōc proeliō factō barbarī ita perterritī sunt ut ab ultimīs gentibus lēgātī ad Caesarem mitterentur.
  11. Hoc proelium factum est nē lēgātī ad Caesarem mitterentur.


  1. It will happen, they were being made, that it may happen.
  2. It happens, he will be made, to happen.
  3. They are made, we were being made, lest it happen.
  4. The soldiers are so brave that they conquer.
  5. The soldiers are brave in order that they may conquer.
  6. The fortification was made so strong that it could not be taken.
  7. The fortification was made strong in order that it might not be taken.
  8. After the town was taken,[3] the townsmen feared that they would be made slaves.
  9. What state is so weak that it is unwilling to defend itself?



  1. ita tamen, with such a result however.
  2. nē ... quidem, not even. The emphatic word is placed between.
  3. Ablative absolute.