Life in India

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Life in India or Madras, the Neilgherries, and Calcutta  (1855) 
by John Welsh Dulles

Frontispiece.


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Preaching in the Village.

Life in India;


OR,


MADRAS, THE NEILGHERRIES, AND CALCUTTA.

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WRITTEN FOR THE AMERICAN SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNION.



Philadelphia:

AMERICAN SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNION,

No. 316 CHESTNUT STREET.

NEW YORK: No. 147 NASSAU ST.

BOSTON: No. 9 CORNHILL..... CINCINNATI: 41 WEST FOURTH ST.

LOUISVILLE: No. 103 FOURTH ST.


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1855, by the

AMERICAN SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNION,

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of

Pennsylvania.




No books are published by the AMERICAN SUNDAY-SCHOOL UNION without the sanction of the Committee of Publication, consisting of fourteen members, from the following denominations of Christians, viz. Baptist, Methodist, Congregational, Episcopal, Presbyterian, Lutheran, and Reformed Dutch. Not more than three of the members can be of the same denomination, and no book can be published to which any member of the Committee shall object.

PREFACE.


The author ventures with much diffidence to make an humble contribution to the stock of public information on India and the Hindus.

It has not been his aim to tell all that could be told of India; this would call for folios. Nor has he attempted to give a popular compend of the whole vast subject; this would demand a volume whose size and style would defeat his object; and, moreover, it has already been ably done by authors in this country and in England. He has rather aimed, by a series of sketches, simply and familiarly drawn, to give some definite impressions on a number of points connected with that interesting land and its teeming millions; and more especially as seen in those parts of India which have come under his own observation. He has sought to show how the missionary reaches the shores of Southern India; what sights and sounds greet him on landing; how Hindus live, act, and worship; in what ways they are approached by the missionary; and what are the effects of his labours among them.

Though indebted for many facts to those who have preceded him, the writer has thought that reality and definiteness of conception would be most promoted by giving mainly the results of personal experience and the incidents of personal travel. In themselves of slight importance, they yet serve to illustrate the subject, and so to answer the end he has in view.

Though a residence of scarce four years hardly suffices for such an acquaintance with a foreign nation—and that, too, one so unlike our own—as would justify the present authorship, yet he trusts that a diligent study of the people during that time, with the aid of information drawn from books of known authority, will be found to have prevented the occurrence of many serious errors. The reader should be warned against the very common mistake of taking, as applicable to all India, statements true only of certain districts or provinces. India is an aggregate of nations having many things in common, but being in many things diverse. This should be borne in mind, and a distinction be made between local and general facts.

A scientific accuracy in the spelling of Eastern names and terms has not been sought. The mode most commonly used in Southern India has been usually adopted.

If this humble attempt to give life and reality to now vague and cold conceptions of the “heathen of far-off India” serves to create in any Christian heart a more enlightened and lively zeal for the extension of the kingdom of Christ in that rich and noble land, (though now impoverished and degraded by sin;) if it helps to swell the tide of Christian sympathy for the Hindu, and of effort for his salvation; if it awakens in the bosom of any of our youth an interest in the welfare of the benighted, and thankfulness for their own happier lot; and, more especially, if it should lead any youth to say, "Here am I, send me!”—then will the writer feel that not entirely in vain has he been removed from a loved field of labour, and deprived of the ability to preach with his own voice the unsearchable riches of Christ.


CONTENTS.


PART I.

  1. PAGE
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    13
  3. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    15
  4. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    21
  5. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    28
  6. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    38
  7. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    45
  8. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50
  9. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    53

PART II.

  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    59
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    69
  3. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    79
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    90
  3. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    97
  4. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    102
  5. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    109
  6. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    128
  7. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    134
  8. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    143
  9. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    154
  10. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    165
  11. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    183


PART III.

  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    204
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    222
  3. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    229
  4. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    241
  5. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    248
  6. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    255
  7. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    262
  8. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    277
  9. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    281

PART IV.

  1. PAGE
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    289
  3. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    301
  4. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    308
  5. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    331
  6. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    349

PART V.

  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    383
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    397
  3. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    416
  4. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    424
  5. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    440
  6. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    445
  7. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    457
  8. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    473

PART VI.

  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    493
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    521

INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS.




  1. PAGE
  2. Preaching in the villages (Frontispiece.)
  3. Madras catamaran
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    51
  4. Madras from the roadstead
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    53
  5. Temple to Ganesha
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    69
  6. Peon or policeman
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    71
  7. Castor-oil mill
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    73
  8. Bazaar shop
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    92
  9. Mission church, school-house, and bungalow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    99
  10. Plantain in fruit
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    112
  11. Writing on palm-leaf, book and letter
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    147
  12. Cavady-man with water-pots
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    190
  13. Hindu women at a well
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    192
  14. Silversmith at work
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    197
  15. Camel and rider
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    203
  16. Palankeen in motion
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    204
  17. Hindu family journeying
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    219
  18. Woman with water-chatty
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    229
  19. Hindu weaving
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    235
  20. Fanning and beating rice
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    264
  1. Gobram or pagoda
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    283
  2. Vaishnava Brahmin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    301
  3. Brahmin at his meal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    305
  4. Young palmyra
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    316
  5. Toddy-gatherers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    318
  6. Disease leaving the Madura king
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    370
  7. The king's ministers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    374
  8. Musical instruments
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    382
  9. Buffalo cart
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    393
  10. Sepoys
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    401
  11. Water-booth and soldiers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    428
  12. Elephant with howdah
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    431
  13. Todar family
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    446
  14. Bazaar of a Hindu town
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    486
  15. Hindu house
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    492
  16. Government-house, Calcutta
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    499
  17. Hindus eating
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    501