Low Mass Ceremonial (Burnett)/Appendices

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The Priest's Private Prayers

Preparation for Mass

Ant. Remember not. (On greater festivals this antiphon is said entire before as well as after the psalms). Ps. 84 "O how amiable," etc. Ps. 85 "Lord, thou art," etc. Ps. 86 "Bow down thine ear," etc. Ps. 116 (10) "I believe," etc. Ps. 130 "Out of the deep," etc. Ant. Remember not, Lord our offences, nor the offences of our forefathers; neither take thou vengeance of our sins. (In Easter-tide, add, Alleluia). "Lord have mercy upon us. Christ have mercy upon us. Lord have mercy upon us. Our Father," etc. V. And lead us not into temptation. R. But deliver us from evil. V. I said, Lord be merciful unto me. R. Heal my soul, for I have sinned against thee. V. Turn thee again, O Lord, at the last. R. And be gracious unto thy servants. V. Let thy mercy, O Lord, be showed upon us. R. As we do put our trust in thee. V. Let thy priests be clothed with righteousness. R. And thy saints sing with joyfulness. V. Cleanse me, O Lord, from my secret faults. R. And keep thy servant from presumptuous sins. V. O Lord, hear my prayer. R. And let my cry come unto thee. (V. The Lord be with you. R. And with thy spirit.) Let us pray:

Most gracious God, incline thy merciful ears to our prayers, and enlighten our hearts by the grace of the Holy Spirit; that we may worthily minister at thy holy mysteries and love thee with an everlasting love.

Almighty God, unto whom all hearts are open, all desires known, and from whom no secrets are hid; cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love thee, and worthily magnify thy holy Name.

Inflame, O Lord, our reins and our heart with the fire of the Holy Ghost; that we may serve thee with a chaste body, and please thee with a clean heart.

We beseech thee, O Lord, that the Comforter who proceedeth from thee, may enlighten our hearts; and lead us, as thy Son hath promised, into all truth.

We beseech thee, O Lord, let the power of the Holy Ghost come upon us; that it may mercifully cleanse our hearts, and defend us from all adversities.

O God, who didst teach the hearts of thy faithful people, by sending to them the light of thy Holy Spirit; grant us by the same Spirit to have a right judgment in all things, and evermore to rejoice in his holy comfort.

Purify our consciences, we beseech thee, O Lord, by thy visitation; that our Lord Jesus Christ thy Son, when he cometh, may find in us a mansion prepared for himself. Who liveth and reigneth with thee, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end. R. Amen.

At Washing of Hands before Vesting

Cleanse my hands, O Lord, from all stain, that pure in mind and body I may be made meet to serve thee.

When putting on the Amice

Put upon my head, O Lord, the helmet of salvation, that I may overcome the assaults of the devil.

When putting on the Alb

Cleanse me, O Lord, and purify my heart, that having been made white in the blood of the Lamb, I may have the fruition of everlasting joys.

When putting on the Girdle

Gird me, O Lord, with the girdle of purity, and quench in me the fire of concupiscence, that the virtues of temperance and chastity may abide within me.

When putting on the Maniple

Grant me, O Lord, so to bear the maniple of tears and sorrow, that with joy I may receive the reward of my labour.

When putting on the Stole

Restore to me, O Lord, the stole of immortality, which I lost by the transgression of my first parent, and although I am unworthy to draw near to thy sacred Mystery, yet may I be made meet for everlasting joy.

When putting on the Chasuble

O Lord, who hast said, My yoke is easy and my burden is light, enable me so to bear it that I may obtain thy favour. Amen.

Before leaving the Sacristy

In the multitude of thy mercies, O Lord, I go unto thine altar. O save and deliver me for thy tender mercies' sake. Amen.

Preparation at the foot of the Altar-Steps

Signing himself with the sign of the cross, the priest says, In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. Ant. I will go unto the altar of God. R. Even unto the God of my joy and gladness. Priest. Give sentence with me, O God, and defend my cause against the ungodly people: O deliver me from the deceitful and wicked man. Server. For thou art the God of my strength, why hast thou put me from thee; and why go I so heavily, while the enemy oppresseth me? P. O send out thy light and thy truth, that they may lead me: and bring me unto thy holy hill and to thy dwelling. S. And that I may go unto the altar of God, even unto the God of my joy and gladness: and upon the harp will I give thanks to thee, O God, my God. P. Why art thou so heavy, O my soul: and why art thou so disquieted within me? S. O put thy trust in God; for I will yet give him thanks, which is the help of my countenance and my God. P. Glory be, etc. S. As it was, etc. Ant. I will go unto the altar of God. R. Even unto the God of my joy and Gladness. Signing himself, the priest says, Our help is in the Name of the Lord. R. Who hath made heaven and earth. Bowing profoundly, the priest says, I confess to God Almighty, to Blessed Mary ever-Virgin, to Blessed Michael the Archangel, to Blessed John the Baptist, to the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and to all the saints, and to you brethren, that I have sinned exceedingly, in thought, word, and deed, by my fault, by my own fault, by my most grievous fault. Wherefore I beg Blessed Mary Ever-Virgin, blessed Michael the Archangel, blessed John the Baptist, the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, all the saints, and you my brethren, to pray for me to the Lord our God.

S. Almighty God have mercy upon thee, forgive thee thy sins, and bring thee to everlasting-life.

The server, bowing down his head, then says the same form of confession, except the words "you brethren," for which he substitutes "thee father." After the server has made his confession, the priest says, Almighty God have mercy upon you, forgive you your sins, and bring you to everlasting life. The priest then makes the sign of the cross, and says, The Almighty and merciful Lord grant us pardon, absolution, and remission of all our sins. V. Wilt thou not turn and quicken us, O God? R. That thy people may rejoice in thee. V. O Lord, show thy mercy upon us. R. And grant us thy salvation. V. O Lord, hear my prayer. R. And let my cry come unto thee. V. The Lord be with you. R. And with thy spirit. Let us pray. (If the priest has no server, he himself says all the responses; and after his confession, says, "Almighty God have mercy upon me," etc.)

As the Priest goes up to the Altar

Take away from us, O Lord, our iniquities, that with pure minds we may enter into thy holy place; through Christ our Lord. Amen.

When kissing the Altar

(at the beginning of the Mass)

We pray thee, O Lord, (Blessed Mary and all thy saints interceding for us), that it may please thee to forgive us all our sins.

Before reading the Gospel

Cleanse my heart and lips, O Almighty God, who didst purge the lips of the prophet Isaiah with a live coal; and of thy gracious mercy, vouchsafe so to cleanse me that I may worthily declare thy holy Gospel, through Christ our Lord. Amen. Grant me, O Lord, thy blessing. The Lord be in my heart and on my lips that I may worthily and rightly proclaim his Gospel.

After reading the Gospel

By the words of the Gospel, may our sins be blotted out.

At the Offering of the Bread

Receive, Holy Father, almighty, everlasting God, this oblation which I thine unworthy servant, offer unto thee, my God, the living and the true, for my innumerable sins, offences, and negligences; for all here present, and for all faithful Christians, both quick and dead; that it may be profitable both to me and to them for salvation unto everlasting life. Amen.

At the Pouring of Water into the Chalice

O God, who didst wonderfully create and yet more wonderfully renew the dignity of human nature; grant us, we beseech thee, that by the mystery set forth by this water and wine, we may be partakers of the divine nature of him who vouchsafed to be made partaker of our human nature Jesus Christ thy Son our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

At the Offering of the Wine

We offer unto thee, O Lord, this oblation, humbly beseeching thy mercy, that it may go up before thy divine majesty with a sweet-smelling savour for our salvation and for that of the whole world. Amen.

After the Offering of the Wine

In the spirit of humility, and with a contrite heart, let us be accepted by thee, O Lord, and so let our sacrifice be in thy sight this day, that it may well-pleasing unto thee, O Lord God.

Come, O Holy Ghost, Almighty and everlasting God, and bless this sacrifice prepared for thy holy Name.

At the Offering of Alms

Receive, O Holy Trinity, the offerings of thy people: Vouchsafe to reward the givers an hundred-fold, and grant them eternal life in thy heavenly kingdom, through Christ our Lord.

At the washing of Hands (offertory)

"I will wash my hands," etc.—Psalm xxvi—6 to end, with Gloria Patri.

Before turning to the People, and beginning the Prayers for the Church

Receive, O Holy Trinity, this oblation, which we offer unto thee, in memory of the Passion, Resurrection, and Ascension, of our Lord Jesus Christ; and in honour of blessed Mary ever-Virgin, of blessed John the Baptist, of the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and of all thy saints: that it may avail them to their honour, and us to our salvation. And may those whose memory we celebrate on earth, vouchsafe to intercede for us in heaven; through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.

Commemoration of the Faithful Departed

(In the Canon, or before the priest's communion)

Remember also, O Lord, the souls of thy servants N. and N. who have gone before us with the sign of faith, and now rest in the sleep of peace. To them, O Lord, and to all who rest in Christ, we beseech thee to grant a place of refreshment, of light, and of peace.

To us also, thy sinful servants, who hope in the multitude of thy mercies, grant some portion and fellowship with thy holy Apostles, and Martyrs, and all thy Saints, unto whose company we beseech thee to admit us, through Christ our Lord.

Before Communion

Commanded by his saving precepts, and guided by his divine instruction, we are bold to say, Our Father, * * *, but deliver us from evil. Amen. Deliver us, we beseech thee, O Lord, from all evils, past, present, and future, and (the blessed, glorious, and ever-Virgin Mary the Mother of God, thy blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and all the saints, interceding for us) favourably grant peace in our days; that by thy merciful help we may ever be kept free from sin, and safe from all disquietude, through the same Jesus Christ, thy Son, our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

At the Commixture

The peace of the Lord be always with you. Let this commixture and the consecration of the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ be for everlasting life unto us who partake thereof. Amen.

The Agnus Dei

O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world, grant us thy peace.

Immediately before Communion

O Lord Jesu Christ, who saidst unto thine Apostles, Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you; Regard not my sins but the faith of thy Church, and grant it the peace and the unity which are according to thy will; who liveth and reigneth God, world without end. Amen.

O Lord Jesu Christ, Son of the living God, who according to the will of the Father, and by the cooperation of the Holy Ghost, hast by thy death given life unto the world; deliver me, by this thy most holy Body and Blood, from all mine iniquities, and from every evil; and make me cleave unto thy commandments; and suffer me never to be separated from thee, who with the Father and the Holy Ghost, liveth and reigneth, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

Let not the partaking of thy Body, O Lord Jesu Christ, which I, though unworthy, presume to receive, turn to me for judgment and condemnation; but according to thy tender love let it be profitable to me for the obtaining of protection and healing, both of body and soul; who with the Father, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, liveth and reigneth, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

At the Communion

What reward shall I give unto the Lord for all the benefits which he hath done unto me? I will receive the Bread of Heaven, and call on the Name of the Lord.

Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest come under my roof; but speak the word only, and my soul shall be healed.

The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for me, preserve my body and soul unto everlasting life.

What reward shall I give unto the Lord for all the benefits he hath done unto me? I will receive the cup of salvation, and call upon the name of the Lord.

The Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was shed for me, preserve my body and soul unto everlasting life. Amen.

After Communion

Let thy Body, O Lord, which we have received and thy Blood which we have drunk, abide within us; and grant that no stain of sin may remain in us, whom these pure and holy mysteries have refreshed, who liveth and reigneth, world without end. Amen.

After veiling the Chalice and before reading the last Gospel

May the homage of our service be pleasing unto thee, O Holy Trinity; and grant that the sacrifice which I, though unworthy, have offered before thy divine Majesty, may be acceptable unto thee, and that through thy mercy it may be propitiatory for me and for all for whom I have offered it. Amen.

Of the Altar

It is desirable that the mensa, or horizontal surface, of an altar at which mass is celebrated should be on a line with the elbows of the priest as he stands erect on the foot-pace; and this will average from about forty to forty-two inches high above the said foot-pace. The length of the altar should be somewhat proportioned to the size of the sanctuary; and ordinarily it may well be not less than eight nor more than twelve feet. The material out of which the altar is constructed should be either wood or a natural stone; entirely of either or partly of each, as, e. g., a stone mensa and wooden base. If a retable is set upon the altar it should not trench upon the space needed to spread the corporal, i. e., from twenty to twenty-four inches in a line drawn at right angles with the front edge of the mensa. Upon the altar, or on the retable, should be the two low mass lights (two wax candles in two candlesticks) one at each end, and cross or crucifix in the midst.

The step, or steps, upon which the altar is placed, should be wide enough to suit the purposes for which the altar may be used, and not more than five or six inches high. If three steps are used, the second and the third should run alongside the ends of as well as in front of the altar. The uppermost (or foot-pace) should be from three to four feet wide in front, and not more than two or three inches at the ends of the altar. The space underneath the altar should never be used as a cupboard or place to put things in.

The altar at which the holy Eucharist is celebrated should have upon it three linen cloths, white and clean. The two undermost of these three cloths are of heavy but fine linen, without any ornamentation, and are made the exact size of the top of the altar, with a hem of about an inch and a half wide. Quite distinct from these two cloths is the cere-cloth with which the mensa, if it be of stone, or the consecrated altar-stone which may be set in a wooden mensa, should be covered. The cere-cloth, a piece of heavy and fine linen, waxed on its under-side, should be hemmed and made to fit closely over the whole top and all four sides of the mensa. The uppermost cloth should be made of linen finer than the two below it, and have a hem of about an inch and a half or two inches wide. This upper cloth, the "fair linen cloth" of the rubric, should cover the mensa and hang down at each end of the altar nearly to the level of the foot-pace. The ends may be ornamented with white fringe or embroidery in white. In the part which lies upon the mensa five small equal-armed crosses may be worked in white thread, one in the middle and one towards and near each corner. These cloths should be kept white and clean; and, at such times as the altar is not being used, they should be protected from dust by a cover of some green-coloured material made to fit the altar-mensa. Except where the altar is richly ornamented with gold and colour, or with carvings, traditional usage and propriety call for at least a super-frontal (which may be supported by hooks attached to the cere-cloth, or by its own linen extension, laid over the cere-cloth, to hooks on the gradine) and if possible an altar-cloth which shall cover all the front of the altar below the super-frontal, made of some rich material, and agreeing or harmonizing with the colour of the day.

Of the Tabernacle

The interior of the tabernacle should be lined on all sides with white silk, and a clean corporal spread upon the bottom. Nothing should be put within the tabernacle except the sacred vessel (or vessels) containing the Blessed Sacrament. No ornament should be placed upon the tabernacle other than the altar-cross. The tabernacle, when in use, should never be left unlocked, and the key should be in the custody of the priest. The material out of which the tabernacle, or the interior thereof, is constructed should be wood, preferably of cedar. The door, be it single or two-leaved, should have on it some sacred emblem, as e. g., a chalice and host. The tabernacle should be placed at the back in the midst, above the altar mensa.

Of the Credence

The "credence," if possible, should be a table, rather than a shelf affixed to the wall; and, in any case, it should quite large enough to allow the placing conveniently thereon of all the things that properly should be put there. For this reason the credence should have a superficial space of about two feet and half a foot square, i. e., 360 square inches. Upon the credence, for a low mass, should be placed, the box of breads; a cruet containing wine, and a cruet containing pure, clean, natural water; a large basin in which to receive the offerings of the people; and a small basin, and the towel with which the priest dries his fingers at the Offertory. When in use, the credence-shelf or table should be covered with a clean white linen cloth.

Of the Sacred Vessels

The chalice should be made of gold, or of sterling silver, If made of silver, the interior of the cup should be gilded. If need so require, the cup alone may be made of silver, gilded within, and the lower parts of the chalice may be made of base metal. The chalice should be not less than seven inches high, nor, ordinarily, more than nine inches high.

The chalice has three parts, namely, the cup, the foot or base, and the stem (which connects the cup with the foot) in the middle of which there should be a projection of globular or horizontal cross shape, called the knop.

The cup of the chalice, which should not have any ornamentation on its inner surface, for the greater convenience and safety in administering the Precious Blood of Christ, should be of what is called the "Gothic" shape, i. e., not like the half of a round and hollow ball, but somewhat narrow at its concave bottom and then gradually increasing in diameter to the brim.

The foot, or base, of the chalice should be somewhat broader than the diameter of the cup at its brim, and be heavier than both the stem and the cup. It will be convenient to have a cross or a crucifix incised, or in bas-relief, upon the foot of the chalice, to indicate what may be called the front of the chalice and the side from which both priest and people receive the Precious Blood.

The Paten should be made of gold, or of silver. If made of silver, the upper surface should be gilded. The paten should be round, like a disk, and slightly concave on its upper side; or it may have a flat surface for about an inch and a quarter from the edge round about, and the central portion, of about three inches in diameter depressed one quarter of an inch in depth, and the depressed part, which when the paten is placed upon the chalice lies below the brim of the cup, should be so bevelled as not to come in contact with the inner surface of the cup. No ornamentation should be placed on the upper surface of the paten. The paten must be somewhat greater in diameter than the diameter of the cup at its brim.

For the celebration of the holy Eucharist, in close connection with the use of the chalice and paten, the articles called the corporal, the pall, the purificator, the veil, and the burse, are required.

The corporal is a fine white linen cloth, upon which the bread on a paten and the wine in a chalice, are consecrated; and is quite distinct from the "fair white linen cloth" with which the mensa of the altar is to be covered.

The corporal may be square, or it may be somewhat longer than it is wide; ordinarily, it should not be larger than about twenty-one inches square, or eighteen inches wide and twenty-one inches long. The corporal is folded in the following manner; namely, by folding back upon the centre one-third of the width, which third should always be that which, when the corporal is spread upon the altar, lies nearest to the front edge of the altar and is marked with an embroidered cross. The next fold is made by drawing back upon the parts thus doubled the posterior third. Then the third part of the folded cloth, which lies to the right of the centre is folded back upon the centre; and finally the third portion which lies at the left is folded back over the centre; thus making the act of folding four fold, and dividing the corporal into nine squares. All the four sides of the corporal should have a narrow hem; and in the middle near the hem on the edge which, when the corporal is spread upon the altar, lies parallel with the front edge of the mensa, a small equal-armed cross should be embroidered in white thread.

In the early and middle ages, the corporal, or consecration cloth, was large enough to allow its posterior folds to be drawn up over the chalice, and so serve as a covering for the chalice. In the later middle ages, the posterior folds of the corporal, namely the hinder-most three of the twelve squares into which the corporal up to that time had been folded, were detached, and the portion so detached was folded into one square and used as a cover to the chalice, and called "parva palla." Therefore, this cover for the chalice, whether used in its original form, or stiffened by the insertion of a piece of cardboard, is to be regarded as a portion of the corporal. Both together, the corporal and the pall, are the "fair linen cloth" with which the chalice and the paten are to be covered after the Communion. According to the mediaeval use, the longer sides of the corporal, when it was spread upon the altar, were at right angles with the front of the altar. According to modern usage, if the corporal be longer than it is wide, the longer sides should lie parallel with the front of the altar.

The pall may consist of two square folds of fine white linen, between which (before they are stitched together at the edges) a piece of cardboard of the same size is inserted to make the expanse of the linen stiff and secure as a cover for the chalice. Yet, it is most fitting that the material of the pall should be altogether congruous with its origin, and consist of a strip of linen, about as long as the width of the corporal, folded up in one square, stitched at the edges, and stiffened with starch. The size of the pall should not exceed the diameter of the paten.

The purificator is a piece of fine white linen about thirteen inches square, hemmed with a narrow hem, and having a small equal-armed cross embroidered in white thread in the middle. The purificator is folded in three parts lengthwise, i. e., one-third folded over the central third, and the other third part folded over upon the double fold.

The veil, which should be made of silk, may be about twenty-four inches square, and thus large enough to cover the chalice and paten and touch the corporal on all sides; yet it will suffice if the veil be not more than sixteen or eighteen inches square, and cover only the anterior part of the chalice. For material, a silk that is light in weight, and which will fall in graceful folds on all sides, and not over burden the pall, is to be preferred. Stiff and heavy silk, and heavy embroidery are most undesirable in a chalice veil. For ornament a small equal-armed cross may be embroidered in the centre of the veil, or a somewhat larger one in the centre of that part which hangs in front of the chalice.

The burse is a case in which the corporal, folded, is kept when it is not in use upon the altar. The burse should be about eight or nine inches square, and be made of two squares of card-board covered on one side with silk, and on the other (the inner when made up) with white linen. These two parts are stitched together on one of the four sides; and the edges which are at right angles with the same stitching are connected by flexible linen folds, so as to allow the unfastened edges to open to a width of about three inches. One of the outer sides of the burse may be ornamented with embroidery.

Where coloured vestments are used the burse and the veil will agree in colour with the silken vestments of the priest; otherwise they may always be white.

In the laundering of corporals a very little starch may be used. Purificators should not be starched. From the time at which corporals and purificators are put in use at the altar, until the time they are sent away to be laundered, the said articles should not be handled by any person who is not in holy order. Before corporals and purificators, which have been in use at the altar, are sent to be laundered they should be carefully rinsed by the priest himself, or some other clerk in holy order, and the water used for such rinsing should be poured into the sacristy drain, which should empty directly into the earth. If there be no sacristy drain, such water should be poured upon the ground near the walls of the church. Corporals in use should be left in the burses, and not be taken out and put away in drawers.

The cloth, with which the priest dries his fingers at the Offertory, should be a small towel not less than half a yard long and a foot wide; for, while the small piece of folded linen often used for this purpose may easily suffice at a low mass, a fair-sized towel is desirable.

Of the Matter of the Eucharist

For valid consecration, bread made of wheaten flour mixed with pure natural water, and wine which is the pure juice of the grape naturally and properly fermented, must be used; and these two materials must be separate, and separately consecrated. If need be, a proportionately small quantity of flour of another kind may be mixed with the wheaten flour without rendering the bread, so made, invalid. The bread may be either unleavened or leavened, but preference should be given to that which is unleavened. In either case the bread must be uncorrupt; and, to avoid the possibility of corruption, the bread used for the Eucharist should be as freshly baked as possible. Unleavened altar breads should not be used after they are three weeks old, even under favorable climatic conditions.

The wine may be either red in colour or white and it may be either sweet or dry, but in every case it must be a genuine wine, "the fruit of the vine," and uncorrupt.

The reserved sacrament should be renewed weekly; and the altar-breads that are consecrated for such renewal should be as fresh as possible.

Of the Sacred Vestments

The priest, when celebrating the holy Eucharist, ought to wear (over his cassock) an amice, an alb, a stole, a maniple, and a chasuble.

The Amice is a piece of fine white linen, thirty inches long and twenty-four inches wide, or at least about twenty-four inches long and twenty inches wide, having a hem of about one quarter of an inch wide, and two tapes or cords of about a yard long, each of which is attached at one end, one to one and the other to the other of the upper corners. In the middle of the upper part, near the hem, an equal-armed cross should be embroidered in white thread. A plain white linen apparel, about two inches and a half wide and eighteen inches long, is sometimes attached to the upper edge of the amice, to serve as a covering to the stole, lest the latter be soiled by contact with the priest's neck. The same purpose may be accomplished as effectually, and more properly, by so loosely adjusting the amice (without apparel) about the neck that some portion thereof may easily be drawn over the upper or middle part of the stole.

The Alb is a white linen garment, covering all the form of the wearer from neck to feet. This vestment should not be fitted like a coat but made in a full and flowing shape, be at least five feet in length from the back of the opening at the neck to the bottom of the skirt, and have a gradually increasing breadth from the breast downward, ending in a circumference of from three to four yards at the bottom of the skirt, which in any case should be not more than three inches above the floor on which the wearer stands. If the alb is overlong for the priest who is to wear it, he should gather it up as may be needed, under the girdle. The circumference of the sleeves at the shoulders should be at least about thirty inches, and the length of the sleeves great enough to reach to the hands of the wearer.

The Girdle is a white linen rope, which should not exceed four yards in length, but may be shorter. If need so require, the girdle should be washed occasionally, and so kept clean.

The Maniple is a band of silk, three or four inches wide and about twenty inches long, made like a stole, of the same material as the chasuble. The maniple, that it may not fall off (when in use), should have the two pendant parts fastened together near the arm of the wearer. Like the stole it may be fringed at the ends, and have a small equal-armed cross embroidered in the middle and near each end.

The Stole is a band of silk, about three inches wide and eight feet and six inches long. It may be fringed at the ends and have a small equal-armed cross embroidered at the middle and near each end. The material should be of the same kind as that of the chasuble.

The Chasuble is a vestment made of silken or woolen material. In its original form the chasuble was a great circular cloak, which had no opening round about but only at the top, through which the wearer let it down over his head, and upon his shoulders. In order to use his hands the wearer was obliged to gather up the vestment at his sides in folds over his arms. In later ages the form was some what changed by cutting away the material at the sides, for the purpose of leaving the arms of the wearer free. A convenient and graceful form of this vestment, if made of soft fine silk, is an elongated oval, about eight feet and eight inches long and four feet wide, with a circular opening, through which the head may be passed, the centre of which is fifty-four inches from the bottom of the back part of the vestment and fifty inches from the bottom of front part.

It should be noted that a garment made of linen and shaped like a chasuble, no matter how it may be ornamented, is nothing more than a chasuble-shaped surplice. Surplices shaped like the old-time chasubles have been worn in various places in Europe since the beginning of the twelfth century, but never as a mass-vestment. Putting orphreys on a chasuble-shaped surplice does not make the garment a chasuble any more than the lack of orphreys on a chasuble makes the said vestment anything less or other than a chasuble.

The material out of which the chasuble is made, whether it be silken or woolen, should be soft in texture, of as fine a quality as possible, and ample in quantity. This is of more importance than the ornamentation or even the colour. The modern Roman sequence of colours is certainly convenient, yet we are free to act in accordance with the more ancient custom which paid more regard to richness of material and ornament than to any particular colour, and made use of the best vestments, irrespective of their colour, on the greatest festivals, and relegated such as had seen their best days in festal use to the masses on ferial days. If but one set of vestments can be had, white ones should be preferred, and used on all occasions. Where it may be done, the priest's vestments should be laid in proper order upon a vestment chest or a table, for the priest's convenience in vesting. The lower half of the front of the chasuble should be folded up against the upper half and laid on the table, and then the back of the vestment should be doubled in like manner. The maniple should be laid on the chasuble and the stole so arranged that its middle part crosses and rests on the maniple, and its ends lie parallel with the sides of the chasuble. The girdle is doubled and laid upon the maniple and stole in the form of the letter "S." The alb is folded up so as to bring the bottom of the skirt at the edge of the vesting table. The amice is spread out over all.

Where the colour of the silk vestments may be congruous to the mass of the day, the following order may be observed, viz., White, on Christmas Day and until the octave of the Epiphany except on festivals of martyrs; on Maundy-Thursday; throughout Eastertide, excepting the Rogation-days; on Trinity Sunday, the festival of the Transfiguration of Christ; on festivals of the Blessed Virgin Mary; the Conversion of St. Paul; St. Michael and All Angels; All Saints day; the anniversary of the Dedication and Consecration of the church; and at nuptial masses. Red, on Whitsunday and until Trinity Sunday; on festivals of the Apostles, except of St. John the Ev. in Christmas week; and the Conversion of St. Paul; and on Holy Innocents Day when it occurs on a Sunday. Black, at all masses of requiem. Green, on days after the octave of the Epiphany, until Septuagesima Sunday; and after Trinity Sunday until Advent, except on Ember days, and festivals other than Sundays. Violet, throughout the seasons of Advent and Lent, except on festivals that occur therein; the Ember days, except in Whitsuntide; the Rogation days; and the festival of the Holy Innocents when it does not come on a Sunday. If "Black-letter" days are observed, the red-coloured vestments should be used on festivals of Martyrs, and white on festivals of Confessors and Virgins.

Reverence for our Lord demands reverential care of the things used in his service. In any case waste is sinful, so that proper economy is called for in the manner of wearing and of keeping the sacred vestments. The priest should exercise due care in handling the vestments when putting them on and in taking them off; also that he does not, when vested, press or rub them against the vesting table and the edge of the altar-mensa. When not in use, the silk vestments should be carefully folded (if need be, with paddings, to avoid creasing) and laid away in shallow drawers, one for each set, or else hung up on frames in a closet.

All the linen vestments and the altar-linen, most especially the corporals and purificators, should be laundered frequently, or at least whenever there is need, so that nothing soiled shall be in use at the altar.

The sacristy as well as the altar itself, should be kept clean and tidy, and free from litter of any kind.

Of the Biretta

At a low mass, where it is the custom of the place, the priest as he approaches the altar from the sacristy and as he returns to the sacristy from the altar, wears the square cap called the biretta. When this is done, the server should stand at the priest's right hand when they first come before the altar, and when they are about to leave the altar, in order that he may the more conveniently receive and give back the biretta. Having received the biretta, the server should lay it down in some convenient place on the Epistle-side of the sanctuary, but not on the credence.

Of covering the Sacred Vessels after the Communion

Anciently the chalice, at this point in the service, was regarded as a symbol of the holy sepulchre, and the paten as a symbol of the stone that was rolled away from the entrance to the sepulchre. The priest and the people who have received the holy communion have partaken of the risen Christ. It seems most fitting that this symbolism should be preserved, and (save in the exceptional case of the reserved host on Maundy Thursday) that, after the communion, the paten should not be placed upon the chalice until after the ablutions have been made. When, after the communion, the chalice is covered with the pall (which of old was the posterior fold of the corporal, and) which is to be regarded as a detached part of the corporal, and the paten is covered with the anterior folds of the corporal, both vessels are covered with "a fine linen cloth," so fulfilling the rubrical requirement and continuing the ancient subsidiary use of the corporal as an Eucharistic veil. "There is," Fr. Robinson says, "a mystical reason for covering the sacred vessels with a silken chalice-veil, rather than with a linen chalice-veil, after the communion. The chalice, paten, and corporal, speak of the holy sepulchre; and therefore it is fitting, that after the communion they should be hidden from sight, that the eyes of the faithful may no longer look upon the linteamina wrapped about the sacred Body of the Lord in the sepulchre; nor upon the chalice and paten, the symbols of the sepulchre and of the stone rolled away from the door of the sepulchre, but rather upon a silken veil, a symbol of the glorious apparel which the Lord put on at his resurrection from the dead, that in it he might ascend to the throne of the majesty on high. The silken chalice-veil bears this mystical meaning when it is used as a post-communion veil." (Concerning the Three Eucharistic Veils of Western Use. N. F. Robinson, S.S.J.E., London, 1908).

Of Intinction

The mode of administering the Holy Communion to communicants by means of a host intincted with the Precious Blood, should be regarded as needless, easily leading to sacrilegious abuses, and tending to foster heretical belief. Whenever the Eucharist is given in both species to communicants, each species should be given separate from the other. Our mass-rite calls for the administration of both species, delivered separately, at public masses; and such should be our practice. The mingling of the two species, for the purpose of communion, has always had for its chief object the avoidance of abuses to which the administration of the chalice is easily subject. It should be possible to eliminate such abuses without a withdrawal of the chalice. Definite instruction beforehand, and due care on the part of the priest at the time of communion, will do much to ensure reverent action on the part of communicants.

If either species be given alone, "the Blood is taken with the Body under the species of bread, and the Body is taken under the species of wine," and so Christ entire is given and received. Nothing is gained by the use of an intincted host. The sacrament may be given in part, (as is most convenient in the communion of the sick), but there can be no giving of Christ in part, nor partial communion with Christ, for he is indivisible. Each species signifies the particular grace given thereby, viz., the bread, strength; the wine, joy. The imparting of these graces appears to depend at least to some extent, on the manner in which the species are given and received. In the Eucharist, by Christ's command, His Body is to be eaten, and His Blood is to be drunk. May we not, must we not, believe that the particular grace signified by the species of wine may be expected when that species is given and received as a drink, in strict agreement with Christ's doctrine ("My Blood is drink indeed"); and that it may not be so confidently expected when (as in the case of an intincted host) that species is given and received after the manner of food? When the communion is given in one species only, there may indeed be some loss of the special grace signified by the species which is lacking, but no loss of any grace that is needful for salvation. In the species of the consecrated bread, the Body of Christ is not given without His Precious Blood; and in the species of the consecrated wine, Christ's Precious Blood is not given without His Body. To believe otherwise is to accept as true the false doctrine that in the Eucharist we feed upon the dead Christ; for only as dead was the Body of Christ separated from His Blood.

The allowance of the use of an intincted host in certain localities in Europe, at intervals from the seventh to twelfth century, was always followed by a condemnation on doctrinal grounds and by a prohibition of the practice. An appeal to the precedent of a similar usage which for many centuries has been established in Eastern Christendom, can hardly justify breach of our Western discipline. The well-grounded law enacted at the Council of Westminster, A. D. 1173 (Wilkins, Conc. I, p. 475) "Let there be no intinction of the Body of Christ in His Blood," should be our invariable rule as to the mode of administering the holy Communion.

Of the Time and Place for the Ablutions

The rubric which directs the officiating priest to place upon the altar "what remains of the consecrated elements, covering the same with a fair linen cloth," implies the probability that some portion of the Sacrament will remain after "all have communicated." Another rubric directs that, "If any of the consecrated Bread and Wine remain after the Communion," the Minister and other Communicants shall, immediately after the Blessing, reverently eat and drink the same."

It is quite possible that, "after all have communicated," not the least fragment of the species of bread, nor a drop of the species of wine, will remain. The vessels should then be covered as usual; but before they are so covered the priest may lawfully and with propriety receive at once the "wine of the purification" and the ablutions, and wipe his fingers and the chalice. Nevertheless, because such entire consumption of the species of bread and the species of wine is not likely to occur, it seems best, for the sake of uniformity, that, even in such a case as we have supposed, the taking of the wine of the purification, and the ablutions, should be deferred until "after the Blessing."

Very plausible arguments have been published recently in England, in defence of the opinion that in our modern English Rite, as in the modern Latin Rite, the time and place "for the consumption of whatever remains of the Sacrament and for the consequent ablutions" is immediately, or almost immediately, after the Communion. The priest, we are told, should take care that "none shall remain," to be consumed at a later time, by consuming at once what remains; and it is asserted that to defer such consumption until after the Blessing, has no precedent in Catholic Christendom. We are told that "liturgical precedent, Eastern and Western, unanimously assigns the conclusion of the act of Communion, before the post-communion thanksgiving begins, as normally the proper point, in the service, for the consumption of whatever remains of the Sacrament and for the consequent ablutions." These statements do not appear, to be altogether accurate. Commenting on them, the late W. J. Birbeck (a most competent authority in such matters) declares that "so far as the Orthodox Eastern Church is concerned, neither of these statements will bear investigation. As a matter of fact what takes place in the Eastern liturgy is precisely the opposite." Then, after describing from his own personal knowledge and experience the Eastern custom of deferring the consumption of whatever remains of the Sacrament and the taking of the ablutions until after the deacon says "Let us go forth in peace" (which corresponds with the Western Ite, missa est), and in some instances until after the departure of the people, Mr. Birbeck adds, "From this it will be clear that nothing is further from the liturgical instincts of Orthodox Easterns, than any theory that there is a violation of liturgical propriety in deferring the ablutions until after the Blessing." The rubrics of the Divine Liturgy of St. Chrysostom agree with Mr. Birbeck's statements concerning Eastern practice.

The Rev. W. Lockton, in his scholarly work on the subject here considered (Cambridge, 1920), tells us that, "At Rome the custom of removing the sacrament from the altar after the communion seems to have been adopted first in the sixteenth century. * * * In the Caeremoniale Episcoporum of 1600 the new practice is allowed as an alternative to the earlier custom of its remaining on the altar until mass was finished. * * * In the revised Prayer Book of 1661 the new rubric quite plainly orders that "what remaineth of the consecrated elements," whether much or little, shall be placed upon the Lord's table and be reserved there until after the benediction; and as the rule is not conditional it would seem that definite provision is to be made so that some of the sacrament may always remain on the altar until after the blessing, the rubric being thus in general agreement with the rule of the First Roman Ordo that the altar should never be without the sacrifice while mass is being performed."