Manual of the New Zealand Flora/Halorageæ

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Herbs, often aquatic, rarely undershrubs. Leaves opposite, alternate, or whorled, when submerged often pectinately pinnatilid; stipules wanting. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, always small and often incomplete. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary; lobes 2, 4, or wanting. Petals 2, 4, or wanting, valvate or slightly imbricate. Stamens 2 or 4–8, rarely 1 or 3, large, epigynous; filaments short, filiform; anthers 2-celled. Ovary inferior, compressed, angled or ribbed, rarely 2–4- winged, 2- or 4-celled, rarely 3-celled; styles 1–4, distinct; stigmas papillose or plumose; ovules as many as the styles, pendulous, anatropous. Fruit small, dry or succulent, 1–4-celled, indehiscent or separating into 1–4 indehiscent carpels. Seeds solitary in the cells, pendulous; albumen fleshy, usually copious; embryo cylindrical, axile.

A small order of mostly inconspicuous plants, many of them water-weeds. Genera 8 or 9; species from 80 to 90. I have followed Hooker and Bentham in keeping Callitriche in this order, but it must be admitted that it has equal claims to be placed among the Monochlamydeæ. Of the 4 New Zealand genera, Haloragis is mainly Australian, but extends northwards as far as Japan; Myriophyllum and Callitriche are almost of world-wide occurrence; while Gunnera belongs to the south temperate zone.

Terrestrial. Calyx 4-lobed. Stamens 4–8. Petals valvate. Fruit nut-like, undivided 1. Halogragis.
Aquatic. Calyx-lobes obscure. Stamens 4–8. Petals imbricate. Fruit separating into 2–4 nut-like carpels 2. Myriophyllum.
Subaquatic or terrestrial. Stamens usually 2. Fruit a 1-seeded drupe 3. Gunnera.
Aquatic or subaquatic. Stamen 1. Styles 2. Seeds 4 4. Callitriche.

1. HALORAGIS, Forst.

Erect or procumbent branching wiry herbs, sometimes almost woody at the base. Leaves opposite or alternate, entire or toothed or lobed. Flowers unisexual or hermaphrodite, minute, axillary, solitary or clustered, often spicate or racemose. Calyx-tube 4–8-angled or winged; lobes 4, erect, persistent. Petals 4, cucullate, acute, coriaceous, often wanting in the female flowers. Stamens 4–8, filaments usually short. Ovary 2–4-celled; ovules solitary in each cell, pendulous; styles short, stigmas usually plumose in the female flowers. Fruit a small dry 2–4-celled 2–4-seeded nut, sometimes 1-celled and 1-seeded by abortion; the adnate calyx-tube either smooth, ribbed, or muricate.

About 50 species are known, mostly from Australia, but a few are also found in New Caledonia, eastern Asia, and temperate South America (Juan Fernandez). Four of the New Zealand species occur in Australia, and one in the island of Juan Fernandez as well.

Leaves large, lanceolate or oblong, 1–3 in. Flowers crowded, drooping 1. H. alata.
Leaves small, ¼–¾ in., floral ones alternate. Flowers erect, spicate. Fruit 4–8-costate, rugose or tuberculate between the ribs 2. H. tetragyna.
Leaves small, 1/101/2 in., floral ones opposite. Flowers erect, spicate or solitary. Fruit 4–8-costate, smooth between the ribs 3. H. depressa.
Leaves small, ⅓–⅔ in. Flowers in terminal panicles. Fruit 4–8-costate, smooth between the ribs 4. H. spicata.
Leaves small, 1/51/3 in. Flowers drooping, in naked spikes. Fruit 8-costate, smooth between the ribs 5. H. micrantha.

1. H. alata, Jacq. Misc. ii. 332.—A coarse erect or suberect branching herb 1–3 ft. high; stems sharply 4-angled, minutely scabrid. Leaves opposite, petiolate, very variable in size, ½–3in. long, ovate-lanceolate to oblong, coarsely and sharply serrate, acute or acuminate. Flowers minute, solitary or clustered, in leafy racemes terminating the branches; pedicels short, curved, drooping. Calyx-tube 4-angled; lobes small, broad. Petals twice as long as the calyx-lobes. Stamens 8. Fruit rather small, 1/10 in. long, ovoid, with 4 ribs more or less dilated into wings; interspaces smooth or rugose.—Forst. Prodr. n. 180; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 62; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 65; Benth. Fl. Austral. ii. 479; Kirk, Students' Fl. 148. Cercodia erecta, Murr. in Comm. Gotting. iii. (1780) 3, t. 1. C. alternifolia, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 527.

Var. cartilaginea.—Shorter and stouter. Leaves ½–¾ in., broadly ovate, obtuse or subacute, coarsely serrate, very coriaceous, margins cartilaginous. Fruit conspicuously rugose.—H. cartilaginea, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxix (1897) 890.

Kermadec Islands, North and South Islands, Stewart Island: Abundant, especially in lowland districts. Sea-level to 2000 ft. Toatoa. November–January. Also in south-eastern Australia and the island of Juan Fernandez. Var. cartilaginea: Cliffs at the North Cape, T. F. C.

2. H. tetragyna, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 62.—A rigid and wiry much-branched herb 6–15 in. high, usually scabrid with white oppressed hairs; stems prostrate or decumbent at the base, erect or ascending above, tetragonous. Leaves opposite, shortly petioled, ¼–¾ in. long, elliptical-ovate or oblong to lanceolate, acute, sharply serrate, coriaceous; floral leaves or bracts usually alternate. Flowers minute, sessile or nearly so, solitary in the axils of the floral leaves, forming slender leafy terminal spikes, which are sometimes branched and paniculate. Stamens 8. Styles 4; stigmas plumose. Fruit 1/10 in., broadly ovoid, 4–8-costate, transversely rugose or muricate.—Handb. N.Z. Fl. 65; Benth. Fl. Austral. ii. 484; Kirk, Students Fl. 148. Goniocarpus tetragynus, Labill. Pl. Nov. Holl. 39, t. 53. A. Cunn. Precur. n. 529. Cercodia incana, A. Cunn. l.c. n. 528.

Var. diffusa, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 65.—Stems slender, spreading, prostrate. Leaves ¼–½ in., broader and more obtuse, with fewer teeth.

North and South Islands, Stewart Island: The typical form confined to the district between the North Cape and the Bay of Islands. Var. diffusa abundant throughout the Islands. The species is widely distributed in Australia, and is also found in China and Malaya, and in the Khasia Mountains of India.

3. H. depressa, Walp. Rep. ii. 99.—A small slender wiry much-branched herb 1–5 in. high, usually scabrid with short white hairs; rhizomes slender, creeping, often nauch branched; stems prostrate or suberect, tetragonous. Leaves opposite, sessile or nearly so, ¼–½ in. long, ovate or ovate-oblong, sometimes almost cordate, subacute, with 1–4 deep and narrow serratures on each side, coriaceous, margins strongly cartilaginous; floral leaves similar but smaller, usually all opposite. Flowers minute, sessile, axillary and solitary, forming short terminal spikes. Fruit 1/10 in. long, 4-angled, 4–8-costate; interspaces smooth and shining, not tuberculate.—Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 63; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 65; Benth. Fl. Austral. ii. 485; Kirk, Students Fl. 148. H. bibracteolata, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxii. (1890) 462. Gonicarpus depressus, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 531.

Var. aggregata, Kirk, l.c. 149.—Flowers clustered at the tips of the branches, forming small heads.—H. aggregata, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. iv. (1872) 224, t. 13.

Var. serpylllfolia, Benth. Fl. Austral. ii. 485.—Stems 1–4 in., usually creeping and matted, often forming a dense sward. Leaves 1/101/4 in., narrow-ovate to lanceolate, acute at both ends. Flowers fewer, often solitary on the branches. Fruit smaller.—H. uniflora, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. ix. (1877) 548. Gonicarpus serpyllifolius and G. vernicosus. Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 290, 311.

North and South Islands, Stewart Island: Abundant throughout, ascending to nearly 4000 ft. Also in Victoria and Tasmania.

A very variable plant. Some forms approach very close to H. tetragyna, but usually it can be easily separated from that species by the opposite flowers and the smooth interspaces of the fruit.

4. H. spicata, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 325.—A slender erect or ascending sparingly branched herb 4–10 in. high, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves few, opposite, shortly petioled, ⅓–⅔ in. long, ovate or elliptic-ovate, acute or subacute, coriaceous, serrate, pubescent. Flowers in slender terminal branched panicles, sessile in the axils of minute opposite or alternate bracts; terminal 1–3 flowers female; lower flowers apparently all male, but many of the bracts empty in my specimens. Calyx-lobes 4, triangular. Anthers 4; filaments short. Stigmas plumose. Fruit yLin. long, 4-angled; interspaces smooth or slightly wrinkled.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 149.

South Island: Otago—North end of Lake Hawea, altitude 1100 ft., Petrie!

A very curious plant, agreeing with H. depressa in the leaves and fruit, but differing widely in the paniculate inflorescence. I suspect that it will prove to be an abnormal state of H. depressa.

5. H. micrantha, R. Br. ex Sieb. and Zucc. Fl. Jap. i. 25.—A tufted much-branched procumbent or ascending herb 2–6 in. high; stems and branches slender, wiry, glabrous or slightly scaberulous. Leaves opposite, very shortly petioled, 1/51/3 in. diam., broadly ovate or almost orbicular, obtuse or subacute, coriaceous, crenate-serrate, the crenatures broad and rounded. Flowers minute, drooping, in slender almost filiform racemes terminating the branchlets; pedicels very short. Petals 4, more than twice as long as the triangular calyx-lobes. Fruit 1/20 in. long, broadly oblong, 8-costate, interspaces smooth and shining.—Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 66; Benth. Fl. Austral. ii. 482; Kirk, Students Fl. 149. H. tenella, Brong. in Duper. Voy. Coq. Bot. t. 68, f. 6; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 63. H. minima. Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii. (1886) 259. Gonicarpus citriodorus, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 530.

North and South Islands, Stewart Island: Abundant from the North Cape southwards. Sea-level to 3500 ft. November–January.

Extends through Australia and Malaya to the Himalayas, China, and Japan. All the fruits that I have examined are 1-seeded by abortion.


Glabrous marsh or aquatic herbs, branches often floating. Leaves opposite, alternate, or whorled, the lower leaves when submerged often pinnately divided with capillary segments. Flowers usually monœcious, axillary, solitary or spiked. Males: Calyx-tube very short; limb 4- or rarely 2-lobed or wanting. Petals 2–4, concave. Stamens 2, 4, or 8. Females: Calyx-tube deeply 4-grooved; limb wanting, or of 4 minute subulate lobes. Petals minute or wanting. Ovary inferior, 4- or rarely 2-celled; styles 4 or 2, usually recurved or plumose; ovules solitary in each cell. Fruit deeply 4-furrowed, usually separating into 4 dry indehiscent 1-seeded nuts.

A widely distributed genus of from 15 to 20 species, found in fresh waters in nearly all parts of the world. One of the New Zealand species is endemic, the rest extend to Australia, and one to South America as well.

Leaves whorled; lower pectinately pinnatifid, with capillary segments; upper oblong, entire 1. M. elatinoides.
Leaves whorled; lower pectiuately pinnatifid, with capillary segments; upper linear, entire or serrate 2. M. intermedium.
Leaves whorled, all pectinately pinnatifid. Nuts large, tubercled 3. M. robustum.
Minute, 1–3 in. All the leaves opposite, minute, linearspathulate, entire 4. M. pedunculatum.

1. M. elatinoides, Gaud. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. i. 5 (1825) 105.—Forming dense masses in still waters. Stems slender, 6 in. to 3 ft. long according to the depth of the water. Submerged leaves in whorls of 4:, rarely more, deeply pectinately pinnatifid, the segments capillary; the upper emerged or floral leaves in whorls of 4 or 3, sometimes opposite, much smaller, 1/51/3 in. long, ovate or oblong to broadly lanceolate, sessile, obtuse, entire or the lower slightly toothed. Male flowers: Calyx-lobes very minute. Petals 4, oblong. Stamens 8. Females: Calyx-lobes and petals apparently wanting. Nuts 4, small, oblong, smooth.—Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 63; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 66; Benth. Fl. Austral. ii. 487; Kirk, Students' Fl. 150.

North and South Islands, Stewart Island: Common in rivers and lakes from the Auckland Isthmus southwards, ascending to 3500 ft. November&endash;February. Also in Australia and extra-tropical South America.

Subalpine specimens are stouter, with less delicate and more closely set submerged leaves, and the nuts are rather larger.

2. M. intermedium, D.C. Prodr. iii. 69.—Very variable in habit: in lakes and rivers forming masses of floating stems 1–4 ft. long, with numerous submerged leaves; in wet ground sometimes only an inch or two high, with the leaves all linear and entire. Leaves in whorls of 3–8, usually 4–5; submerged leaves deeply and finely pectinately pinnatifid, segments capillary; upper emerged or floral leaves much smaller, ¼–½ in. long, lanceolate and inciso-pinnatifid to narrow-linear and quite entire. Male flowers: Calyx-lobes evident. Petals white. Stamens 8. Female flowers: Calx-lobes and petals apparently wanting. Nuts 4, very small, linear-oblong, usually minutely scabrid or almost echinate, rarely quite smooth.—M. variæfolium, Hook. f. in Hook. Ic. Plant. t. 289; Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 64; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 66; Benth. Fl. Austral. ii. 487; Kirk, Students Fl. 150. M. propinquum, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 532.

North and South Islands, Stewart Island: Abundant in lakes and streams, wet swamps, &c., from the North Cape southwards, ascending to 3000 ft. December–March. Also in Australia, Malaya, and India.

3. M. robustum. Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 67.—Stems stout, erect, branched at the base, 6 in. to 2 ft. high, rarely more. Leaves usually 5 in a whorl, 1–2 in. long, all deeply pectinately pinnatifid; upper rather coarse, usually crowded and overlapping; submerged leaves not often seen, when present with longer capillary segments. Flowers rather large, 1/51/4 in. long, solitary or rarely in pairs in the axils of the floral leaves, with a pair of minute laciniate bracts at the base of each. Calyx-lobes present in both sexes, deltoid, jagged. Petals in the males only, linear-oblong. Stamens 8. Stigmas usually 4, plumose. Nuts 4, 1/8 in. long, laterally compressed, usually with a single or double row of tubercles down the back, but sometimes smooth and rounded.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 151. M. variæfolium var. b. Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 64.

North Island: In swamps from Ahipara to the Upper Waikato, but often local; apparently rare further south. Hawke's Bay, Colenso! Mungaroa, Wellington, Kirk! South Island: Awatere, Kirk! Moutere, Nelson, T. F. C.; near Westport, Townson! Hokitika, Tipler. December–February.

This is seldom found in lakes or streams, and is a marsh plant rather than a true aquatic. It often covers large stretches in swamps that are quite dry in summer.

4. M. pedunculatum, Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 123, t. 23b.—Stems short, simple or sparingly branched, tufted, 1–3 in. high, usually forming broad matted patches. Leaves opposite, minute, 1/81/4 in. long, linear or linear-spathulate, quite entire, rather fleshy. Flowers minute, usually diœcious; males shortly stalked or sessile; females sessile; bracts 2 at the base of each flower, minute, linear. Calyx-lobes 4, very minute. Petals 4, wanting in the female flowers. Stamens 8. Stigmas 4, plumose, recurved. Carpels 4, small, oblong, minutely rugose.—Handb. N.Z. Fl. 67; Kirk, Students' Fl. 151.

North and South Islands, Stewart Island: From Cape Maria van Diemen southwards, but far from common. Sea-level to 2000 ft. December–February. Also in Australia and Tasmania.

M. verracosum, Lindl. in Mitch. Trop. Austral.; Benth. Fl. Austral, ii. 488, is included by Mr. Kirk in the "Students' Flora" as a native of New Zealand, on the authority of specimens gathered by himself near Tauranga Harbour. These are very imperfect, having no flowers and few withered fruits; but, having compared them with authentic examples of M. verrucosum from Australia, I can state definitely that they are not referable to that species. They only differ from M. intermedium in the upper leaves being pinnatifid, and until more complete specimens are obtained are best considered as a form of that plant.

3. GUNNERA, Linn.

Stemless herbs with creeping rhizomes, often forming broad matted patches. Leaves all radical, petiolate, ovate- or rounded-cordate, coriaceous and fleshy. Flowers small, unisexual or rarely hermaphrodite, in simple or branched spikes or panicles. Male flowers: Calyx-tube imperfect or wanting; lobes 2–3, minute. Petals 2–3 or wanting. Stamens 2–3; filaments filiform; anthers large. Females: Calyx-tube ovoid; lobes 2–3, small. Petals 2–3 or wanting. Ovary 1-celled; styles 2, rarely 4, linear, papillose, stigmatic from the base; ovule solitary, pendulous. Fruit a small fleshy or coriaceous drupe; seed adherent to the pericarp; embryo very minute.

From 20 to 25 species are known, nearly half of them being endemic in New Zealand. The remainder are chiefly found in America, ranging from Mexico to Chili, Juan Fernandez, Fuegia, and the Falliland Islands. There are also outlying species in South Africa, Java, Tasmania, and the Sandwich Islands.

The New Zealand species of Gunnera are very imperfectly understood, and are much in need of a thorough revision, which should be based as far as possible upon a study of the various forms in a living state. The following account, although as complete as the material at my command will permit, is deficient in many respects, and I have been compelled to omit all notice of several doubtful plants from inability to refer them to their proper places until more complete specimens are obtained. The student should be careful to gather his flowering and fruiting specimens in the same locality, and if possible from the same patch, the similarity between the foliage of several of the species making it difficult to be sure that the specimens are properly matched unless this is done. It is also much to be desired that a regular series of specimens, both flowering and fruiting, should be taken at fixed intervals during the season, there being reason to suppose that both inflorescence and fruit exhibit differences at different periods of the year.

* Scapes bisexual; female flowers at the base.
Leaves coriaceous, orbicular or reniform, crenate-dentate, often 3–5-lobed 1. G. monoica.
Leaves rather thin, ovate or ovate-cordate 2. G. microcarpa.
** Scapes unisexual.
Slender, 1–4 in. Leaves ovate or ovate-cordate. Fruiting scape red, exceeding the leaves. Drupes obconic, 1/8 in., red or yellow 3. G. flavida.
Tall and stout, sometimes 12 in. high. Leaves ovate or oblong. Fruiting scape equalling the leaves or longer. Drupe obconic, 1/6 in., red 4. G. prorepens.
Leaves orbicular-cordate, sharply and minutely toothed. Scapes shorter than the leaves. Drupes 1/10 in., oblong 5. G. densiflora.
Leaves narrow-ovate to lanceolate, acute, cuneate at the base, coarsely dentate 6. G. dentata.
Leaves thick and fleshy, broadly ovate, obtuse, cuneate at the base, crenate-lobed 7. G. arenaria.
Very stout and coriaceous. Leaves deltoid-ovate, minutely toothed, cuneate at the base 8. G. Hamiltoni.

1. G. monoica, Raoul in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. iii. 2 (1844) 117.—A slender herb with numerous creeping rhizomes and tufts of radical leaves, often forming broad matted patches, glabrous or sparsely covered with short white hairs, especially on the petioles and nerves of the leaves. Leaves ⅓–1 in. diam., orbicular or reniform, cordate or truncate at the base, obscurely 3–5-lobed and crenate, or crenate alone; petioles 1–3 in. long. Panicle very slender, 1–5 in. long, usually longer than the leaves. Male flowers occupying the upper three-quarters of the panicle, sessile or shortly pedicelled; each flower consisting of 2 stamens arising from between 2 minute sepals, and with 1 or 2 ciliate bracts at the base of the pedicel. Females crowded at the base of the panicle. Calyx-lobes 2, linear, acute. Styles 2, very long. Fruit minute, 1/10 in. diam., globose or broadly ovoid, fleshy or coriaceous, red or white.—Raoul, Choix, t. 8; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 65; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 67; Kirk, Students' Fl. 152.

Var. strigosa, Kirk, l.c.—More or less clothed with copious strigose hairs, sometimes almost hoary.—G. strigosa, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xv. (1883) 322. Hardly deserves varietal rank.

Var. ramulosa, Kirk, l.c.—Branches stout, much branched, clothed with the bases of the old leaves. Panicles much divided; branches often long. Flowers crowded. Fruit not known.

Var. albocarpa, Kirk, l.c.—Larger and stouter; rhizome sometimes as thick as a goose-quill. Leaves larger, sometimes 1½ in. diam. Panicles 3–6 in., much branched; branches long. Fruit globose, white, tipped with the black calyx lobes.

North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands: Abundant in moist places from Mongonui southwards. Sea-level to 3500 ft. November–January.

The chief distinguishing characters of this species are the broad reniform or orbicular-cordate leaves, very slender bisexual panicles, and minute globose drupe. But specimens possessing these characters differ from one another considerably in size, cutting of the leaves, size of the panicle and extent to which it is divided, and the size and colour of the fruit; and I suspect that a careful study of these forms in the field will result in the species being split up into two or more.

2. G. microcarpa, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxvii. (1895) 348.—Rhizomes slender, creeping. Leaves tufted, 2–4 in. long; petiole slender, hairy or strigose; blade about 1 in. long, broadly ovate or ovate-cordate, obtuse, crenate or crenate-lobed, both surfaces with scattered white hairs. Peduncles very slender, exceeding the leaves, 1–5 in. long, usually much branched below, rarely simple; upper two-thirds or more male, lower one-third female. Male flowers sessile on the branches or very shortly pedicelled, each with 2 narrow concave deciduous bracts. Sepals 2, minute, linear. Stamens 2; filaments often as long as the small broadly oblong obtuse anthers. Female flowers: Calyx-lobes 2, minute. Styles very long and slender, filiform. Persistent fruiting portion of the peduncle shorter than the leaves, often mclined. Drupes small, sessile, ovoid-globose, red or yellow, about 1/10 in. long.—Students' Fl. 153. G. mixta, Kirk, Students' Fl. 152. G. ovata, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 274 (in part).

South Island: Otago and Southland, not uncommon, T. Waugh! Petrie! B. C. Aston! December–January.

Mr. Kirk's type specimens of G. microcarpa are in fruit only, and are few in number and otherwise imperfect. His G. mixta is based upon flowering specimens, to which the tall slender inflorescence gives a somewhat distinct appearance, although the leaves are identical. But the fine series of specimens in all stages of flower and fruit preserved in Mr. Petrie's herbarium prove beyond doubt that both are one and the same species. Its distinguishing characters are the tall slender lax-flowered usually branched flowering-stems, the upper part of which is male and the lower female; the small broad anthers, on rather long filaments; and the small almost globose drupe. It is probably a widely distributed plant.

3. G. flavida, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xviii. (1886) 260.—Rhizome creeping, slender. Leaves 1½–3 in. long; petiole slender, glabrous or sparingly clothed with shore white hairs; blade ½–1 in. long, ovate or elliptic-ovate or elliptic-oblong, obtuse, cordate or rounded or truncate at the base, finely crenate or sinuate-crenate or almost entire, rather membranous, glabrous or slightly hairy. Spikes unisexual. Males 1–3 in. long, rather slender; flowers lax or close together, on very short unbranched pedicels; each pedicel with a linear bract near the base, and 2 linear-cucullate deciduous bracteoles just under the flower. Sepals 2, small, narrowlinear. Stamens 2; filaments very short, almost wanting; anthers broadly ovate, apiculate. Female peduncles ½–1 in. long in the flowermg stage; flowers crowded. Calyx-teeth 2, short. Styles 2, long. Fruiting peduncles 1–4 in. long, overtopping the leaves. Drupes 1/8 in., spreading, obconic, sessile or shortly pedicelled, red or pale-yellow.—Kirk, Students Fl. 153. G. ovata, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxv. (1893) 274 (in part).

North Island: Upper Waikato and Taupo, T. F. C.; between Taupo and Napier, Hill! Petrie! South Island: Abundant in Otago and Southland, Buchanan! Petrie! Kirk! Hamilton! Sea-level to 3000 ft. December–January.

A comparison of a type specimen from Mr. Colenso wirh the types of Petrie's G. ovata prove that the two species are identical. In foliage it greatly resembles G. microcarpa, but the slender branched monœcious inflorescence of that species, together with the minute globose drupes, are altogether different from the short unisexual unbranched spikes of G. flavida, with their larger obconic fruit. G. prorepens only differs in the much larger size, and the two may prove to be forms of the one plant.

4. G. prorepens, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 66.—A large and stout species, sometimes 12 in. high, although ordinarily less; rhizomes stout, creeping. Leaves 3–8 in. long; petioles 2–6 in., slender, glabrous or sparingly pilose; blade 1–2 in., ovate or oblong, obtuse, rounded or cordate at the base, crenulate, glabrous or slightly hairy. Flowers not seen. Fruiting peduncles usually longer than the leaves, simple, bearing many sessile lax or densely spiked drupes, which are 1/6 in. long, red, fleshy, obconic or nearly globose, with an irregular deep furrow at the top from whence the styles protrude.—Handb. N.Z. Fl. 68 (excl. var. b).

North Island: In subalpine wet localities, Colenso! South Island: West Coast, Lyall.

The only specimens I have seen that I can refer with certainty to this species are two in Mr. Colenso'a herbarium. Mr. N. E. Brown has kindly compared one of them with the type at Kew, and informs me that it exactly corresponds. G. flavida does not seem to differ except in the smaller size of all its parts, and I should not be surprised at the two species proving to be states of one variable plant.

5. G. densiflora, Hook. f. HandB. N.Z. Fl. 68.—Forming broad matted patches. Rhizome rather stout, branched. Leaves 1–2 in. long; petioles half the length, strict, villous or glabrescent; blade ½–1 in. diam., orbicular or broadly ovate-orbicular, cordate at the base, sharply and minutely toothed, rather coriaceous. Spikes unisexual; males not seen; females short, concealed among the leaves. Flowers densely crowded, sessile. Calyx-lobes 2, subulate, acute. Styles 2, long, spreading. Fruiting spike shorter than the leaves. Drupes crowded, small, pendulous, 1/10 in. long.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 154.

South Island: Acheron and Clarence Rivers, altitude 4000 ft., Travers (Handbook); Craigieburn Mountains, Canterbury, Cockayne!

The above description is partly based upon that given in the Handbook, and partly upon Mr. Cockayne's specimens, which are the only ones I have seen that can be referred to the species.

6. G. dentata, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxvii. (1895) 346.—Forming extensive patches in watery subalpine localities. Rhizome stout, much branched, clothed with the bases of the old leaves. Leaves numerous, densely tufted, 1–3 in. long; petioles long, broad and flat, usually clothed with strigose hairs, sometimes almost shaggy; blade ⅓–1 in. long, ovate or elliptic-oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, acute, rounded or cuneate at the base, often narrowed into the petiole, coarsely dentate, both surfaces with scattered white hairs or almost glabrous. Spikes unisexual. Males slender, about equalling the leaves; flowers sessile or nearly so, each with a pair of deciduous hood-shaped bracts. Sepals 2, minute, linear. Anthers broadly oblong. Female spikes very short, hidden at the base of the leaves; flowers densely crowded. Calyx-lobes 2, linear. Styles 2, very long, flattened at the base. Fruiting spikes sometimes elongated and exceeding the leaves, sometimes short and sessile among the leaves. Drupes sessile or nearly so, clavate, spreading or pendulous, 1/10.—Students Fl. 154. G. prorepens var. b. Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 68.

North Island: Colenso (Handbook); Taupo, Petrie! South Island: Subalpine localities from Nelson to Southland, but often local. 1000–3500 ft. December–February.

A distinct species, easily recognised by the narrow ovate or elliptic-oblong acute leaves, which are often cuneate at the base, and coarsely dentate.

7. G. arenaria, Cheesem. ex T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxvii. (1895) 348.—A stout much-branched prostrate and matted herb, forming extensive patches in damp sandy soil; rhizome stout, clothed with the ragged bases of the old leaves. Leaves ¾–2½ in. long, thick and coriaceous, almost fleshy; petioles long, stout, sheathing at the base, glabrous or with a few scattered flattened hairs; blade ⅓–¾ in., broadly ovate or elliptic-ovate or oblong, obtuse, cuneate at the base or truncate or almost cordate, coarsely crenate or crenate-lobed; veins prominent beneath. Peduncles variable in size, unisexual; males usually longer than the leaves, stout, 1½–3 in. long. Flowers sessile or nearly so, with 1–2 linear cucullate bracts. Anthers 2, sessile, broadly oblong. Female peduncles in the flowering stage short and hidden among the leaves. Flowers densely crowded, forming a short oblong spike. Calyx-lobes 2–3, minute. Styles long, stout, subulate. Fruiting peduncles either remaining short and concealed by the leaves, or greatly elongated and exceeding them, 1½–3 in. long, in that case becoming stout succulent and coloured. Drupes 1/61/5 in. long, fleshy, yellowish-red, clavate and pendulous or obovoid and suberect.—Kirk, Students Fl. 154. G. densiflora, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii. (1895) 346 (not of Hook. f.).

North Island: Sand-dunes on the western coast, from Cape Maria van Diemen to Port Waikato, T. F. C., Petrie! R. H. Matthews! H. Carse! South Island: Nelson—Cape Farewell, Kirk! Canterbury—New Brighton, Cockayne; Seventy-mile Beach, Buchanan! Southland—Sandy Point, T. Waugh!

Allied to G. dentata, but easily separated by the stouter and more glabrous habit, broader rounder and more fleshy obtuse leaves, stouter peduncles, and larger fruit.

8. G. Hamiltoni, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxvii. (1895) 347.—A stout coriaceous much-branched plant forming broad matted patches; rhizomes as thick as a goose-quill. Leaves numerous, tufted, forming broad flat rosettes 2–4 in. diam., coriaceous; petioles broad and flat, almost winged, sheathing at the base, glabrous or slightly villous; blade ½–1 in. long, ovate or ovate-deltoid, cuneate at the base, acute, closely and minutely toothed, glabrous; veins prominent below. Spikes unisexual; males stout; flowers lax, sessile. Female spikes at first hidden among the leaves; flowers crowded; bracts broadly ovate, laciniate. Fruiting spikes 2–4 in. long; drupes fleshy, clavate, red.—Students' Fl. 155.

South Island: Hills near the mouth of the Oreti River, Southland, W. S. Hamilton! Stewart Island: Mason Bay, W. Traill.

A very remarkable plant, quite unlike any other, although undoubtedly allied to G. arenaria. I have only seen very fragmentary flowering specimens.


Perfectly glabrous slender herbs, usually growing in wet places, often aquatic. Leaves opposite, linear or obovate-spathulate, quite entire, the upper ones often crowded or rosulate. Flowers monoecious, minute, axillary, solitary or rarely a male and female in the same axil, without perianth. Male flowers of a single stamen subtended by two minute bracts; filaments slender, elongated; anther 2-celled, cells confluent above. Female flowers with or without the 2 bracts. Ovary sessile or shortly stalked, 4-celled; ovules solitary in each cell; styles 2, elongated, stigmatic throughout their length. Fruit flattened, indehiscent, 4-lobed and 4-celled, ultimately separating into 4 1-seeded carpels.

A genus of very doubtful affinity, now often placed in the vicinity of the Euphorbiaceæ. The species are estimated at from 1 or 2 to 20 or 30, according to the different views of authors.

Fruits not winged, edges almost obtuse, groove between the carpels shallow 1. C. antarctica.
Fruits slightly winged, edges sharply keeled, groove between the carpels rather shallow 2. C. verna.
Fruits broadly winged, wings pale, groove between the carpels deep 3. C. Muelleri.

1. C. antarctica, Engelm. ex Hegelm. in Verh. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. ix. (1867) 20.—Stems creeping and rooting, rather stout, succulent, densely matted, 2–6 in. long. Leaves fleshy, 1/51/2 in. long, narrow obovate-spathulate or oblong-spathulate, rounded at the tip, narrowed into a rather long petiole. Fruit sessile, broadly oblong or almost orbicular, somewhat turgid, not winged, the edges subacute or almost obtuse, separated by a shallow groove, so that each pair of lobes is united by almost three-quarters of their faces.—Kidder in Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. iii. 23; Kirk, Students Fl. 156. C. verna, var. b terrestris, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 11.

The Snares, Auckland and Campbell Islands, Antipodes Island, Macquarie Island: Not uncommon on damp soil. Also found on Kerguelen Island, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia.

2. C. verna, Linn. Fl. Suec. ii. n. 3.—Usually floating in still water. Stems slender, sparingly branched, 3–12 in. long. Leaves ½–¾ in. long, linear-spathulate or oblong-spathulate or obovate, rounded or retuse at the tip, very thin and membranous. Fruit sessile, rather longer than broad, subcordate, somewhat convex, edges shortly and acutely keeled, groove between the lobes rather shallow.—Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 64; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 68 (in part); Kirk, Students Fl. 156.

North and South Islands: Not uncommon in streams and lakes throughout. An abundant plant in many temperate countries.

3. C. Muelleri, Sond. in Linnæa xxviii. (1886) 229.—Stems filiform, 2–9 in. long, much branched and interlaced, forming broad matted patches on damp soil. Leaves obovate-rhomboid or broadly obovate-spathulate, cuneate at the base, suddenly narrowed into a distinct petiole. Fruit orbicular-obcordate, often broader than long, flattened, margins expanded into a broad pale wing, groove between the lobes deep.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 156. C. verna var. b, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel i. 64. C. macropteryx, Hegelm. Monog. Callit. 59, t. iv. f. 2. C. microphylla, Col. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xx. (1888) 190.

Kermadec Islands, North and South Islands, Stewart Island, Chatham Islands: Common from the North Cape southwards. Sea-level to 2500 ft. Also in Australia.

There seem to be two forms of this—one with a broad wing occupying a third of the whole width of the fruit, the other with a much narrower wing. The last-mentioned form was referred by Mr. Kirk to C. obtusangula, Hegelm, Monog. Callit. 54, t. 3, f. 3, but this determination is clearly erroneous, the true obtusangula having rounded angles to the fruit, which is not at all winged.