National Geographic Magazine/Volume 16/Number 1/Our Immigration during 1904

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OUR IMMIGRATION DURING 1904 NO one can read the report for 1904 of the Commissioner Gen- eral of Immigration, Frank P. Sargent, without being seriously im- pressed with the laxity of our present immigration laws and the urgent need of more stringent regulation of our im- migration. The number of immigrants for 1905 bids fair to reach the one mil- lion mark. Only a few less than 10,000 landed at New York in two days in November, the least popular season of the year for newcomers. The follow- ing facts are taken from Mr. Sargent's report : The striking and significant feature of the table of immigrants for 1904 is that the chief diminution is shown in the arrivals from Austria-Hungary, amounting to 28,855, and from Italy,

to 37,326, these two countries aggregating 66,181, or twenty-odd thousand more than the total net decrease for the fiscal year 1904. The countries of northern and western Europe, with one notable exception, show increases, Great Britain's increase being 18,643. The one exception to the foregoing statement is shown by the decrease of 18,265 in the arrivals from Sweden.

The only other figures in this table to which attention need be directed are those showing an increase of nearly 100 per cent in the arrivals from China, and a decrease of 5,704 in those from Japan, the latter easily traceable to the pending war in the East.

Of the 812,870 aliens arriving in 1904, 549,100 were males and 263,770 were females — an increase in the females as compared with last year of 19,870 and a decrease in males of 64,046. As respects age, 109, 150 were under 14 years, °57> I 55 were between 14 and 45, and 46,565 were 45 or over; 3,953 could read but not write, 168,903 could neither read nor write, and, it is presumed, the remainder, 640,014, could both read and write. It also appears that 103,750 of these aliens had already been to this country, and that 95,575 brought with them $50 or more each, while 501,530 brought each less than $50. The total amount of money shown to officers by these 812,870 aliens was $20,894,383, or $4,7^6,870 more than was brought by the '857,046 arrivals of the last year. This fact, taken in connection with the circumstances already referred to as to countries from which the increases of the year under consideration came, furnishes assurance of a marked improvement in the character and thrift of the more recent immigration. The 28,451 English immigrants brought with them in the fiscal year 1 903 $ 1 , 405 , 365 ; this year the 41,479 of the same race brought $2,736,- 182 ; the 35,366 Irish last year had $796,082, while the 37,076 Irish this year showed $1,092,781; 71,782 German immigrants last year had $2,480,634, this year 74,790 possessed in hand $3,622,675.

Comparative Statement Showing the Number of Aliens Arrived in the United States, by Countries, during the Fiscal Years ended June 30, 1 go j and 1904, respectively Showing Increase and Decrease for Each Country.

Country. Austria-Hungary Belgium Denmark France, including Corsica German Umpire Greece Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia Netherlands Norway Portugal, including Cape Verde and Azore Islands Roumania Russian Empire and Finland Servia, Bulgaria, and Montenegro Spain, including Canary and Balearic Islands... Sweden Switzerland Turkey in Europe United Kingdom : England. Ireland Scotland Wales Europe, not specified Total China Japan India Turkey in Asia Other Asia Total Asia Africa Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand Philippine Islands Pacific islands, not spec- ified British North America... British Honduras Other Central America.. Mexico South America West Indies All other countries Total Aliens in transit Total alien passengers 1903. 206,011 3-450 7,158 5.578 40,086 14,090 230,622 3,998 24,461 9,3i7 9,3io 136,093 1,761 2,080 46,028 3,983 1,529 26,219 35,3io 6,143 1,275 5 814,507 2,209 19,968 94 7,118 577 29,966 176 ,150 132 67 ,058 81 597 528 589 ,170 25 857,046 64,269 921,315 1904. 177,156 3,976 8,525 9,406 46,380 ",343 193,296 4,916 23,808 6,715 7,o87 145,141 1,325 3,996 27,763 5.023 4,344 38,626 36,142 11,092 1,730 143 767,933 4,309 14,264 261 5,235 2,117 26,186 686 1,461 52 42 2,837 109 605 1,009 1,667 10,193 90 812,870 27,844

840,714
The National Geographic Magazine Vol 16 1905 - p 17.png

The striped area shows the total immigration. From F. P. Sargent, Commissioner General of Immigration

OUR GOVERNMENT SHOULD ASSIST THE IMMIGRANTS TO DISTRIBUTE THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY

"The failure of the government to provide for the distribution of aliens through the United States, and the ex- ertions of foreign countries combine, says Mr Sargent, to maintain alien colonies in this country. Such colonies are open to objection not merely on political grounds, but for social and sanitary rea- sons in a far greater degree. It cannot, in justice to the interests of our coun- try and to the preservation of its insti- tutions, be too urgently or too fre- quently repeated that in confining our treatment of the all-important immigra- tion problem to the exclusion of such of certain enumerated classes as we can detect our policy is superficial. The practical and pressing question is, What shall be done with the annual arrivals of aliens, approximating now i ,000,000 ? ' ' The present immigrants throng to the states which now need them least, to overcrowded cities, and entirely neglect the western states, where there is a scarcity of laborers.

FOREIGN COLONIES IN THE UNITED STATES

All the political and social, and occasionally religious, resources of some countries are being directed to one end, to maintain colonies of their own people in this country, instructing them through various channels to maintain their allegiance to the country of their birth, to transmit their earnings hereto the fatherland for the purchase of ultimate homes there, and to avoid all intercourse with the people of this country that would tend to the permanent adoption of American ideals. Thus emigration from certain foreign countries has become, in a much larger sense than the public imagines, a revenue resource to those countries, of immediate benefit to them to the extent of the aggregate remittances, of prospective benefit to them because it insures the return of the emigrant with his accumulated savings.

ABILITY TO READ AND WRITE

An examination of the ability of the immigrants to read and write shows sur- prising extremes, of which the following are specially noteworthy : Only 3 per cent of 10,077 Finns from Russia were illiterate ; 4 per cent of 40,526 Germans from the German Empire ; 4 per cent of 22,507 Germans from Austria-Hungary ; 1 per cent of 36,486 English ; 1 per cent of 11,226 Scotch ; 3 per cent of 36,747 Irish, and 1 per cent of 59,878 Scandinavians. On the other hand, as large a propor- tion as 36 per cent of 32,577 Poles from Russia could not read or write, and the same illiteracy is true for the Poles from Germany and Austria-Hungary; 23 per cent of 77,544 Hebrews from Russia could not read or write and 20,211 He- brews from Austria-Hungary showed the same degree of illiteracy. The percentage of illiteracy among the north Italians is only 13, yet it is as high as 48 among the south Italians. We are receiving nearly six times as many south Italians as we are north Italians, and yet the latter are far more desirable immigrants than the former.

AMBITIONS OF CERTAIN IMMIGRANTS

One member of a large family from eastern Europe, composed of a father, mother, and six children all under ten years of age, with hardly any money, and bound for the tenement district of New York city, was recently asked at Ellis Island how he intended to provide a competent subsistence for his family if allowed to land. He answered : ' ' What do I care for a big house if I can get one room to sleep in. That is all we want * that is the way we did in Russia."

This particular family was excluded.

Aliens detained in Penal, Reformatory, and Charitable Institutions, showing for each race the ratio of criminality, and that said ratio corresponds largely to the proportion of recent arrivals Proportion ofalien. inmates who are criminals GRAND DIVISION OF RACE Proportion ofalien inmates arrived within 5 years KELTIC TEUTONIC SLAVIC IBERIC AVERAGE OF ALL RACES From F. P. Sargent, Commissioner General of Immigration This chart shows the ratio of criminality of the four principal grand divisions, viz. : Keltic, Teutonic, Slavic, and Iberic. The Iberic division leads in criminality, with Slavic second, Teutonic third, and Keltic fourth. The Iberic ratio of 39 per cent is thought not to show the true condition, as it was found impracticable in the compilation of these figures to exclude the Italian (north) who belong with the Keltic grand division from the Italian (south) who belong with the Iberic grand division. In this connection it is pointed out that there were 809 aliens confined in the institutions of the United States proper for murder, 253 of whom were Italians ; there were 373 confined for attempts to kill, 139 of whom were Italians. This is a ratio of one Italian to two aliens of all other races. From this diagram it will be seen that the racial divisions that have the largest percentages of recent arrivals detained are the ones that have the highest ratio of criminality. (See pages 26 and 27.)


But we are receiving man}' other fam- ilies of a similar character bound for the tenement districts of our large cities, and with aspirations as narrow as those above described, whom it is not possible to exclude under existing law, for it does not necessarily follow that they are likely to become public charges from the fact that they will go to an overcrowded tenement district and occupy inadequate quarters. Of the so-called "Americans" who have obtained their citizenship by rush- ing to the United States, living here long enough to take out papers, and then hurrying back to their native land, Inspector Marcus Brown gives the following illustration :

"The conditions I found to exist there (Jerusalem) are even worse, if such be possible, than in Syria. In the city of Jerusalem alone I found over 1,000 'American citizens,' the vast majority of whom, being Hebrews, live there ostensibly for religious reasons. A number of them are engaged in some business pursuits. These, however, are in the minority, the prevailing majority living on charity, mostly on the so-called

' chaluka ' (the biblical one- tenth) , which they obtain from all over the world,

either through organized charitable or- ganizations or from private individuals. These people send out thousands upon thousands of letters annually begging charitable contributions, and they cause Dr Merrill, the United States consul, and his dragoman no end of trouble. "These alleged 'American citizens,' although they enjoy and avail them- selves of the high privilege and protec- tion of American citizenship, are, in truth and in fact, not Americans at all, and quite a number of them have be- come naturalized by fraud."

PUBLIC CHARGES

Although each year several hundred aliens have been returned to the countries whence they came because they were public charges, and several thousand others were originally refused admission to the United States because likely to become public charges, the recent investigation of the charitable institutions of the country conducted by the Bureau of Immigration actually found about 30,000 alien paupers, in- cluding insane, in the public institu- tions and another 5,000 in the chari- table institutions under private control. About 10,000 alien criminals were found in the penal institutions, making alto- gether a grand total of 45,000, 40,000 of whom are supported exclusively at public expense. In addition thereto, there are probably 65,000 naturalized foreigners in these institutions.

The states in which are located the large cities have the largest proportions of aliens detained in their institutions. For instance, out of 44,985 aliens in all the institutions of the United States, 12,440, or 28 per cent, are in the State of New York ; 5,601, or yi per cent, in Pennsylvania ; 5,490, or 12 percent, in Massachusetts, and 3,359, or 7^ per cent, in Illinois, making a total of 26,- ■890 in the four states mentioned, which is 60 per cent of the entire number in the United States.

The enormous proportion of aliens taken care of in the insane and charitable insti- tutions of the United States is shown by the fact that the proportion of alien popu- lation to citizens in the tvholc United States is 1 to 75, while within the insane and charitable institutions the proportion is 1 alien to 6 United States citizens. The proportion in penal institutions has not yet been determined, but is undoubtedly even greater than 1 to 6.

RACIAL DISTRIBUTION

Increasing proportions of immigrants are going to Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia, while the percentage for the neighboring State of New York has gradually decreased from 42 per cent in 1892 to 32 per cent in 1904. The far Western States are attracting increasing proportions and the Middle West and South decreasing percentages year by year.

It is of interest to note in this connec- tion the uniformity of the fluctuation of immigration to the New England States, each of them having attracted increasing proportions from 1892 to 1895 or T 896, with decreased percentages since (leav- ing out of consideration the increase for Vermont during the past three or four years).

Iberic and Slavic divisions :[1] About 70 per cent of the immigration going to the seven states, New York, Pennsyl- vania, New Jersey, Ohio, Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia, which group receives 60 per cent of the entire immigration to the United States, belong [2]

to the Iberic races of southern Europe (principally south Italian) and Slavic races of eastern Europe, including Magyars from Hungary. Of the great bulk of immigration going to New York 34 per cent is south Italian and 23 percent Hebrew. Other Eastern and Southern States and Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri get large percentages of immigrants belonging to the Iberic and Slavic divisions. Louisiana is conspicuous because of heavy percentage of south Italians.

Teutonic division: The Northwestern States get heavy percentages of immigrants of Teutonic blood from northern Europe, the States of Michigan, Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Utah each receiving from 65 to 90 per cent of immigrants of this class.

Celtic division: New England and some of the Southern States show moderate proportions of immigrants of the Celtic division. This class of immigrants, however, is most conspicuously represented in the Southwest and Rocky Mountain regions.

Mongolic division: Most of the immigrants of the Mongolic division, principally Japanese, go to Hawaii and the Pacific coast. Of all the immigrants going to Hawaii 82 per cent are Japanese.


OCCUPATIONS

Examination shows that immigration to the mining regions of the Alleghenies, Lake Superior, and Rocky Mountains is composed of comparatively few families and a very large proportion of laborers, while that to the agricultural districts of the Middle West and South is composed of comparatively few laborers and large proportions of families. The latter fact is conspicuously the case with regard to the tier of seven prairie states and territories from North Dakota to Texas, where nearly half the immigration consists of women and children classed under the head "no occupation," with a corresponding decrease in the proportion of laborers. It is notable also that the Teutonic element in the immigration to this tier of states greatly predominates.

  1. The different races or peoples or, more properly, subdivisions of race coming from Europe have been grouped by Mr Sargent into four grand divisions, as follows : Teutonic division, from northern Europe : German, Scandinavian, English, Dutch, Flem- ish, and Finnish. Iberic division, from southern Europe : South Italian, Greek, Portuguese, and Spanish ; also Syrian from Turkey in Asia. Celtic division, from western Europe: Irish, Welsh, Scotch, French, and north Italian. Slavic division, from eastern Europe : Bo- hemian, Moravian, Bulgarian, Servian, Monte-
  2. negrin, Croatian, Slovenian, Dalmatian, Bosnian, Herzegovinian, Hebrew, Lithuanian, Polish, Roumanian, Russian, Ruthenian, and Slovak. The Mongolic division has also been added, to Include Chinese, Japanese, Korean, East Indian, Pacific Islander, and Filipino. Under "all others" have been included Magyar, Turkish, Armenian, African (black), and subdivisions native to the Western Hemisphere By reason of blood mixture this classification is somewhat arbitrary, especially with regard to Finnish, Scotch, and southern Germans.