New Zealand Moths and Butterflies/Appendix

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[ 137 ]




The following list of trees, shrubs, &c, has been prepared to assist entomologists in recognising the various food-plants mentioned in connection with the insects described in the foregoing pages. In order to meet the requirements of beginners, all botanical terms have been omitted. Those desiring precise scientific information on these plants, will of course consult works specially dealing with botany.

Aciphylla squarrosa (Spear-grass). A plant often found on the sea-coast, or open hilly country, with long, very sharp spines instead of leaves. The flowers are very small, and are placed round a tall central shoot, which is also covered with spines.

Asclepias (Milkweed).

Astelia solandri. A plant found growing on the stems of large forest trees. It has very long, narrow, dark green leaves springing from the base of the plant, and lemon-coloured flowers arranged on a long stem. The berries are bright crimson.

Alectryon excelsum (Titoki). A moderate-sized tree with leaves rather long, toothed, and light green. The fruit has a very remarkable appearance; it consists of a shining black seed, partially surrounded by a bright red fleshy covering.

Apocynum (the common Periwinkle).

Aristotelia racemosa (Wine-berry, New Zealand Currant, Makomako). A well-known tree, often found in clearings in the forest, where it usually takes the place of the original trees; in fact this plant seems to seize on every vacant space. Its leaves are pale green, the flowers are much like those of the garden "flowering currant," and the berries are small and dark red.

Beilschmiedia tawa (Tawa tree). A handsome tree, with very long, narrow, light green leaves, and smooth bark.

Brachyglottis repanda (Wharangi). One of the early flowering shrubs, with large bunches of small, strong-scented, white flowers. The leaves are large and pale green, the under side being white.

Carmichælia, or New Zealand Broom. A genus of shrubs closely resembling the common broom, but with very small flowers, more or less streaked with blue or lilac.

[ 138 ]Carpodetus serratus. A pretty shrub or small tree with rather small, serrated, bright green leaves and numerous clusters of small whitish fragrant flowers, followed by nearly globular hard green fruits.

Carex subdola (Sedge).

Coprosma. A genus of shrubs with small, generally rather dull green leaves, insignificant flowers, and bright, variously coloured berries. One common species, Coprosma fœtidissima, has a most objectionable odour when cut or bruised.

Cordyline australis (Ti-tri, or Cabbage tree, as it is usually called). This is one of the most remarkable-looking trees in New Zealand. It much resembles a palm in general appearance. The leaves are long and narrow, with parallel veins; the flowers are whitish, very numerous, growing in drooping clusters at the top of the tree.

Cyathea dealbata (Silver tree fern). A large tree fern, growing from ten to forty feet high, with a slender black stem, and dark green fronds silvery underneath.

Discaria toumatou (Wild Irishman, Tumatakuru). A straggling shrub, or small tree, often common in dry, open places. It is furnished with numerous long sharp spines, with several very insignificant flowers and leaves at the base of each spine.

Donatia novæzealandiæ. A small Alpine plant, with very short stems, around each of which are placed numerous leaves. It has a superficial resemblance to a moss.

Fagus cliffortioides (Mountain Beech, but more often known as Birch or Black Birch). A very handsome forest tree, usually growing in somewhat elevated localities. It has small light green leaves, and black stems with very rough bark.

Fuchsia excorticata (our native Fuchsia). A very common tree or shrub growing in the forest. The bark is pale reddish-brown; the leaves rather elongate, dark green, with pale under-side. The flowers closely resemble those of the cultivated fuchsia, but are less brightly coloured. This plant partially sheds its leaves in winter.

Galinia setifolia. A large, grass-like plant growing in clumps, with very long, dark green leaves, which cut the fingers unless the plant is carefully handled. A number of small, brown flowers is situated near the top of a tall stem, in the centre of each clump.

Haloragis alata. A herbaceous plant abundant on dry hills; the leaves are deeply indented, slightly rough, and arranged on opposite sides of the stem. The flowers are small and green; the fruit is a nut with small wings attached.

Leptospermum scoparium (Manuka, Tea tree). A small tree, growing usually in poor soil. The leaves are very small and dull green, and the numerous star-like flowers are white, tinged with pink.

Melicope simplex. A somewhat straggling shrub with very small, roundish, light green leaves.

Melicytus ramiflorus (Mahoe or Hinahina). A shrub or tree. The leaves are moderately toothed, bright green, and very pretty. The flowers are in clusters, hanging from the bases of the leaves; the fruit is violet-coloured with black seeds.

Metrosideros scandens (White Rata). A common climbing shrub with small, roundish, glossy, dark green leaves and very numerous feathery white flowers. The seed has a powdery appearance, and is enclosed in a large capsule.

[ 139 ]Muhlenbeckia adpressa. A common climbing plant, generally found near the edge of the forest. It has a very tangled growth. Leaves heart-shaped or broadly oblong; in young plants, three-lobed; spike, many-flowered.

Myosotis arvensis (Forget-me-not).

Myrtus bullata (Ramarama). A remarkably pretty shrub with reddish-brown or green leaves, much crinkled. The flowers are white, tinged with pink, and very much resemble those of the English myrtle. Berries about the size of currants, red or purple.

Œnothera biennis (the Evening Primrose). This herb grows to the height of two or three feet. It has large, bright yellow flowers, opening towards evening. Found in sandy soil on the sea-coast.

Olea apetala (Maire, New Zealand Olive). A shrub or small tree with broad leaves, and insignificant flowers growing on opposite sides of the flower-stalk.

Olearia traversii (Ake-ake). A small tree or shrub with oval, very wavy, thick, pale green leaves, white underneath. The flowers are very small, yellowish-white and strongly scented. They do not appear till late in autumn.

Panax arborea. A small tree with bright, glossy green, compound leaves. Each leaf consists of five separate leaflets on distinct footstalks, connected with branch by a long, stout stem. The large bunches of black berries are very conspicuous in the autumn.

Pennantia corymbosa. A small tree with oval, serrated, bright green leaves, and handsome clusters of sweet-scented white flowers.

Piper excelsum (Kawa-kawa). A small tree generally growing in damp places. The leaves are broad, heart-shaped, bright green, and nearly always riddled with holes.

Pittosporum eugenioides (Tarata). A shrub or small tree, with rather elongate, pale green wavy leaves, and bundles of fragrant, small, yellow flowers.

Pittosporum tenuifolium, var. Nigrescens (Matipo). A very ornamental shrub with small, shining, bright green leaves, and black stems. The flowers are dark purple, and rather buried among the foliage.

Plagianthus betulinus (South Island Ribbon Wood). A tree of moderate size. The leaves are rather light green, and doubly serrated. The flowers are small, white, with red anthers, and very numerous.

Poa australis (Tussock). One of the common native grasses of New Zealand. It grows in large clumps, often about two feet in height. It is especially common in open situations in the South Island.

Pomaderris ericifolia (Tauhinu, or Cotton Wood). A shrub usually growing in rather exposed places. The leaves are very small, pointed, dull green above and white underneath. They are placed very closely on the stems, which are also white. The flowers are dull yellowish-white, and grow in clusters.

Pteris incisa. A soft, light green, straggling fern, growing in open places in the forest, and round decayed logs.

Scabious ("Pincushion"). An introduced garden plant. The flowers are of many different colours—the name "pincushion," gives the best description of appearance. It is very attractive to insects.

[ 140 ]Senecio bellidioides. A common mountain herb, with rather dark green leaves, and a small tuft of bright yellow daisy-like flowers.

Senecio scandens (called by settlers French Ivy). A common climbing plant having a superficial resemblance to ivy, but with much brighter green leaves, and yellow flowers.

Senecio vulgaris (Groundsel). A common garden weed.

Solanum aviculare (Poro-poro, or Potato Plant). A shrub, with very dark green, pointed leaves, purple underneath, and bright purple flowers resembling those of the potato.

Todea hymenophylloides. One of the "crape" ferns, growing in very shady places in the forest. It has soft, graceful, light green fronds.

Urtica ferox ("Nettle Tree"). It has prickly, light green leaves, with very long thick spines; a row of these spines is situated along the midrib of each leaf. It grows in open situations.

Urtica incisa (Ground Nettle). A herbaceous plant found in shady places amongst ferns. The leaves are covered with spines, which give a very sharp sting when touched.

Veronica (Koromiko). A genus of shrubs, found commonly on the margins of forests, and on hill-tops. The leaves are rather long, smooth, and dark green, and the flowers are mostly purplish-white.