Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697/Book VII

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Pub. for the Society by K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, pages 188–216




The Emperor Oho-tarashi-hiko-oshiro-wake was the third child of the Emperor Iku-me-iri-hiko-isachi. The Empress his mother was named Hibasu-hime no Mikoto. She was the daughter of Prince Michi no ushi of Tamba. The Emperor Iku-me-iri-hiko-isachi, in the 37th year of his reign, raised him to the rank of Prince Imperial. He was then twenty-one years of age. In the 99th year of his reign, Spring, the second month, the Emperor Iku-me-iri-hiko-isachi died.

A.D. 71. 1st year, Autumn, 7th month, 11th day. The Prince Imperial assumed the Imperial Dignity. The chronological epoch was altered accordingly. This year was the year Kanoto Hitsuji (8th) of the Cycle.

A.D. 72. 2nd year, Spring, 3rd month, 3rd day. The elder lady[2] of Inabi in Harima was appointed Empress.

Another version has:—"The younger lady of Inabi in Harima."

(VII. 2.) She had two sons, the first of whom was named the Imperial Prince Oho-usu, and the second Wo-usu no Mikoto.

In one writing it is said:—"The Empress bore three sons. The third was named the Imperial Prince Waka-Yamato-neko."

The Imperial Prince Oho-usu and Wo-usu no Mikoto were born as twins[3] on the same day with the same placenta. The Emperor, wondering at this, informed the mortar.[4] Therefore he gave these two Princes the names of Great Mortar (Oho-usu) and Little Mortar (Wo-usu). Now this Wo-usu no Mikoto was also called Yamato Woguna and again Yamato-dake no Mikoto.[5] Whilst a child he had a manly spirit; when he arrived at manhood his beauty was extraordinary. He was a rod in height, and his strength was such that he could lift a tripod.[6]

A.D. 73. 3rd year, Spring, 2nd month, 1st day. Divination was made as to whether the Emperor should make a progress to the Land of Kii to perform sacrifices to all the Gods of Heaven and Earth. It was found to be unlucky, and the Imperial car was accordingly countermanded. Ya-nushi-oshiho-dake-wo-goro no Mikoto [one version has Take-wi-goro] was sent and caused (VII. 3.) to do sacrifice. Hereupon Ya-nushi-oshiho-dake-wo-goro no Mikoto went thither, and stayed at Kashihara in Abi, where he sacrificed to the Gods of Heaven and Earth. He lived here for nine years, and took to wife Kage-hime, the daughter of Uji-hiko, who was the ancestor of the Ki no Atahe.[7] She was the mother of Takechi no Sukune.

A.D. 74. 4th year, Spring, 2nd month, 11th day. The Emperor made a progress to Mino. His courtiers represented to him, saying:—"In this province there is a handsome woman named Oto-hime, of perfect beauty. She is the daughter of the Imperial Prince Yasaka Irihiko." The Emperor wished to obtain her to be his consort, and went to the house of Oto-hime.[8] Oto-hime, hearing that the Emperor was coming in his carriage, straightway concealed herself in a bamboo-grove. Hereupon the Emperor provisionally caused Oto-hime to go and reside in the Kuguri Palace, and letting loose carp in a pond, amused himself by looking at them morning and evening. Now Oto-hime wished to see the carp sporting, so she came secretly and stood over the pond. The Emperor forthwith detained her, and had intercourse with her. Hereupon Oto-hime thought:—"The way of a husband and wife is the prevailing rule both now and of old time. But for me it is not convenient." So she besought the Emperor, saying:—"Thy handmaiden's disposition is averse to the way of conjugal (VII. 4.) intercourse. Unable to withstand the awe of the Imperial commands, she has been placed for a while within the curtain. But it gives her no pleasure. Her face too is hideous, and she is unworthy of being added to the side courts. Thy handmaiden, however, has an elder sister, by name Yasaka Iri-hime, of a beautiful countenance, and also of a virtuous disposition. Let her be placed in the hinder palace." The Emperor assented, and having summoned Yasaka Iri-hime, made her his consort. She bore to him seven sons and six daughters. The name of the first was the Emperor Waka-tarashi-hiko, of the second the Imperial Prince Iho-ki Iri-hiko, of the third the Imperial Prince Oshi-wake, of the fourth the Imperial Prince Waka-Yamato-neko, of the fifth the Imperial Prince Oho-su-wake, of the sixth the Imperial Princess Nunoshi, of the seventh the Imperial Princess Nunaki, of the eighth the Imperial Princess Ihoki no Iri-hime, of the ninth the Imperial Princess Kako-yori-hime, of the tenth the Imperial Prince Isaki no Iri-hiko, of the eleventh the Imperial Prince Kibi no Ye-hiko, of the twelfth the Imperial Princess Takaki no Iri-hime, and of the thirteenth the Imperial Princess Oto-hime.

Again he took as consort the Lady[9] Midzuha, younger sister of Ihaki-wake, of the Miho House, who bore to him the Imperial Princess Ihono. His next consort, named Ikaha-hime, bore to him the Imperial Prince Kami-kushi[10] and the Imperial Prince (VII. 5.) Inase no Iri-hiko. The elder of these two, the Imperial Prince Kami-kushi, was the first ancestor of the Miyakko of Sanuki. The younger, the Imperial Prince Inase no Iri-hiko, was the first ancestor of the Harima no Wake.[11] His next consort was named Takada-hime, daughter of Kogoto of the Abe House, who bore to him the Imperial Prince Take-kuni Kori-wake. He was the first ancestor of the Wake of Mimura, in the Province of Iyo. His next consort, named Oho-tane-hime, of Kami-naga in Hiuga, bore the Imperial Prince Hiuga no Sotsu-hiko. He was the first ancestor of the Kimi of Amu.[12] His next consort, named Sotake-bime, bore the Imperial Prince Kuni-chi-wake, the Imperial Prince Kuni-se-wake [one version has the Imperial Prince Miya-chi-wake] and the Imperial Prince Toyoto-wake. The elder of these, the Imperial Prince Kuni-chi-wake, was the first ancestor of the Wake of Minuma. The youngest brother, the Imperial Prince Toyo-to-wake, was the first ancestor of the Wake of the Province of Hi.[13]

(VII. 6.) Now the children of the Emperor, male and female, from first to last, numbered eighty in all. With the exception, however, of Yamato-dake no Mikoto, the Emperor Waka-tarashi-hiko and the Imperial Prince Ihoki no Iri-hiko, the other seventy and odd children were all granted fiefs[14] of provinces and districts, and each proceeded to his own province. Therefore, those who at the present time are called Wake of the various provinces are the descendants of these separated (wakare) Princes.[15]

In this month, the Emperor, hearing that the daughters of Kambone, Mino no Miyakko, the elder's name being Ane-toho-ko, and the younger's being Oto-toho-ko, were both of distinguished beauty, sent Oho-usu no Mikoto with orders to examine the countenance of these women. Now Oho-usu no Mikoto had secret intercourse with them, and did not report his mission. For this reason the Emperor was wrath with Oho-usu no Mikoto.

Winter, the 11th month, 1st day. The Emperor returned from Mino and removed the capital to Maki-muku. This was called the palace of Hi-shiro.

A.D. 82. 12th year, Autumn, 7th month. The Kumaso[16] rebelled, and did not bring tribute.

(VII. 7.) 8th month, 5th day. The Emperor made a progress to Tsukushi.[17]

9th month, 5th day. On arriving at Saha in Suwo, the Emperor, standing with his face to the south,[18] addressed his Ministers, saying:—"To the southwards, smoke rises abundantly. There must certainly be brigands there." So he halted, and sending in advance Take-moro-gi, ancestor of the Omi of Oho, Unade, ancestor of the Omi of Kusaki, and Natsu-bana, ancestor of the Kimi of the Mononobe, made them to reconnoitre. Now there was here a woman, by name Kamu-nashi-hime, whose followers were exceedingly numerous. She was the chieftain of that whole country. When she heard that the Emperor's messengers had arrived, she broke off branches of the hard wood of Mount Shitsu. On the upper branch[19] she hung an eight-span sword, on the middle branch she hung an eight-hand mirror, and on the lower branch a Yasaka jewel. She also hoisted a white flag on the bow of her ship, and having come to meet them, addressed them, saying:—"I beseech you, do not have recourse to arms. None of my people, I assure you, are rebellious. They will presently submit themselves to virtue.[20] But there are mischievous brigands. The name of one is Hanatari.[21] He has assumed an unauthorized title. In the mountains and valleys he has called men together, and is encamped at Kahakami in Usa. Another is called Mimi-tari.[22] He is a mischievous brigand, rapacious, frequently plundering the people. He dwells at (VII. 8.) Kahakami in Mike. The third is called Asa-hagi. He has secretly assembled a following, and dwells at Kahakami in Takaha. The name of the fourth is Tsuchi-wori-wi-wori.[23] He lives concealed at Kahakami[24] in Midori no, and relying solely on the difficulties of the mountains and rivers, plunders the people greatly. All the places to which these four have betaken themselves are strong places. Each of them therefore makes his relations chiefs of one place, and they all say they will not obey the Imperial command. I pray you attack them suddenly, and fail not."

Hereupon Take-moro-gi and the others first enticed the followers of Asa-hagi, and gave them presents of trowsers of red material and all manner of curious objects. Then having made them beckon to the four unsubmissive men, who came accompanied by their followers, they seized them and put them all to death.

The Emperor ultimately pursued his journey to Tsukushi, and arrived at the district of Nagawo in the province of Buzen, where he erected a travelling palace and dwelt there. Therefore the name of that place was called Miyako.[25]

Winter, 10th month. He arrived in the Land of Ohokida. The form of this region is wide and beautiful. Therefore it was called Ohokida.[26]

When he came to the village of Hayami, there was there a woman named Haya-tsu-hime. She was chieftain[27] of one place. When she heard that the Imperial car was coming, she went out in person to meet the Emperor, and reported to him, saying:—"In this mountain there is a great cavern called the Rat's Cave. There are two Tsuchi-gumo[28] who dwell in this cave. One is called Awo,[29] and the other Shira.[30] Again (VII. 9.) at Negino, in the district of Nawori, there are three Tsuchi-gumo. The name of the first is Uchi-zaru,[31] of the second Yata,[32] and of the third Kunimaro.[33] These five men are alike mighty of frame, and moreover have numerous followers. They all say that they will not obey the Imperial command. If their coming is insisted on, they will raise an army and offer resistance." The Emperor, provoked by this, could not advance on his journey. So he halted at the village of Kutami, where he erected a temporary palace muro, and dwelt therein. Then he consulted with his Ministers, saying:—"Let us now put in motion a numerous army and slay the Tsuchi-gumo. If, fearing the might of our arms, they should conceal themselves in the mountains and moors, they will assuredly do future mischief." Accordingly he gathered camellia trees, and made of them mallets for weapons. Then selecting his bravest soldiers, he gave them the mallet-weapons. Therewith they pierced through the mountains, cleared away the grass, and attacking the Tsuchi-gumo of the cave,[34] defeated them at Kahakami in Inaba. The whole band were killed, and their blood flowing reached to the ancle. Therefore the men of that day called the place where the camellia mallets were made Tsubaki-no-ichi,[35] and the place where the blood flowed they called Chida.[36] Then, in order to attack Uchi-zaru, he crossed straight over (VII. 10.) Mount Negi. At this time the arrows of the enemy, shot crosswise from the mountain, fell like rain in front of the Imperial army. The Emperor retreated to Shiro-hara, where he made divination on the river-bank, and accordingly arraying his troops, he first attacked Yata on the moor of Negi, and defeated him. Upon this Uchi-zaru felt that he could not gain the victory, and prayed that his submission should be accepted. This, however, was refused, and they all flung themselves into a ravine and were killed. In the beginning, when the Emperor was about to attack the enemy, he made a station on the great moor of Kashihawo. On this moor there was a stone six feet in length, three feet in breadth, and one foot five inches in thickness. The Emperor prayed, saying:—"If we are to succeed in destroying the Tsuchi-gumo, when we kick this stone, may we make it mount up like a Kashiha leaf." Accordingly he kicked it, upon which, like a Kashiha leaf, it arose to the Great Void. Therefore that stone was called Homishi.[37] The Gods whom he prayed to at this time were the God of Shiga, the God of the Mononobe of Nawori, and the God of the Nakatomi of Nawori—these three Gods.

11th month. He arrived at the Land of Hiuga, and erected a travelling palace, wherein he took up his residence. This was called the palace of Takaya.

12th month, 5th day. Counsel was held how they should attack the Kumaso. Hereupon the Emperor addressed his Ministers, saying:—"We have heard that in the Land of the Kumaso there are two men named Atsukaya and Sakaya, who (VII. 11.) are the leaders of the Kumaso. Their followers are exceedingly numerous, and are called the eighty Kumaso braves. It will be better not to touch their spear-points. For if we raise a small force, it will be insufficient to exterminate the brigands, while if a large army is put in motion, the people will suffer harm. Is there no means of subduing this country without active measures, and without resorting to the might of arms?" Then one of the ministers stood forward and said:—"A Kumaso brave has two daughters, the elder named Ichi-fukaya, and the younger Ichi-kaya. Their beauty is perfect, and their hearts are brave. Offer valuable presents, and under the pretence of bestowing them beneath thy standard, take advantage of this to gain intelligence of the enemy, and attack them unawares. So without ever a sword-edge being stained with blood, the enemy will surely yield themselves up." The Emperor gave command, saying:—"Let it be so." Thereupon the presents were offered, and the two women, deceived by them, were bestowed beneath the tent. The Emperor straightway had intercourse with Ichi-fukaya, and made a show of affection for her. Then Ichi-fukaya told the Emperor, saying:—"Be not anxious lest the Kumaso should not submit. Thy handmaiden has an excellent plan. Let me have one or two soldiers to follow me." She then returned to her home, and prepared much strong sake, which she made her father drink. He became drunk and lay down to sleep. Ichi-fukaya then secretly cut her father's bowstring. Thereupon one of the soldiers who had escorted her came up and killed the Kumaso brave. The Emperor was provoked by such excessively unfilial conduct and put Ichi-fukaya to death. But Ichi-kaya he gave to the (VII. 12.) Miyakko of the Land of Ki.

A.D. 83. 13th year, Summer, 5th month. The Kumaso country having been all subdued, the Emperor accordingly dwelt in the palace of Takaya. When he had lived there six years, there was a beautiful woman in that country named Mihakashi-hime.[38] So he took her and made her his concubine. She bore to him the Imperial Prince Toyo-kuni-wake. He was the first ancestor of the Miyakko of the Land of Hiuga.

A.D. 87. 17th year, Spring, 3rd month, 12th day. The Emperor made a progress to the district of Koyu,[39] where he visited the little moor of Nimo. Then looking down towards the east, he said to his courtiers:—"This country faces directly the quarter of the Rising Sun." Therefore he named that country Hiuga.[40] On this day he mounted upon a great stone in the middle of the moor, and feeling a longing for the capital, made this poetry:—

Oh! how sweet!
(VII. 13.) From the quarter of my home,
Clouds arising come hither!
Is the most secluded of lands.
Retired behind Mount Awo-gaki,
Which encompasses it in its folds,
Is beautiful.
Let those whose lives are sound
Stick (in their hair) by way of headdress
Branches of the white evergreen oak
Of Mount Heguri—
(Fold within fold).
This child![41]

This is called a song of longing for one's country.

A.D. 88. 18th year, Spring, 3rd month. The Emperor, when about to turn his way towards the capital, made a tour of inspection to the Land of Tsukushi.[42] He first arrived at Hina-mori. There was at this time on the bank of the River Ihase a crowd of men assembled. The Emperor, looking down on them from afar, addressed his courtiers, saying:—"Who are these men who are assembled? Are they an enemy?" So he sent two men, Hinamori the Elder and Hinamori the Younger, to see. Now Hinamori the Younger returned and reported, (VII. 14.) saying:—"Idzumi-hime, the Kimi of Muro-kata, is about to offer your Majesty a banquet, and therefore have people gathered together."

Summer, 4th month, 3rd day. The Emperor arrived at the district of Kuma. In this place there were two brothers called Kuma-tsu-hiko.[43] The Emperor first sent to summon Kuma the Elder to him. Accordingly he came along with the messenger. Then he summoned Kuma the Younger, but he would not come. Therefore he sent soldiers and put him to death.

11th day. Proceeding by the sea route, he anchored at a small island in Ashikita, where he partook of food. Then he told Wo-hidari, ancestor of the Yama no Ahiko,[44] to give him some cold water. Just at this time there was no water in the island, and he did not know what to do. So looking up, he prayed to the Gods of Heaven and the Gods of Earth, when suddenly a cool spring bubbled forth from the side of a cliff. This he drew and put before the Emperor. Therefore that island was called Midzushima.[45] That spring still exists in the cliff of Midzushima.

5th month, 1st day. Setting sail from Ashikita, he proceeded to the Land of Hi.[46] Here the sun went down, and the night being dark, they did not know how to reach the shore. A fire was seen shining afar off, and the Emperor commanded the helmsman, saying:—"Make straight for the place where the fire (VII. 15.) is." So he proceeded towards the fire, and thus was enabled to reach the shore. The Emperor made inquiry respecting the place where the fire was, saying:—"What is the name of this village?" The people of the land answered and said:—"Toyomura, in the district of Yatsushiro." Again he made inquiry respecting the fire:—"Whose fire is this?" But no owner could be found, and thereupon it was known that it was not a fire made by man. Therefore that country was called Hi no Kuni.[47]

6th month, 3rd day. He crossed over from the district of Takaku to the village of Tamakina. At this time he killed a Tsuchi-gumo of that place called Tsudzura.

16th day. He arrived at the Land of Aso.[48] The level tracts of that Land were wide and far-reaching, but no dwellings of men were to be seen. The Emperor said:—"Are there any people in this country?" Now there were two Deities, one called Aso-tsu-hiko, and the other Aso-tsu-hime, who suddenly assuming human form, sauntered forward and said:—"We two are here. How can it be said that there are no men?" Therefore that place was called Aso.[49]

Autumn, 7th month, 4th day. He arrived at Mike[50] in the further Land of Tsukushi,[51] where he dwelt in the temporary Palace of Takata. Now there was here a fallen tree 970 rods (VII. 16.) in length. The hundred functionaries passed backwards and forwards stepping on this tree. The people of that day made a song, saying:—

The morning hoar-frost[52]
August tree pole-bridge!
The Lords of the Presence
Pass over it—
The august tree pole-bridge!

The Emperor inquired, saying:—"What tree is this?" There was there an old man who said:—"This tree is a Kunugi tree.[53] Before it fell down, when the rays of the morning sun fell on it, it overshadowed the Hill of Kishima; when the rays of the evening sun fell on it, it covered Mount Aso." The Emperor said:—"This tree is a divine tree. Therefore let this country be called the Land of Mike."[54]

(VII. 17.) 7th day. He reached the district of Yame, where, crossing Mount Mahe, he looked down to the south upon Aha no Saki, and spake, saying:—"The peaks and glens of this mountain follow each other fold upon fold. They are exceedingly beautiful. May it be that a God dwells in this mountain?" Then Saru-ohomi,[55] the Agata-nushi of Minuma, represented to the Emperor, saying:—"There is a female Deity named Yame-tsu hime, who dwells always among these mountains." This is therefore the reason why this country is called the Land of Yame.

8th month. He arrived at the village of Ikuha,[56] where he partook of food. On this day the stewards left behind the drinking cup. Wherefore the men of that day called the place where the drinking cup had been forgotten Ukuha. The present name Ikuha is a corruption of this. In old times the common people of Tsukushi called a drinking-cup Ukuha.

A.D. 89. 19th year, Autumn, 9th month, 20th day. The Emperor arrived from Hiuga.

A.D. 90. 20th year, Spring, 2nd month, 4th day. The Princess Ihono was made to sacrifice to Ama-terasu no Oho-kami.

A.D. 95. 25th year, Autumn, 7th month, 3rd day. Takechi no Sukune was commissioned to inquire into the geography of the various provinces of the Northern[57] and Eastern[58] circuits and the condition of the people.

A.D. 97. 27th year, Spring, 2nd month, 12th day. Takechi no Sukune returned from the East Country and informed the Emperor, saying:—"In the Eastern wilds there is a country (VII. 18.) called Hitakami.[59] The people of this country, both men and women, tie up their hair in the form of a mallet, and tattoo their bodies. They are of fierce temper, and their general name is Yemishi. Moreover, their land is wide and fertile. We should attack them and take it."

Autumn, 8th month. The Kumaso again rebelled, and made unceasing inroads on the frontier districts.

Winter, 10th month, 13th day. Yamato-dake no Mikoto was sent to attack the Kumaso. He was at this time sixteen years of age. Thereupon Yamato-dake no Mikoto said:—"I desire to take with me some good archers. Where are there any good archers?" Some one told him, saying:—"In the province of Mino there is a good archer named Oto-hiko-gimi." Thereupon Yamato-dake no Mikoto sent Miyado-hiko, a man of Katsuraki, and summoned to him Oto-hiko-gimi. Therefore Oto-hiko-gimi came and brought with him Ishiura no Yokotachi, Tako no Inaki,[60] and Chichika no Inaki of the province of Ohari, and followed Yamato-dake no Mikoto on his expedition.

12th month. Having arrived at the Land of Kumaso, he inquired into the state of things, and the character of the country in respect of facilities of access. Now the Kumaso had a leader named Torishi-kaya, also called the Brave of (VII. 19.) Kahakami, who assembled all his relations in order to give them a banquet. Hereupon Yamato-dake no Mikoto let down his hair, and disguising himself as a young girl, secretly waited until the banquet should be given by the Brave of Kahakami. Then with a sword girded on him underneath his inner garment, he entered the banqueting muro of the Brave of Kahakami and remained among the women. The Brave of Kahakami, enchanted with the beauty of the young girl, forthwith took her by the hand, and made her sit beside him. He also offered her the cup, and made her drink, and thus amused himself with her. By and by the night grew late, and the company fewer. Also the Brave of Kahakami became intoxicated. Hereupon Yamato-dake no Mikoto drew the sword which he had in his inner garments, and stabbed the Brave of Kahakami in the breast, but did not kill him outright. The Brave of Kahakami, bowing down his head to the ground, said:—"Wait a little. I have something to say." Then Yamato-dake no Mikoto stayed his sword and waited. The Brave of Kahakami addressed him, saying:—"Who is thine Augustness?" He answered and said:—"I am the child of the Emperor Oho-tarashi-hiko, and my name is Yamato Woguna." The Brave of Kahakami again spake to him, saying:—"I am the strongest man in all this land, and therefore none of the men of this time can excel me in might, and none refuses to be my follower. I have met with many valiant men, but none as yet could match the Prince. Therefore this despicable robber, from his filthy mouth, offers thine Augustness a title. Wilt thou accept it?" He said:—"I will accept it." So he spake to him, saying:—"Henceforward in speaking of the Imperial Prince, let him be styled the Imperial Prince Yamato-dake."[61] When he had done speaking Yamato-dake pierced his breast through and killed him. Therefore up to the present day he is styled Yamato-dake no Mikoto. This was the origin of it.

Afterwards he despatched Oto-hiko and the others, who slew all that band, leaving not a chewer,[62] and when this was (VII. 20.) done, he returned by sea to Yamato. Arriving at Kibi, he crossed the Ana Sea. In this place there was a malignant Deity, whom he forthwith slew. Again, turning northwards, he arrived at Naniha,[63] where he killed the malignant Deity of the Kashiha ferry.

A.D. 98. 28th year, Spring, 2nd month, 1st day. Yamato-dake no Mikoto reported to the Emperor how he had subdued the Kumaso, saying:—"Thy servant, trusting in the Emperor's Divine Spirit,[64] by force of arms, at one blow, suddenly slew the Kumaso chieftain and reduced that whole country to peace. In this way the Western Land is now quiet, and the people are undisturbed. Only the God of the Ferry of Ana in Kibi and the God of the Ferry of Kashiha at Naniha, both, with mischievous intent, sent forth a poisonous vapour, by which travellers were plagued. Both of them formed centres of calamity. Therefore I killed all those evil Deities, and have thrown open the roads by land and water alike." The Emperor upon this commended the good service done by Yamato-dake no Mikoto, and bestowed extraordinary affection on him.

A.D. 110. 40th year, Summer, 6th month. There was wide rebellion of the Eastern wilds, and the frontier was in a state of tumult.

Autumn, 7th month, 6th day. The Emperor addressed his Ministers, saying:—"The Eastern country is now in an unquiet state, and turbulent Deities have sprung up in numbers. Moreover the Yemishi have rebelled to a man and frequently carry off the people. Whom shall I send to still this disturbance?" But none of the Ministers knew whom to send. Then Yamato-dake no Mikoto addressed the Emperor, saying:—"Thy servant it was who formerly performed the labour of the expedition to the West. This campaign must be the business of the Imperial Prince Oho-usu." But the Imperial Prince Oho-usu was afraid, and ran to conceal himself among the grass. Accordingly a messenger was sent to fetch him. Hereupon the Emperor chid him, saying:—"If thou dost not (VII. 21.) wish it, shall We insist on sending thee? Why all this alarm, whilst thou hast not yet confronted the enemy?" Accordingly he eventually granted him Mino as a fief, and so he went to his government. He was the first ancestor of the two houses of the Kimi of Muketsu and the Kimi of Mori. Upon this Yamato-dake no Mikoto, striking a martial attitude, said:—"Not many years have passed since I subdued the Kumaso. Now the Yemishi of the East have made a fresh rebellion. When shall we arrive at a universal peace? Thy servant, notwithstanding that it is a labour to him, will speedily quell this disturbance." So the Emperor took a battle-axe,[65] and giving it to Yamato-dake no Mikoto, said:—"We hear that the Eastern savages are of a violent disposition, and are much given to oppression: their hamlets have no chiefs, their villages no leaders, each is greedy of territory, and they plunder one another. Moreover, there are in the mountains malignant Deities, on the moors there are malicious demons, who beset the highways and bar the roads, causing men much annoyance. Amongst these Eastern savages the Yemishi are the most powerful, their men and women live together promiscuously, there is no distinction of father and child. In winter they dwell in holes, in summer they live in nests. Their clothing consists of furs, and they drink blood.[66] Brothers are suspicious of one another. In ascending mountains they are like flying birds; in going through the grass they are like fleet quadrupeds. When they receive a favour, they forget it, but if an injury is done them they never fail to revenge it. Therefore (VII. 22.) they keep arrows in their top-knots and carry swords within their clothing. Sometimes they draw together their fellows and make inroads on the frontier. At other times they take the opportunity of the harvest to plunder the people. If attacked, they conceal themselves in the herbage; if pursued, they flee into the mountains. Therefore ever since antiquity they have not been steeped in the kingly civilizing influences. Now We mark that thou art mighty of stature and thy countenance is of perfect beauty, thou hast strength sufficient to raise tripods, thy fierceness is like thunder and lightning, wherever thou dost turn thy face, there is none to stand before thee; whenever thou dost attack thou dost surely conquer. This we know, that whereas in outward form thou art Our child, in reality thou art a God. Truly Heaven, commiserating Our want of intelligence and the disturbed condition of the country, has ordained that thou shouldst order the Heavenly institution, and save the monarchy from extinction. Moreover, this Empire is thy Empire, and this Dignity is thy Dignity. I adjure thee to exercise profound policy and far-reaching foresight in searching out iniquity and watching against crises. Admonish with majesty; comfort with kindness. Avoid having recourse to arms, and thou wilt naturally inspire loyal obedience. So by cunning words thou mayst moderate the violent Deities, and by a display of armed force sweep away malignant demons."[67]

Then Yamato-dake no Mikoto received the battle-axe, and, bowing twice, addressed the Emperor, saying:—"But few years have elapsed since my former expedition to the West, when, trusting in the might of the Imperial spirit, I, with a sword three feet in length, conquered the land of Kumaso, and (VII. 23.) the rebel chiefs yielded themselves to punishment. Now again, trusting in the spirits[68] of the Gods of Heaven and Earth, and in reliance on the Imperial might, I am proceeding to the frontier. I will admonish them by gentle teaching, and if any remain unsubmissive, I will smite them with arms." So he again bowed twice. Then the Emperor commanded Kibi no Take-hiko and Ohotomo no Take-hi no Muraji to follow Yamato-dake no Mikoto. He also appointed Nana-tsuka-hagi his steward.[69]

Winter, 10th month, 2nd day. Yamato-dake no Mikoto set out on his journey.

7th day. He turned aside from his way to worship at the shrine of Ise. Here he took leave of Yamato-hime[70] no Mikoto, saying:—"By order of the Emperor, I am now proceeding on an expedition against the East to put to death the rebels, therefore I am taking leave of thee." Hereupon Yamato-hime no Mikoto took the sword Kusa-nagi and gave it to Yamato-dake no Mikoto, saying:—"Be cautious, and yet not remiss."

This year Yamato-dake no Mikoto first reached Suruga. The brigands of this place made a show of obedience, and said, deceivingly:—"On this moor there are large deer in very great plenty. Their breath is like the morning mist, their legs are like a dense wood. Do thou go and hunt them." Yamato-dake no Mikoto believed these words, and, going into the middle of the moor, sought for game. The brigands, desiring (VII. 24.) to kill the Prince, set fire to the moor. But the Prince, seeing that he had been deceived, produced fire by means of a fire-drill,[71] and, kindling a counter-fire, succeeded in making his escape.

One version says:—"The sword Mura-kumo,[72] which the Prince wore, wielded itself, and mowed away the herbage near the Prince, thus enabling him to escape. Therefore that sword was called Kusa-nagi."[73]

The Prince said:—"I was almost betrayed." So he burnt all that robber-band and exterminated them. Therefore that place was called Yaketsu.[74]

Next he marched on to Sagami, whence he desired to proceed to Kadzusa. Looking over the sea, he spake with a loud voice, and said:—"This is but a little sea:[75] one might even jump over it." But when he came to the middle of the sea a storm suddenly arose, and the Prince's ship was tossed about, so that he could not cross over. At this time there was a concubine in the Prince's suite, named Oto-tachibana-hime. She was the daughter of Oshiyama no Sukune of the Hodzumi House. She addressed the Prince, saying:—"This present uprising of the winds and rushing of the waves, so that the Prince's ship is like to sink, must be due to the wishes of the God of the Sea. I pray thee let me go into the sea, and so let the person of thy mean handmaiden be given to redeem the life of the Prince's Augustness." Having finished speaking, she plunged into the billows. The storm forthwith ceased, and the ship was enabled to reach the shore. Therefore the people of that time called that sea Hashiri-midzu.[76]

(VII. 25.) Hereupon Yamato-dake no Mikoto, going by way of Kadzusa, changed his route, and entered the Land of Michi no oku.

At this time a great mirror was hung upon the Prince's ship. Proceeding by the sea route, he went round to Ashi no ura and crossed aslant to Tama no ura.[77] When he arrived at the Yemishi frontier, the chiefs of the Yemishi, Shima-tsu-kami and Kuni-tsu-kami,[78] encamped at the harbour of Take, with the intention of making resistance. But when they saw the Prince's ship from afar, they feared his majesty and power, and knew in their hearts that they could not gain the victory over him. They all flung away their bows and arrows, bowed down towards him, and said:—"When we look upon thy face, we see that it is more than human. Art thou perchance a Deity? We desire to know thy name." The Prince answered and said:—"I am the son of a Deity of visible men." Hereupon the Yemishi were all filled with awe. They gathered up their skirts and, plunging into the waves, of their own accord assisted the Prince's ship to reach the shore. Then, with their hands bound behind them, they submitted themselves for punishment. He therefore pardoned their offence, and having made prisoners their chieftains, caused them to be his personal attendants. The Yemishi having been subdued, he returned from the country of Hitakami, and proceeding to the south-west, passed through Hitachi, and arrived (VII. 26.) at the Land of Kahi, where he dwelt in the palace of Sakawori. At this time a light was kindled and he partook of food. On this night he made a song, in which he inquired of those in attendance on him, saying:—

Since I passed Tsukuba,
And Nihibari,
How many nights have I slept?

None of his attendants was able to answer him. Now there was a man who had charge of the lights, who made a song, in continuation of the Prince's, saying:—

Counting the days—
Of nights there are nine nights,
Of days there are ten days.

Therefore the Prince commended his intelligence and liberally rewarded him.[79]

Now while he was residing in this palace, he granted to Take-hi, the ancestor of the Ohotomo no Muraji, the Yuki[80] Be. Thereupon Yamato-dake no Mikoto said:—"All the wicked chiefs of the Yemishi have submitted to the punishment of their crimes. Only in the Land of Shinano and the Land of Koshi there are a considerable number who are not yet obedient to the civilizing influence." So from Kahi he turned towards the north, and passing through Musashi and Kōdzuke, he went (VII. 27.) westward as far as the Usuhi-saka.[81] Now Yamato-dake no Mikoto always thought with regret of Oto-tachibana-hime. Therefore, when he ascended to the summit of Usuhi and looked down towards the south-east, he sighed three times, and said, "Alas! my wife!" Therefore the provinces east of the mountains were given the name of Adzuma.[82]

Here he sent Kibi no Takehiko by a different road to the Land of Koshi, and caused him to examine the character of the country as regards means of access, and also whether the people were tractable or not. So Yamato-dake no Mikoto advanced into the province of Shinano. This is a Land of high mountains and profound valleys. Verdant summits are piled up ten thousand fold, so that for men with staff in hand they are hard to ascend. The cliffs are precipitous, and are girt with flying bridges.[83] Many thousand are the hill-ranges, where even with slackened reins the horse makes no progress. Yet Yamato-dake no Mikoto, bursting through the smoke, and braving the mists, distantly crossed Mount Oho-yama. He had already reached the summit when he became hungry and had food on the mountain. The God of the mountain plagued the Prince. He assumed the form of a white deer and stood before him. The Prince, wondering at this, took a stick of garlic, and jerked it (VII. 28.) at the white deer, striking it in the eye and killing it.[84] Here the Prince suddenly lost his way and could find no issue. Then a white dog came of its own accord, and made a show of guiding the Prince. Following the dog, he proceeded on his way, and succeeded in coming out into Mino. Kibi no Take-hiko, coming out from Koshi, met him. Before this when any one crossed the Shinano pass, he inhaled so much of the breath of the Deity that he became ill and lay down. But after the white deer was killed, the travellers who crossed that mountain chewed garlic,[85] and smearing with it men, kine, and horses, preserved them from being affected by the Deity's breath.

Yamato-dake no Mikoto, having returned back again to Ohari, straightway took to wife a daughter of the Ohari House, by name Miyazu-hime, and tarried there until the next month. Here he heard that on Mount Ibuki in Afumi there was a savage Deity. So he took off his sword, and leaving it in the house of Miyazu-hime, went on afoot. When he arrived at Mount Ibuki, the God of the mountain took the shape of a (VII. 29.) great serpent, and posted himself on the road. Hereupon Yamato-dake no Mikoto, not knowing that it was the master God who had become a serpent, said to himself:—"This serpent must be the Savage Deity's messenger. Having already slain a master God, is a messenger worth hunting after?" Accordingly he strode over the serpent and passed on. Then the God of the mountain raised up the clouds, and made an icy rain to fall. The tops of the hills became covered with mist, and the valleys involved in gloom. There was no path which he could follow. He was checked and knew not whither to turn his steps. However, braving the mist, he forced his way onwards, and barely succeeded in finding an issue. He was still beside himself like a drunken man. He therefore sat down beside a spring at the foot of the mountain, and, having drunk of the water, recovered his senses. Therefore that spring was called the Wi-same[86] spring.

It was at this time that Yamato-dake no Mikoto first became ill. The disease gradually increased and he returned to Ohari. Here he did not enter the house of Miyazu-hime, but passed on to Ise and reached Otsu.[87] Formerly, in the year when Yamato-date no Mikoto was proceeding eastwards, he halted on the shore at Otsu and partook of food. At that time he took off a sword which he laid down at the foot of a fir-tree. Eventually he went away forgetting it. When he now came to this place, the sword was still there. Therefore he made a song, saying:—

Oh! thou single pine-tree!
That art right opposite
To Ohari—
Ah me—thou single pine-tree!
If thou wert a man,
Garments I would clothe thee with,
A sword I would gird on thee.

(VII. 30.) When he came to the moor of Nobo, his sufferings became very severe. So he made an offering of the Yemishi whom he had captured to the Shrine of the God.[88] He therefore sent Kibi no Take-hiko to report to the Emperor, saying:—"Thy servant having received the command of the Celestial Court, undertook a distant expedition to the wilds of the East, where by the favour of the Gods, and trusting in the mighty power of the Emperor, I made the rebellious to submit themselves for punishment, and the violent deities to become moderate. Therefore I rolled up my armour, laid aside my weapons, and was returning peacefully. It was my hope on such a day at such an hour to report my mission to the Celestial Court.[89] But the life allotted me by Heaven has unexpectedly approached an end. Passing swiftly as a four-horse carriage passes a crack in the road, it may not be stayed. Alone I lay me down on the waste moor with none to say a word to me. But why should I regret the loss of this body? My only grief is that I cannot meet thee."

Having said so, he died on the moor of Nobo. He was then thirty years of age. When the Emperor heard it, he could not sleep peacefully on his couch, nor was the taste of food sweet to him. Night and day his voice was choked with grief: with tears and lamentations he beat his breast. Therefore he exclaimed aloud, saying:—"Oh! Our son, Prince Wo-usu! (VII. 31.) Formerly when the Kumaso revolted he was still a boy. But for a long time he bore the labour of campaigning. Afterwards he was constantly at Our side, supplying Our deficiencies. Then when the troubles with the Eastern savages arose, there was no one else whom We could send to smite them, so in spite of Our affection for him, We sent him into the country of the enemy. No day passed that we did not think of him. Therefore morning and evening We longingly awaited the day of his return. Oh! what a calamity! Oh! what a crime! While We least expected it, we suddenly lost Our child. Henceforth with whom to help us shall we manage the vast institution?"

So he commanded his ministers and through them instructed the functionaries[90] to bury him in the misasagi of Nobo Moor in the Land of Ise.

Now Yamato-dake no Mikoto, taking the shape of a white bird, came forth from the misasagi, and flew towards the Land of Yamato. The Ministers accordingly opened the coffin, and looking in, saw that only the empty clothing remained, and that there was no corpse. Thereupon messengers were sent to follow in search of the white bird. It stopped on the plain of Kotobiki in Yamato. Accordingly in that place a misasagi was erected. The white bird flew on again until it reached Kahachi, where it rested in the village of Furuchi, and in this (VII. 32.) place also a misasagi[91] was erected. Therefore the men of that day called these three misasagi "the white bird misasagi."[92] At last it soared aloft to Heaven, and there was nothing buried but his clothing and official cap. The Emperor, wishing to perpetuate the fame of his services, established the Takeru[93] Be. This was in the 43rd year of the Emperor's reign.

A.D. 121. 51st year, Spring, 1st month, 7th day. The Emperor summoned his Ministers, and feasted them for several days. Now the Imperial Prince Waka-tarashi-hiko no Mikoto and Takechi no Sukune did not come to the Banqueting Court. The Emperor sent for them and asked the reason. Therefore they represented to the Emperor, saying:—"On a day of festival, the Ministers and functionaries must have their minds bent on jollity, and they do not think of the State. In view of the possibility of there being madmen, who might watch for an unprotected space in the ramparts, we remain on guard beneath the Gate[94] and provide against emergencies." Then the Emperor spake and said:—"Splendid!" So he showed them an extraordinary affection.

Autumn, 8th month, 4th day. Waka-tarashi-hiko no Mikoto was appointed Prince Imperial. On this day Takechi no Sukune was appointed Prime Minister.

(VII. 33.) The cross-sword Kusanagi, which was at first worn by Yamato-dake no Mikoto, is now in the shrine of Atsuta in the district of Ayuchi, in the province of Ohari. Now the Yemishi who had been presented to the shrine brawled day and night, and were disrespectful in their goings out and comings in. Then Yamato-hime no Mikoto said:—"These Yemishi should not be allowed near the shrine." Accordingly she sent them up to the Court, where they were made to settle beside Mount Mimoro. Ere long they cut down all the trees of the sacred mountain. They shouted and bawled in the neighbouring villages and threatened the people. The Emperor, hearing this, summoned his Ministers, and said:—"The Yemishi who were placed beside the sacred mountain have by nature the hearts of beasts. They cannot be allowed to dwell in the inner country." So he caused them to be stationed without the home provinces, in any places which they pleased. They were the ancestors of the present Saheki[95] Be of the five provinces of Harima, Sanuki, Iyo, Aki, and Aha.

(VII. 34.) In the beginning Yamato-dake no Mikoto took the Imperial Princess Futachi-iri-hime, and made her his consort.[96] She bore Prince Ineyori-wake, next the Emperor Tarashi-naka-tsu-hiko,[97] next Nuno oshi-iri-hime no Mikoto, and next Prince Waka-take. The eldest of these, Prince Ineyori-wake, was the first ancestor of the two families of the Kimi of Inu-gami and of the Kimi of Takebe. Another consort, named Kibi no Anato no Take-hime, daughter of Kibi no Take-hiko, bore to him Prince Take-miko and Prince Towoki-wake. The elder of these, Prince Take-miko, was the first ancestor of the Kimi of Aya in Sanuki. Prince Towoki-wake was the first ancestor of the Kimi of Wake in Iyo. His next consort, Oto-tachibana hime, daughter of Oshiyama no Sukune, of the Hodzumi House, bore to him Prince Waka-take-hiko.

(VII. 35.) A.D. 122. 52nd year, Summer, 5th month, 4th day. The Empress Harima no Oho-iratsume died.

Autumn, 7th month, 7th day. Ya-saka-iri-hime no Mikoto was appointed Empress.

A.D. 123. 53rd year, Autumn, 8th month, 1st day. The Emperor commanded his Ministers, saying:—"When will Our longing for Our son cease? We desire to make a tour of inspection to the region subdued by Prince Wo-usu." In this month he mounted into his carriage and made a progress to Ise; where, turning aside, he entered the East Sea provinces.

Winter, 10th month. He arrived at the province of Kadzusa, whence by the sea-route he crossed over to the harbour of Aha.

At this time the Emperor, hearing the cry of a fish-hawk, wished to see the bird's form. So he went out upon the sea in search of it, and caught clams. Hereupon the ancestor of the Kashihade no Omi,[98] by name Ihaka Mutsukari, made shoulder-straps of bulrushes, and preparing a hash of the clams, put it before the Emperor. Therefore he commended the service rendered by the Omi Ihaka Mutsukari, and granted him the Stewards' Ohotomo Be.

12th month. The Emperor returned from the Eastern country and dwelt in Ise. This was called the Kambata Palace.

(VII. 36.) A.D. 124. 54th year, Autumn, 9th month, 19th day. From Ise the Emperor returned to Yamato, and dwelt in the Palace of Makimuku.

A.D. 125. 55th year, Spring, 2nd month, 5th day. Prince Hiko-sa-jima was appointed Governor-general of the fifteen provinces of the Tô-san-dô.[99] He was a grandson of Toyoki no Mikoto. But when he arrived at the village of Anashi in Kasuga he fell ill and died.

At this time the people of the Eastern Land, grieved that the Prince did not arrive, secretly purloined his body, and buried it in the land of Kōdzuke.[100]

A.D. 126. 56th year, Autumn, 8th month. The Emperor commanded Prince Mimoro-wake, saying:—"Thy father, Prince Hiko-sajima, was unable to proceed to his governorship and died prematurely. Therefore do thou undertake the absolute rule of the Eastern Land." So Mimoro-wake no Mikoto, having received the Emperor's commands, and being also desirous of accomplishing his father's work, straightway proceeded thither, and undertook the government. He had already attained to a good administration when the Yemishi made a disturbance. So he raised an army and attacked them. Then the Yemishi chieftains, Ashi-furi-he, Oho-ha-furi-he, and Tohotsu Kura-ho-he bowed their heads to the ground and came; they made deep obeisance and accepted punishment, offering him all their territory without exception. Therefore he pardoned those who surrendered, and put to death those who would not submit. On this account the Eastern Land was for a long time free from trouble. Therefore his descendants are to this day in the Eastern Land.

A.D. 127. (VII. 37.) 57th year, Autumn, 9th month. The Pool of Sakate was constructed, and the embankment planted with bamboos.

Winter, 10th month. It was commanded that every province should erect granaries of the labourers' Be.[101]

A.D. 128. 58th year, Spring, 2nd month, 11th day. The Emperor made a progress to the Land of Ohomi, and dwelt in Shiga for three years. This was called the Palace of Taka-Anaho.

A.D. 130. 60th year, Winter, 11th month, 7th day. The Emperor died in the Palace of Taka-Anaho at the age of 106.



The Emperor Waka-tarashi-hiko was the fourth child of the Emperor Oho-tarashi-hiko-oshiro-wake. The name of the Empress his mother was Ya-saka-iri-hime no Mikoto, daughter of the Imperial Prince Ya-saka-iri-hiko. He was appointed Prince Imperial in the 46th year of the Emperor Oho-tarashi-hiko, being then aged twenty-four years. In the 60th year of his reign, Winter, the 11th month, the Emperor Oho-tarashi-hiko died.

A.D. 131. 1st year, Spring, 1st month, 5th day. The Prince Imperial assumed the Imperial Dignity. This year was the year Kanoto Hitsuji (8th) of the Cycle.

A.D. 132. 2nd year, Winter, 11th month, 10th day. The Emperor Oho-tarashi-hiko was buried in the misasagi over the road at Yamanobe in the province of Yamato.

(VII. 38.) The Empress was honoured with the title of Grand Empress.

A.D. 133. 3rd year, Spring, 1st month, 7th day. Takechi no Sukune was made Prime Minister. In the beginning the Emperor was born on the same day with Takechi no Sukune, and he therefore had an extraordinary affection for him.

A.D. 134. 4th year, Spring, 2nd month, 1st day. The Emperor commanded, saying:—"Our predecessor on the throne, the Emperor Oho-tarashi-hiko, was clear-sighted and of divine valour. When he became subject to the scheme[103] and received over the plan he ruled Heaven and was in accordance with Man. He swept away the banditti, and restored right. His virtue was like a canopy, his path harmonized with development. Therefore in all the land under Universal Heaven (VII. 39.) there was none who did not recognize him as Sovereign. Of all things endowed with life and possessed of soul were there any which did not find their place?

We have now succeeded him in the occupation of the precious felicity. Morning and night we tremble and fear. But the people are like wriggling worms, and will not reform the savagery of their hearts. In the provinces and districts there are no Lords, in the villages there are no Chiefs.[104] Henceforward let there be established Lords in the provinces, and let there be Chiefs placed in the villages. Accordingly let men of ability of the provinces be taken and appointed Chiefs over provinces and districts, so as to form a defence for the Inner Country."[105]

A.D. 135. 5th year, Autumn, 9th month. A decree was issued to all the provinces establishing Miyakko (governors) in the provinces and districts, and Inaki[106] in the villages. All were granted shields and spears as emblems of authority. So the mountains and rivers were made boundaries for the separation of one province and district from another, whilst the bounds of townships and villages were established by means of lanes. In this way East and West were reckoned as in a line with the sun, (VII. 40.) while North and South were reckoned as athwart the sun.[107] The sunny side of the mountains was called the light-face and the shady side of the mountains the back-face.[108]

In this way the people had tranquil possession of their dwellings, and the Empire was at peace.

A.D. 178. 48th year, Spring, 3rd month, 1st day. The Emperor appointed his nephew Tarashi-naka-tsu-hiko no Mikoto Prince Imperial.[109]

A.D. 190. 60th year, Summer, 6th month, 11th day. The Emperor died, aged 107.

  1. Great road or great conduct.
  2. Oho-iratsume.
  3. There seems to have been a question which of twins was to be considered the elder. One idea was that the last born should be senior, because he occupied the higher place in the womb.
  4. The Chinese character used here is , which properly means a pestle, and is more particularly applied to that arrangement of a mortar and pestle in which the latter is set on a pivot and worked by the foot.
    Pestle and Mortar.
    This is called the Kara-usu in Japan. Here, however, is one of those cases where we must put aside the Chinese character and be guided by the Japanese word, which is unquestionably usu, a term applied to any arrangement for hulling or grinding grain. The usu is properly the mortar rather than the pestle (kine), but it is used for the combination of both, and for querns or hand-mills, which are also in use in Japan.

    The usu here referred to is probably of the kind shown in the annexed illustration. Stone pestles resembling in shape that in the right hand upper corner are among the stone implements figured in Kanda's work on this subject.

    Hardy, in his "Manual of Buddhism," p. 158, says:—"The eastern pestle is found in every house, and is connected with as many superstitions and ceremonies as the besom among the old wives of Europe."

    The "Shukai" editor suggests that by Great Mortar and Little Mortar the lower and upper stones of the hand-mill were meant. But there is no reason to doubt the statement below (A.D. 610) that hand-mills were first introduced in Suiko's reign.

  5. Woguna means boy, Yamato-dake means hero of Yamato. It is by the last of these names that he is best known to posterity.
  6. A Chinese phrase.
  7. In this passage the province now known as Kii is called indifferently Ki or Kiï.
  8. Oto-hime means simply "younger lady." There are frequent cases in the "Nihongi" where a woman seems to have no other name than "elder lady" or "younger lady."
  9. Iratsume.
  10. Divine-comb.
  11. Wake, separation, branch, was a title which implied descent from the Imperial line.
  12. In Nagato.
  13. Now Hizen and Higo in Kiushiu.
  14. This points to something like a feudal system. But the analogy to European feudalism must not be too closely pressed. Cf. Ch. K., p. 203.
  15. This omits to notice that Wake is a much older term.
  16. The country of the Kumaso was the southern part of the island of Kiushiu corresponding to the present provinces of Hiuga, Ohosumi, and Satsuma. Kuma and So are the names of two tribes.
  17. Tsukushi is used in two senses. It sometimes stands for the whole island of Kiushiu, sometimes for only the northern part of it, viz. the two provinces of Chikugo and Chikuzen.
  18. The Emperor of China stands with his face to the south on state occasions. But here it seems only to mean that the Emperor looked southwards.
  19. It was the ancient custom in Japan to deliver letters or presents fastened to branches of trees.
  20. To the Emperor's virtuous influence.
  21. Nose-depend.
  22. Ear-depend.
  23. Earth-break-well-break.
  24. Kaha-kami means the upper course of a river.
  25. Capital.
  26. Great field.
  27. The reader will observe that there are numerous cases of the "monstrous regiment of women" in these old legends.
  28. See above, p. 129.
  29. Green or blue.
  30. White.
  31. Strike-monkey.
  32. Eight-fields.
  33. Country-fellow. Note again that the Tsuchi-gumo have Japanese names, and inhabit old-settled parts of Japan.
  34. The interlinear gloss has iha-muro, rock-muro.
  35. Camellia market.
  36. Blood-field.
  37. For fumi-ishi, i.e. kicking-stone.
  38. The lady of the august sword.
  39. In Hiuga.
  40. For Hi-muka i.e. sun-fronting.
  41. The text and interpretation of this poem present considerable difficulty, and the above rendering is in parts only tentative. The "Kojiki" makes three distinct poems of it, and attributes them to Yamato-dake no Mikoto. Cf. Ch. K., p. 219. Awo-gaki means green-fence. "Fold within fold" is a mere epithet, or makura-kotoba, of Mount Heguri.
  42. Tsukushi is here evidently the northern part of the island.
  43. Prince of Kuma.
  44. Ahiko appears to be a title similar to Atahe, Sukune, etc. It is derived by the Japanese commentators from a, I, my, and hiko, prince.
  45. Water-island.
  46. Now Hizen and Higo.
  47. The Land of Fire.
  48. The name Aso is preserved in Mount Aso, a very curious volcanic mountain in the province of Higo.
  49. Aso is a dialectical variation for nanzo or nazo, how or why.
  50. August tree.
  51. Now Chikugo.
  52. Morning hoar-frost is a makura-kotoba. The only connection between it and the rest of the poem is that hoar-frost melts, and that ke (for ki) tree is also the first syllable of kesu, to melt. The Presence is of course the Imperial Presence.
  53. Quercus Serrata, Hepburn.
  54. August tree.
  55. Monkey-great-sea.
  56. In Chikugo.
  57. Including Mutsu and Dewa.
  58. Or Adzuma, the region round what is now Tokio.
  59. Sun-height. So called from its eastern position. Hi-tachi, sun-rise, is a name of similar purport.
  60. One of the lower ranks of the local nobility.
  61. The champion of Japan.
  62. i.e. a living soul.
  63. The modern Ohosaka.
  64. Very nearly the Latin numen.
  65. Motoöri points out this as an instance where the desire to imitate his Chinese models has caused the author of the "Nihongi" to introduce Chinese things which have no business in a Japanese narrative. The "Kojiki" says it was a spear of holly eight fathoms long.
  66. The "Liki" speaks of the ancient Chinese living on fruits and the flesh of wild beasts and drinking their blood.
  67. This speech cannot be received as a document of Japanese history. It is a cento of reminiscences of Chinese literature.
  68. Numina.
  69. Hirata says that Japanese surnames were taken from offices or avocations, names of places, parents' names, circumstances, or objects. I suppose he would have included under circumstances such personal peculiarities as that which suggested the name Nana-tsuka-hagi, literally "Seven-span-shanks."
  70. She was appointed priestess B.C. 5, and we are now at A.D. 110, by the common chronology.
  71. The interlinear gloss and the "Kojiki" (Ch. K., p. 211) have hi-uchi, or fire-striker, by which a flint and steel is doubtless meant. A fire-drill was known to the ancient Japanese, as appears from the "Kojiki" (Ch. K., p. 104) and other authorities, and it is actually in use at present to produce fire for sacred purposes. See a paper by Satow, in "J.A.S.T.," VI. 223.
  72. Assembled-clouds.
  73. The herbage mower.
  74. Port or ferry of burning.
  75. The bay of Yedo.
  76. Running-water.
  77. In Shimōsa.
  78. Literally, Gods of the Islands and Gods of the Continent.
  79. Cf. Ch. K., p. 214.
  80. Quiver.
  81. Now known as the Usuhi Tōge (pass) on the Nakasendō road.
  82. Aga tsuma means my wife.
  83. Kake-hashi, a bridge supported on poles driven into the side of a cliff. Common in some mountainous parts of Japan.
  84. Ch. K., 213.
  85. "Another popular device (in Scotland) for frightening away witches and fairies was to hang bunches of garlic about the farms." "Auld Licht Idylls," by J. M. Barrie.

    Dennys, in his "Folk-lore of China," mentions several cases of the use of garlic or onions to keep away evil spirits.

  86. Sit-sober.
  87. Not Ôtsu on the southern shore of Lake Biwa, but a place in Ise.
  88. As slaves.
  89. This sentence is in the "Shukai" edition introduced at the end of this speech.
  90. Lit. the hundred bureaus.
  91. I have seen this tumulus. It is a very large double mound surrounded by a moat.
  92. Shira-tori no Misasagi. Many of the tumuli are favourite resorts of the white egret, whence doubtless the name.
  93. Or Take, brave.
  94. Mikado means "august gate."
  95. The Chinese characters for Saheki mean "Assistant-Chief." It is apparently a Chinese word and not Japanese, and therefore it seems out of place in the history of a period long previous to the introduction of Chinese learning. But, however unhistorical this narrative may be, it goes to prove that there is an Aino element in the Japanese nation.
  96. She was his aunt.
  97. Chiuai Tennō.
  98. Stewards.
  99. East-mountain-road.
  100. Several ancient tumuli near the village of Ohomuro in this province are perhaps the tombs of this dynasty of governors. They are described in a paper by Satow in "T.A.S.J.," Vol. VIII., p. 327.
  101. Cf. Ch. K., p. 205.
  102. Accomplish-functions.
  103. The scheme of the permutations of the five elements. "Thus water is said to overcome fire and so forth. Each dynasty is believed to be subject to the influence of the element which overcomes that prevailing with the previous dynasty, and all human affairs are referable to the same occult influence." Mayers' Manual, p. 317. This whole speech is intensely Chinese.
  104. This cannot be correct.
  105. i.e. the Gokinai.
  106. Inaki is literally rice-castle, i.e. granary. The office seems to be something like mayor. It subsequently became a mere title, and eventually a surname.
  107. Meaning lanes running N. and S. and lanes running E. and W.
  108. The modern division of the provinces between Kiôto and Shimonoseki, the Sanyōdo and Sanindo, rests on this distinction.
  109. His own son had perhaps died.