Notes on the churches in the counties of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey/Surrey/Notes on the Churches
NOTES TO SURREY.
1. Addington.—This small church having been new faced in 1848, when the porch was erected, and the interior also renovated, the old features of the exterior are generally obliterated. It consists of chancel, nave, south aisle with a porch, a vestry of uncertain date on the northern side of the chancel, and a square west tower with a shingled cap. The chancel, nave, and tower seem to be Norm., or at least Tr. Norm. In the east end are three very small round-headed windows, the central the highest, and there are traces of another above them. In the south wall of the chancel appears the frame of a similar window, closed; in the eastern part of the same wall is a large single-light E.E. one, and in the western portion is an ogée-headed Dec., low side-window, below an older. Of the two engaged and the two free piers, half are E.E., the others later. Brasses: Tho. Hattecliff, 1540; John Leigh, Esq. and wife Isabell (Hardy) 1509 (?) and 1544; also in the chancel a large monument to Leghs, of the end of the sixteenth century. It will be observed, that the above notice of the sepulchral memorials differs from that copied below.
In this church are stated to have been, Brasses: John Legh and wife, 1479; a daughter of John Legh, 1481; and stone effigies of John Leigh and wife, 1544. (Manning and Bray's History of Surrey.) A charter of Rich., Bp. of Winchester from 3 August, 1174 to 22 December, 1188, names the church of Addington together with the chapel of All Saints, "ecclesiam de Edintone cum capella Omnium Sanctorum;" but no clue is afforded to the locality of the latter. (Stapleton's Liber de Antiquis Legibus, v.)
2. Albury.—The ancient church of this parish comprises chancel, central tower, south transept, nave, south aisle, and north porch. The chancel is E.E. The tower is Norm., with mouldings of no unusual pattern round the east and west arches, several two-light windows separated by ballusters, and smaller single windows both above and below the former. The nave and aisle may be styled Dec. with some E.E. features; the transept, or south chapel, has been altered, but is probably of the same date. The bases of the piers between the nave and aisle are earlier than the piers. The porch is of timber, open at the sides, and has good Dec. bargeboards. In the aisle are a slab with a Lombard inscription, and a mutilated small Brass: John Weston of Weston, arm. 1440.
This church is enumerated among the examples of Anglo-Saxon workmanship, in (Bloxam's Goth. Arch. 79). My dissent from this opinion the above description will show. The tower may indeed be Saxon, but has nothing decidedly to distinguish it from fabrics of the Norm. era, unless the balluster-divided windows be deemed such a mark. It is however conceived, that they are by no means a positive proof of ante Norman origin, while on the other hand the ornamental arch mouldings were certainly in use in the Norm. period. Albury tower strongly resembles those of Bosham and Fletching in Sussex, like them having no staircase.—The edifice above mentioned stands in Albury park, and has recently been disused, another having been erected much nearer to the village. The south chapel has been gorgeously fitted up as a mausoleum for the family of the proprietor, H. Drummond Esq. M.P.—The old church originally formed part of one of the courts of the ancient manor-house. (Hist. of Guildford by Rev. Tho. Russell, 1801, 284.)
3. Bagshot.—A curacy in the parish of Windlesham. (Clergy List.)
4. Bansted.—Beside the parish church there were others in Bansted at Berghes (Burroughs) and St. Leonard's, but the last has long disappeared. See Berghes below.
5. Barnes.—Brasses: Will. Milleburne, in armour, 1415; Nich. Clerk, rector, 1480. (M. & B.) from Aubrey.
6. Battersea.—This place I conclude to be the "Ecclia de Batchesheye " of (A.D. 1291).
7. Beddington.—In the reign of K. Richard II Nicholas de Carru (Carew) bequeathed £20 for the building of this church; which should contain brasses of Nich. Carrew and wife, 1432; Tho. Carrew and wife, 1432. (M. & B.)
8. Berghes.—Though now comprehended in the parish of Bansted Berghes possessed a church, and was presented to as a rectory from A.D. 1301 to A.D. 1414 (Bishop's Registers), but there is no other evidence of its existence as a separate parish. Salmon states, that part of Berghes church was standing in 1736 as a barn; but it is reported, that divine service was performed there within the memory of persons living in 1804. No mention of Berghes occurs in the Bishop's registers between 1446 and 1492, and nothing relating to it is found there after 1500. (M. & B.) "Berge," it will be perceived, is named in (D. B.) but in Copthorne hundred, Bansted belonging to that of Wallington.
9. Bermondsey.—"There is a new and handsome church. Ibi noua et pulchra æccla." (D. B.) It is stated, that the present parish church was erected in 1680 (to replace an older one; it is in wretched taste. A. H.), and that that mentioned above was the conventual church, which was taken down by Sir Tho. Pope, after he had purchased the site of the abbey in 1541, for the purpose of building a manor-house. (M. & B.) A Cluniac priory, afterwards promoted to the dignity of an abbey, was founded in Bermondsey about A.D. 1082 by Aylwin Child. (Monast. V, 85.) A view is given in the Hist. of Surrey of some portion of the abbey church, exhibiting Norm, mouldings; but it is not said at what date that fragment of the edifice was standing.
10. Betchworth.—Brass: William Wardyworth, vicar, 1533. (M. & B.)
11. Bramley.—In the History of Surrey it is remarked, that the three Domesday churches were probably Bramley, Shalford, and Chilworth (St. Martha). The last-named place being described in the manor of Bramley, that church is very likely to have been one of the three; but Shalford church is specially mentioned separately; wherefore I should rather assign the other to Wonersh, which church is now distant from that of Bramley only a mile, if so much; in a straight line certainly less.—That of Bramley is a cross church of very plain character, without aisles, the tower forming the northern limb of the cross. The west doorway is plain late Norm. On each side of the nave a very plain doorway of later date has been closed. All the ancient features of the windows of the nave have been destroyed. The south transept is E.E. with lancet windows, and the tower is apparently of about the same date, but much injured by modern repairs and alterations. The chancel also is very plain, but bold and effective, E.E. work, probably earlier than the rest. It has three good lancets at the east end, the middle one the the largest, and likewise on each side three of uniform size; the whole being unaltered. There is a squint from the south transept into the chancel, of which last the piscina is mutilated. Of the chancel the angles and window frames are wrought in chalk, even in the exterior.
12. Burstow.—According to (Val. Eccl.) there was a park here in the early part of the sixteenth century.
13. Capel.—Originally a chapelry to Dorking (M. & B.) and still only a perpetual curacy (Clergy List). See the Note on Dorking. An estate in this parish, called Temple Elfande or Elfant, pays no tithe when occupied by the owner, but when let, is titheable, like other property. (M. & B.)
14. Carshalton.—Brasses: Nicholas Gaynesford, wife and eight children, 14 . . ; Joan Burton, 1524. (M. & B.)
15. Caterham.—In the Domesday Survey of Surrey, among the possessions of "Richard Fitzgilbert, Earl," in "Tenrige" (Tandridge) hundred, a manor is described without any name, but merely that "Azor held it of K. Edward;" and a church is mentioned there. This manor Mr. Bray supposes to be Caterham; of which he states, that the existing manor is extensive, and the church ancient. (M. & B.) Upon that authority I have assigned the church to Caterham, instead of subjoining it to the end of the list without any name. A small part of this church may be Tr. Norm., but the greater portion is more recent. The building is small, and not interesting.
16. Chaldon.—In the printed copy of (D. B.) the name which I have attributed to this place, is rendered "Salvedone;" while M. & B., in quoting the Domesday description of Surrey, give it as Calvedone; which latter reading I have no doubt is correct. It is placed in "Waletone," i. e. Wallington, hundred, now called Croydon, to which Chaldon still belongs, but where no spot can be identified as Salvedon. There exists however more direct evidence, that the original word is intended for Calvedone. In the MS. of (D. B.) the initial letter certainly resembles what occasionally occurs as an S, though very different from the usual capital S. But appearances, on inspection, immediately suggested the idea, that the transcriber had committed a blunder in commencing the first letter of the name, and that he finally gave it the present form (neither a C, nor yet, quite, an S) rather than risk blotting and confusion by erasing the mistake to write in the proper letter. What that proper letter is will be clearly ascertained by referring to the abridged MS. copy of (D. B.) (of later date than the original, together with which it is preserved among the records in the Chapter-house of Westminster) where the name stands plainly as Calvedone.
17. Cheam.—This was one of the places appropriated to the support of monasteries. "Ipse archiepiscopus tenet Ceiham de victu monachorum. The archbishop himself holds Cheam for the food of the monks." (D. B.)
18. Chelsham.—M. & B. consider the Celesham or Chelesham of (D. B.) to have been Warlingham; but without more positive authority I do not move the church. See the Note on Warlingham, which will account for the * added to Chelsham.
19. Chertsey.—"The abbey of the church of St. Peter, Certesy," is mentioned in (D. B.) among the proprietors of estates in Surrey, but no other is alluded to at that spot. It is also stated in (D. B.), that "the abbot of the church bought" certain lands "during the reign of King Edward;" a sufficient evidence, that the abbey was a Saxon foundation. Moreover Bede informs us (Hist. Eccl. 1. 4, c. 6), that it was constructed for his own residence by Erconvald, bishop of the East Saxons, before he was raised to the episcopate, which took place about A.D. 675. "Hie sane priusquam episcopus factus est, duo præclara monasteria, unum sibi, alterum sorori suae Ædilbergæ construxerat, &c. Sibi quidem in regione Sudergeona, juxta fluvium Tamensem, in loco qui vocatur Cerotaesei" (or Ceortesei) " i. e. Ceroti Insula:" the place however is not an island. The other monastery was at Barking in Essex.
Chertsey was destroyed by the Danes, and renovated by K. Edgar. The Saxon Chronicle asserts (Gibson's ed. 216), that it was rebuilt A.D. 1010. "In this year they began to erect a new monastery in Ceortesige." A somewhat different account is given elsewhere of the origin, destruction, and restoration of Chertsey abbey. The monastery is stated to have been founded about A.D. 666 by Frithwald, viceroy or Earl of Kent, and Erkenwald, afterwards bishop of London. In the latter part of the ninth century all the inmates were slain by the Danes, the abbey burnt, and its surrounding possessions wasted. The renovation is said to have been effected about a century after, by Æthelwald, Bp. of Winchester. (Monast. I, 422.) There is preserved a confirmation by Uulfhere, K. of Mercia, before A.D. 675, of the donations of Erithwald, the subregulus, and Erkenwald to the church of St. Peter at Chertsey: "omnes terras, quas Frithuualdus subregulus et beatus Erkenuualdus aecclesiae sancti Petri Certeseye dederunt, aeternaliter confirmo." (Cod. Dipl. V, 14.) The charter immediately following (Ib. 15), which is from Frith wald himself, names as his gift to Chertsey, "Cirotesegt," Chertsey, "Thorp, Egeham, Chebeham," Chobham, "Gettinges, Muleseg," Molesey, "Wodeham, Huneuualdesham."—A charter of K. Edward the Confessor, without date, bestows upon Chertsey abbey ten hides of land at Waltham and the church of the same place. It does not appear whether any spot in Surrey was intended. If such was the case, the name may signify one of the Waltons, perhaps that upon Thames.
In (A.D. 1291) we find "Ecclia de Certesye, Egeham, et Chobeham;" but three vicars being named, they imply the existence of as many churches. (Val. Eccl.) notices, as belonging to Chertsey abbey, "Ecclia de Busshehele," apparently in the county of Surrey. The name may possibly signify either Bushey or Bisley, but more probably the latter, as I find no record of a church at Bushey; while Bisley is not very far from Chertsey, and adjoins Chobham, which was attached to the abbey. See the Note on Chobham.
20. Chessington.—Is only a curacy annexed to Maldon (Clergy List), which accounts for it being omitted in (A. D. 1291). It appears thus in (Val. Eccl.) under the name of Chesildon.
21. Chidingfold.—(A. D. 1291) "Ecclia de Chidingefeld cum capella." The latter is likely to have been at Haslemere; because in (Val. Eccl.) the chapel of Hasylmere is annexed to Chidingfold. The church has nave and two aisles, chancel, and a smaller on the northern side. Both chancels are E.E.; the principal one has a transition E.E. or early Dec. east window. There are two piscinæ. In the south wall of the chancel are E.E. windows, and one of those small ones near the ground, the use of which is unknown. The remainder of the edifice is partly E.E. and partly Dec., with some Perp.—"The Entingknaps" (an ancient family, formerly holding property in both Surrey and Sussex) "are said to possess a deed, which is dated before the Conquest, respecting an estate at Chidingfold." (Note to Cartwright and Dallaway's Rape of Arundel, II, part 1, 363.)
22. Chilworth.—St. Martha, the church of this place, is called a "chapel," but the payment of tithes renders it a church proper; though they are now received by a lay impropriator. The old church, though rude, was an interesting building, but sadly dilapidated and neglected. It contained an effigy upon an altar-tomb, a far richer monument than would be expected in such an exposed, and yet sequestered, situation. The cure is a donative.
23. Chipsted.—Beside occurring in the Taxation of Pope Nicholas IV the church of this place is noticed 24 of K. Edward L The building merits examination, having two Norm, doors and a central tower, with a general indication of antiquity. (M. & B.)
24. Chobham.—In (D. B.) "Cebeham" is mentioned among the possessions of the abbey church of Chertsey, which, with (M. & B.), I conclude to be Chobham; as that place, quite distinct from Cobham, is not far from Chertsey. It is stated, that here were "a church and another chapel; ibi æccla et alia capella;" (D. B.): which latter might very probably stand at Bisley, now an adjoining parish. Bisley however is not mentioned (unless indirectly; see the Note on Chertsey.) in (A. D. 1291), in which record the former place is spelled "Chobeham," and in (Val. Eccl.) "Chabhame."
25. Clandons, The.—According to (M. & B.) it was East Clandon, which belonged to the abbey of Chertsey, being therefore styled " Clendon Abbatis," as in (A. D. 1291); where West Clandon appears as "Clendon Regis." Consequently the Domesday church belongs to the latter, being noted in that Clandon, which was the property of Edward of Salisbury.
East Clandon.—The church is a very plain building, of which the old work is entirely concealed by modern plastering. The chancel-arch is filled in under an earlier and larger pointed one. The tracery of the three-light Dec. east window is wrought in chalk.
26. Clandon, West.—This church comprises nave, chancel, tower on the northern side of the east end of the nave, and south porch. A plain building in very unsound condition.
27. Cobham.—In (Val. Eccl.) the name is still spelled "Covehame."—The church has a Norm, doorway. (M. & B.)
28. Compton.—This church consists of chancel, nave with north and south aisles, western tower with a shingled spire, and a modern south porch. The building is late, or Tr., Norm., with E.E., Dec., Perp., and debased Perp. portions. The east end of the chancel is divided into two stories, that upon the ground having a low groined roof; the upper one contains a rude piscina, and is open toward the church westward, with the exception of a wooden screen, or arcade, which is original, and the oldest piece of woodwork known to exist in England. In different parts of the building a few of the ancient windows remain, but generally they have been altered. The north and south doors are round-headed, but the former is disused. The roof, which is high, spans the aisles, as well as "the nave, but the south wall has been raised, consequently the roof over that aisle likewise. Throughout the church both within and without very little stone has been employed, the door and window-frames, piers, &c. being wrought in chalk. The font is coeval with the edifice, of peculiar shape, but not fine. There are a few remains of good coloured glass, one, the Virgin and Child, of E.E. date. The church has recently been entirely refitted with benches, whereby the low columns are very favourably brought out, but it is greatly to be regretted, that, among other repairs, steps were not taken for the security of the curious east end, of which the condition is very dangerous. Placed under the tower is a cedar chest, used as a coal-box. However it is very late, probably temp. K. James I, and so plain that the date cannot easily be ascertained. Brass, Tho. Ge'nyn, in a gown, and wife.
29. Coulsdon.—(A. D. 1291) "Ecclia de Colesdon cum capella." Very possibly the chapel was that of Watendone; which see. This church possesses three sedilia. (M. & B.)
30. Cranley.—A mixed church with some good work. It contains three Dec. sedilia ; and some remains of brasses.
31. Crowhurst.—This small church stands prettily on a low ridge sloping to the south, about two miles, or rather more, from the Godstone Road station of the South-Eastern Railroad. It comprises nave, with a south aisle, and chancel. There is a tall, spire-like bell-turret over the west end, of which last the exterior wall indicates the previous existence of another of a different character, probably of stone. A porch was formed by separating the western end of the aisle. The arch between the nave and aisle is Tr. Norm.; the western end of the chancel is E.E., the remainder Perp. The east and west windows are Perp.; the eastern window of the aisle the same under an E.E. arch. Some of the windows are sadly debased Perp. The whole of the chancel is wainscotted, that evidently, from marks still visible, having been co-existent with the roodloft. The door retains an old lock, and some good ancient iron-work. A north door has been walled up. Dispersed among the windows are many small portions of very good coloured glass, among them a shield of arms supported by eagles, the shield resting upon the backs of the birds. On altar tombs partly let into the north and south walls of the chancel are two brasses of Gaynesfords, A.D. 1450 and 1460, with shields of arms. In the floor within the altar-rails is an iron grave-slab to the last of the Gaynesford family, a female, by marriage Forster, A.D. 1591. Below the inscription, of which some of the letters are absurdly reversed, is a corpse tied up in a shroud in a fish-like shape (resembling that described in the Note on Leigh, Kent) with, on the right two male, on the left two female, figures praying, and a coat of arms in either corner beneath. Two farm-houses close to the church are ancient. That to the south-east of the church, the oldest, has some features appearing to belong to the period of K. Henry VIII. This has been a very considerable mansion, and still retains a stack of chimnies of enormous size, though merely an irregular, heavy mass of masonry.
32. Croydon.— A church of chancel, nave, north and south aisles with chancels extending about half-way up the central; north and south porches, the former modern, the latter possessing a parvise; and square west tower, with battlements, stair-turret, and crocketted pinnacles at the angles. The exterior having been new faced in 1807 and 1808, the construction of the walls is concealed. The tower and the south porch have groined roofs, the whole being Perp., unless the interior casing is an addition to older work in the tower. In the south chancel is a Perp. tomb, called that of a nephew of Archbp. Warham, and the high chancel contains a brass eagle lectern, with a brass, Silvester Gabriel (civilian) 1592.—Of the archiepiscopal palace there are considerable remains adjoining the churchyard, part being brick with stone dressings, part flint and stone. The chapel, though disfigured by being used as school-rooms, retains its fittings as (by report) in Q. Elizabeth's time. Much of the gateway and of the great hall is yet standing. Of the latter the groined porch is nearly perfect. No portion was noticed earlier than late Perp., apparently of the same date as the interior of the church. An almshouse or hospital was founded in Croydon 23 Henry VI by Elias Davey of London. (Monast. VI, 776.) (Val. Eccl.) mentions a park here.
33. Cuddington.—This parish was annihilated for the formation of Nonsuch Park, and is now known only historically. It is named in (A.D. 1291), as also in (Val. Eccl.), and it still appears in the (Clergy List.)
34. Dittons, The.—The Domesday church of Ditone must have been that of Long Ditton. Thames Ditton was merely a chapelry to Kingston till severed by Act of Parliament, A.D. 1769, and remains a perpetual curacy.
Long Ditton.—Brasses : John Haymer, parson of the church; Rob. Casteltunn and wife, 1527; Rich. Hatton and wife, 1616. (M. & B.)
35. Ditton, Thames.—Several brasses dating from 1539 to 1590. (M. & B.)
36. Dorking.—The existing church is very modern, it having been rebuilt about A.D. 1830. (A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Dorkingge cum capella;" the latter probably Capel; which see.
37. Egham.—In (A.D. 1291) described together with Chertsey and Chobham. Compare the Note on Chertsey.
38. Elsted.—Though now constituted a distinct parish, this place was originally but a chapelry to Earnham. It is now a perpetual curacy. (Clergy List.)
39. Epsom.—The second church named here might very possibly be either at Kingswood in Ewell, or at Ewell itself, though not in the manor described in (D. B.) under the name of Ewell: see the Note there below.
40. Esher.—"The abbot of St. Leutfred's Cross holds Aissele. Since the saint possessed it, it has never paid land-tax. Abbas de Cruce Sancti Leutfredi tenet de dono regis Wilielmi Aissele, &c. Postquam Sanctus habuit, nunquam geldam dedit." (D. B.) The church contains the stone effigy of a man in armour. (M. & B.) San don Priory or Hospital was founded by Rob. de Watervil in the beginning of the reign of K. Henry II. The site is uncertain, but supposed by Tanner to be in the parish of Esher, though stated to be "juxta Kingston." Sandon chapel was granted by K. James I to John Earl of Mar; which building M. & B. say distinctly was in Esher. (Monast. VI, 675.)
41. Ewell.—The church, which is assigned to Ewell, is really called in (D. B.) the church of Leret, which name, there can be little, if any, doubt, applied to Leatherhed. But the notice of it, " To this manor adjoins the church of Leret; ad hoc manerium adjacet æcclesia de Leret," (D. B.) forms part of the actual description of "Etwelle," that is, Ewell; wherefore I conceive the church must belong to that place, rather than to another at the distance of six miles, with Epsom intervening between the two. M. & B. consider, that the church stood not at Leatherhed, but at Kingswood in the parish of Ewell, where certainly was an ancient chapel, which may indeed be intended by this church of Leret. They state Leatherhed to be mentioned in K. Alfred's will by the name of Leodrede; and to have been known subsequently as Lereda, Lerred, and Ledered; admitting a conviction, that Leret signifies Leathered, but deeming that the church was " annexed" to Ewell. Consult the Note on Leatherhed. The second Domesday church at Epsom and that of Lered may very well represent the parish church of Ewell and the chapel of Kingswood. The latter still stands in the (Clergy List) as a perpetual curacy.
42. Ewhurst.—Of this church the nave was rebuilt about A.D. 1836 or 1837, when the tower, which stood between the nave and the chancel, fell, through inattention to a defect in the wall, whence the interior loose rubbish ran out, and the wall collapsed.
43. Farley.—Brass: John Brock, wife, and five children, 1495. (M. &B.)
44. Farnham—Church is mentioned in (D. B.) only casually. "Osbern de Ow holds of the bishop the church of this manor." The same individual held the church of Leret.—(A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Farnham cum capella." In (Val. Eccl.) the chapels of Frensham, Scale, Elsted, and Bentley in Hants are annexed. Near this place, within the private grounds of G. Nicholson Esq., are the ruins of Waverley abbey. The situation is rather remarkable, and must have been more peculiar at the period of the foundation of the settlement, when the country was so little cultivated, the spot being a green valley near a stream, with poor, heathery ground close to and almost surrounding it. We are informed, that the foundation of Waverley was laid 24 November, A.D. 1128, 29 of K. Henry I, by Will. Giffard, Bp. of Winchester, for twelve Cistercian monks. About 1187 the establishment contained 120 converts or lay brethren, and 70 monks, while it maintained about thirty plough teams constantly at work. The abbey is recorded to have suffered much from floods (the natural consequence of its situation), and it is said, that a new monastery was erected on higher ground. (Annals of Waverley quoted in Monast. IV, 237, 239.) As already noticed the portion now existing is in a very low spot, in fact, a kind of basin, encircled by higher ground; and forasmuch as some of the yet standing walls are of Norm, construction, this fact seems to demonstrate, that, though a new monastery might have been contemplated, that intention was never executed. The buildings of the abbey generally have been most effectually demolished, but the surviving remains show E.E. additions to the Norm, original. A very good specimen of E.E. vaulting is still entire over part of a large apartment. Of another large E.E. domestic room the walls are nearly perfect, and in one end, facing southwards, are three good lancet windows. The destruction has been too complete to admit of recognising the position of the church with certainty. The ruins having never apparently been thoroughly searched, excavations would probably bring to light relics of antiquity, and particularly the old pavement might be discovered beneath the modern one now covering the floor of the vaulted apartment.
Aubrey, in his Hist, of Surrey, states, that in 1673 the walls of the church and cloister, part of the cloisters, a chapel of considerable size, great remains of the hall or refectory, which last was vaulted, the dormitory, and other ruins were standing. (Cited in Monast. IV, 240.) Perhaps it is not improbable, that the " large E.E. domestic room " above mentioned was mistaken by Aubrey for a chapel, on account of his not discriminating the position and arrangement of the building.
45. Erensham.—Originally a chapelry in Earnham; now a perpetual curacy.
46. Erimley.—Is still a perpetual curacy annexed to Ash. (Clergy List.)
47. Godalming.—The church consists of nave and aisles, central tower, and chancel. The aisles have been rebuilt, or nearly so ; three arches on each side of the nave are E.E., the southern being the oldest; the western end of the nave, which projects beyond the aisles, seems to be altogether an addition. The tower is Norm., rises less than a square above the nave, is plain, and is crowned by an octagonal leaded spire. E.E. arches thrown across the aisles from the eastern and western angles of the tower give internally the appearance of transepts.—This place is mentioned in K. Alfred's will with no other variation from its modern name than being styled " Godelming." (Asser's Alfred by Wise, 77.) The historians of Surrey assert, that the second Domesday church described as in Godalming was at Busbridge (a place in that parish) and was granted by K. Henry VIII, or K. Edward VI, to Laurence Eliot of Busbridge by the name of "Old Mynster;" that it was situated in a field still known as "Old Mynster Eield," but no traces of the building remain. The same authority also states, that there was a chapel at Hertmere in the parish of Godalming in the time of K. Edward I, but the only memorial of it is a field called "Chapel Field." (M. & B.) Busbridge lies about south-east, Hertmere nearly north-west of Godalming church.
48. Godstone.—This church comprises chancel, tower at the west end of the southern side of the same, nave with a transept-like addition to the eastern end of its south side, and a north aisle. The last and the addition opposite thereto, are both modern: the first in good, the second in very bad, taste. On the northern side of the chancel is a brick adjunct, containing a modern monument and effigy of a Dr. Evelyn. The entire fabric is so covered with plaster and whitewash, beside alterations, that its construction is undistinguishable, but the lower portion of the tower seems to be E.E., if not Tr. Norm., and there are some E.E. features in the interior of the church.
Hedge Court, now part of the estate of Fellbridge in this parish, was formerly a separate property, comprehending a park and a chapel; the latter being named in the conveyance of the estate 39 of K. Edward III, A.D. 1366. There is a farm still called "Chapel Farm," but no existing vestige, nor record, of the chapel. At Fellbridge a chapel was erected and endowed by James Evelyn, Esq., A.D. 1787. (M. & B.)
49. Guildford.—In (A.D. 1291) the churches of St. Mary and St. Nicholas in this town are mentioned separately. Three churches are named in (Val. Eccl.). The upper church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, now an unsightly brick edifice, is a warning against the egregious folly of tampering with such structures, especially in removing piers under the idea of improvement. This will appear by the following quotation from Russell (Hist. of Guildford, 51.) "On the same spot as the present building stood the old church, which the inhabitants, desirous of improving, repaired at the expense of £750. As the arches and pillars, which supported the steeple, were then taken away, it was soon after supposed to be in a very ruinous condition: accordingly, April 18, 1740, an order in vestry was given, that the defects and great decay of the arches and pillars of the steeple should be viewed and report to the parish the cost (Foot note, Trinity Par. Reg.) The next day Messrs.——and——surveyed the steeple, and pronounced it very unsafe: service was therefore performed on Sunday the 20th for the last time. Wednesday the 23d the steeple of this ancient church fell down, and beat in the roof with such violence, that by the concussion of the air all the glass windows were blown out, as if it had been done by a blast of gunpowder. The workmen had quitted the spot about a quarter of an hour. Three of the bells had been taken down, the other fell with the steeple." A note at 298 states, that the church had been repaired in 1734 and 1735. Also at 69 it is remarked, "Stukely’s Itinerary says,—Qu. Whether Trinity church had not a round chancel?"—St. Mary’s, though sadly injured, is a very interesting building, comprising nave with north and south aisles, three chancels, and tower between the nave and its chancel, The oldest part of this church is late, or perhaps Tr., Norm. The high chancel, which is raised considerably above the nave, has been shortened, to afford more space for the adjoining street. The end is now square, with a large Perp. window, but if is groined with E.E. work. The side chancels are rounded at the ends externally, but the southern is rendered square within by a Perp. wooden screen on a stone substructure, still remaining in good condition, and presenting a rare example of the ancient reredos.—— St. Nicholas seems to have shared in the treatment of Trinity church. It is asserted, (Russell’s Guildford,) that about A.D. 1700 (a "hundred years since") a new tower was erected (Foot note. "It had a round tower, said John Apark, a very old inhabitant.”) The ancient structure being greatly decayed in the foundation and other parts, and from its low situation often overflowed, in 1796 a brief, under which two hundred pounds were collected, was obtained for its thorough repair, when the old pillars and arches were removed, and the floor raised three feet, the church being reopened in 1800. Thirty-two years afterwards the building was in such a condition, that it was necessary to take it down entirely, the present church being then erected, in little better taste than that of the Holy Trinity.—In the parish of St. Nicholas, on an eminence above the river Wey, stand the ruins of the desecrated chapel of St. Catherine.—A house of Friars Preachers at Guildford, or Langley prope Guildford, was founded by Elinor, Q. of K. Henry lll. (Monast. VI, 1493.) A house of Crutched Friars in Guildford is mentioned only by Speed. (Ib. 1587.)
Of the priory, on the northern side of the town, some portion existed early in the present century in such a state of preservation, that it was converted into quarters for the officers, when barracks were constructed on the site during the war. After the peace of 1814, 1815, as in numerous other instances, the barracks were sold by the government for the value of the materials, after which, of course, every vestige of the priory was swept away. On the south side of the street, eastward of Trinity church, stand the late Perp. buildings of the free school; and opposite the same church is the hospital, founded by Archb. Geo. Abbott for the benefit of his native town. The house, in which he is said to have been born, is still, or was lately, standing close to the river below the bridge, The outer walls of the keep, a gateway, and other rough fragments of the castle still remain. "Guldeford " is one of the estates bequeathed by K. Alfred to his nephew Æthelwald. (Asser's Alfred, by Wise, 77.)
50. Hascombe.—A small church, having an apse at the east end, and a bell-turret of wood over nearly the centre of the nave.
51. Haslemere.—A curacy annexed to Chidingfold. The church was originally so poor a building, and has been so much patched and pared, as to be undeserving of notice.
52. Henlei.—This name is easily recognised in the existing Henley Park in the parish of Ash. In M. & B's Surrey the church is supposed to have occupied the site of the present parish church of Ash.
53. Horley.—Stone effigy with the arms of Saleman. Small Brass of a man in a gown; a large one of Joan Fenner, 1516. (M. & B.) The inscription to the last-named figure is pronounced by Mr. Boutell to be of subsequent date to the effigy. Moreover he states the death of Joan Fenner to have occurred A.D. 1535. (Monum. Brasses, 87, 88.)
54. Horne.—Home was a chapel-of-ease to Bletchingley until, A.D. 1705, an act of parliament was passed, constituting this a separate parish. (M. & B.) Accordingly in (Val. Eccl.) it appears as a chapel attached to Bletchingley, but is now styled a rectory.
55. Horsell. —(A. D. 1291) "Capell' de Horshall et Pirford;" which entry, as remarked elsewhere, will admit the existence of two churches.
56. Horsleys, The.—The Horslei of (D. B.), described as belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury, " de victu monachorum,—for provision for the monks," must be East Horsley, where was formerly a palace of the metropolitan, and which is still a peculiar of the archbishop; wherefore the name "Orselei," with the church, must be assigned to West Horsley. In (A. D. 1291) two churches are mentioned, but not distinguished.—A priory of Black Nuns is said to have existed at Horsley in Surrey temp. K. Richard I, or K. John. (Tanner, Surrey, vii, in Monast. VI, 1624.) There is no note, whereby to ascertain in which of the Horsleys this priory stood.
East Horsley. Brass : a " singular memorial of Bp. Boothe, A.D. 1478, being drawn in profile." (Monum. Brasses, 102.)
57. West Horsley.—The church contains a west tower, nave and aisles, chancel, west and north porches. The chancel is E.E., having three lancet windows at the east end, with shafts between and at the sides.
58. Kennington.—A perpetual curacy in the parish of Lambeth.
59. Kew.—This place appears first as only a hamlet in the parish of Kingston. The chapel was licensed by Rich. Fox, Bp. of Winchester, A.D. 1522, but as a private, not a parochial, chapel. It was rebuilt, endowed, and consecrated as a chapel-of-ease to Kingston A.D. 1714. (M. & B.) It now stands as a vicarage with the curacy of Petersham annexed to it. (Clergy List.)
60. Kingston.—"The same Walter has a man of the soke of Kingston, to whom he has committed the custody of the king's hunting mares. Ipse Walterius tenet unum hominem de soca de Chingestun, cui commendavit equas silvaticas regis custodire." (D. B.) Or possibly brood mares may be intended, called "silvaticas" because wild as being turned out to feed in the forest grounds, "silvas." It is also mentioned of Kingston, that "one of the villans was in charge for the purpose of working up" or "of gathering the queen's wool. De villain's hujus villse habuit et habet Humfridus camerarius unum villanum in custodia causa codunandi lanam reginse." (D. B.) This strange term, codunandi, Kelham (Domesday Book Illustrated, &c.) explains, "winding, or mixing or working up" the queen's wool with other wool; or for gathering wool for the queen. (Note.) "Petrus de Baldewyn tenet quandam serjantiam in Cumbes in Com. Surrey ad colligendam lanam reginse per albas spinas, si voluerit &c. Peter de Baldewyn holds a certain serjantcy in Cumbes in the county of Surrey for collecting the queen's wool among the white thorns, &c." Kelham does not state whence this is quoted. Note to this, "To go a woolgathering for the queen among the thorns and briars. (Blount's Tenures, 79.)" Though the following quotation from Du Cange (Glossary ad voc. Manerium) does not in reality prove anything, it may be adduced in corroboration of Kelham's explanation, as given above, of the term, "codunandi." "Sciendum est, quod Manerium potent esse per se, ex pluribus sedificiis coadunatum, sine villis et hamletis adjacentibus." It should be known, that a manor might exist by itself, compounded or worked up out of many edifices, without the adjoining villes and hamlets. (Bractonus, lib. 4. Tract. 1, c. 31, §3.) The only probable solution seems to be, that the Domesday surveyors of Surrey used "coduno" carelessly or ignorantly, instead of the proper compound verb "coaduno." For remarks on memorials in Kingston church to Rob. and Joan Skerne, 1437, see (Monum. Brasses, 91, 108.) In (Val. Eccl.) the chapels of Richmond or Shene, Thames Ditton, and East Molesey are annexed to Kingston. Contiguous to the south side of the chancel of the parish church of Kingston stood an ancient chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, but no account of the foundation is preserved. Several Saxon kings are reported to have been crowned therein. On 2 March, 1730, in consequence of a grave having been dug too near, the pier and arch next the church gave way, and the building was totally ruined. (M. & B.) Views there given show masonry, which may have been Saxon, but the numerous small narrow windows appear to be pointed at the upper end. Edw. Lovekyn, citizen of London, and a native of Kingston, with consent of the Bp. of Winchester, 33 of K. Edward I, erected and endowed a chapel in Kingston, adjoining to Norbeton (the northeastern part of the town, toward London) dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen: (it is named in Val. Eccl.) The grant was confirmed by K. Edward II, 16 July, 1309. The chapel was suppressed 31 of K. Henry VIII, 1539-40, and the building is now the school. When the free chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, that is, Lovekyn's, was devised to Rich. Taverner Esq., 1 of K. Edward VI, the letters patent, 26 April, 1547, named besides " a small chapel called St. Anne's, adjoining the former, with a chamber and study over it," and "a small chapel called St. Loye's on the east side of St. Mary Magdalen's." (M. & B.) Two hospitals in Kingston are mentioned by Tanner; namely, that of the bridge, which is named in the beginning of K. Henry Ill's reign; and Lovekyn's. (Monast. VI, 776.)
61. Lambeth.—The church of St. Mary, "Lamhytha," is mentioned in a deed by K. William, probably William Rufus. (Text. Roff. 213.) According to Bp. Tanner Archb. Baldwin, when compelled to abandon his projected college at Hackington, (in Kent; see the Note) commenced another at Lambeth, which likewise the pope caused to be relinquished and destroyed. (Monast. VI, 1469.) The archbishop was unfortunate in his undertakings.
62. Leatherhed.—In K. Alfred's will we find the "custos de Leodre, keeper of Leodre," (Asser's Alfred by Wise, 77,) among the legatees. The nature of his office I do not comprehend, but, from the amount of his bequest, he must have been a person of Consideration, as he obtained lands certainly in the counties of Wilts, Hants, Surrey, and Kent. One of them is "Leodria" (not Leodrede, as stated in M. & B's Hist, of Surrey) which apparently can only signify Leatherhed, especially since the name given in (A. D. 1291) is Leddrede. Compare the Note on Epsom.
63. Leigh.—Brasses: Susanna Arderne; man and woman with nine children, Ardernes. (M. & B.)
64. Limpsfield—Church consists of chancel, another on the northern side, tower with short shingled spire at the west end of the south side of the chancel, and nave with south aisle and south porch. In the high chancel are a piscina, and a high plain sedile; in the south wall of the same two lancet windows were closed when a late Perp. vestry was erected on the outside. The tower, in several stages, seems to be Norm., having windows of that character: the remainder of the church may be E.E. The north chancel contains an E.E. window, the others are Perp. and later. A north door is disused. From marks on the exterior the church appears to have been larger formerly. The font is E.E., square, on a stem with four shafts at the angles. There is a lych-gate at the entrance of the churchyard.—" Here are two stone quarries of two shillings, and three aeries of hawks in a wood. Duæ fossæ lapidum de duobus solidis, et tres nidi accipitrum in silva." (D. B.)
65. Lingfield.—This church comprises chancel, nave, north aisle and chancel ranging with the principal, tower on the south side of the nave nearly in the centre, south aisle extending eastward from the tower with a chancel, but short of the central one, the difference being completed by a vestry below the level of the church. From the tower westward, including the west end of the nave, appear, internally, portions of the wall of an earlier building, to which the lower part of the tower seems to belong, though the interior of it was cased, and the whole probably carried higher, when the present church was erected by a Lord Cobham of Sterborough, near the end of the fourteenth century. Of the stalls for the members of the college, noticed below, eleven still remain, together with a Perp. oaken lectern, and good, though simple, Perp. oak screens; there are also some carved panels, of which two contain heads. Many fragments of coloured glass have been collected from other windows, and placed in those of the east and west ends of the nave. The piscinse and ambries have been plastered up. Effigies, one on a Perp. altar-tomb, called that of the builder of the church. Two alabaster, similarly placed, called Cobham and wife, much later. Brasses, several male and female; one of John Hadresham, 1458; others Cobhams.—A college was founded in this church by Regin. Lord Cobham at the beginning of the reign of K. Henry VI. (Hasted's Kent.) The college stood at the western side of the churchyard; the site is now occupied by a farm-house.—There are some ancient timber houses in Lingfield; and one, at a distance from the church to the south-east, was described as having possessed peculiarities of construction well deserving attention; it is still moated. In the village street, about half a mile by the road from the church, stand the remains of a cross, under a most venerable and picturesque oak, or rather skeleton of an oak. The cross itself is gone, but below the foot of it, covered by a modern tiled roof, is a small sandstone building, barely large enough to shelter two, or possibly three, worshippers. This yet retains the appellation of St. Peter's cross, the parish church being dedicated to St. Peter.
Brasses: half-length, John Wache, 1445; John Swetecok, 1469 (both priests). In this parish "there is a field called Chapel Field, where it is said there was formerly a chapel dedicated to St. Margaret. An adjoining field is called St. Margaret's Field." (M. & B.) John Wiche (or Wache, as above) and John Sweetcote (comp. above) are supposed to have been the only masters of Lord Cobham's college. (Monast. VI, 1469.) The Cobham brass, called that of Sir Regin. de C., 1403, is described in (Monum. Brasses, 59, 60).
66. Maldon.—In (D. B.) this church is styled "capella." In (Val. Eccl.) "Cheselden," meaning Chessington, is annexed to Maldon. About A.D. 1263 Walter de Merton founded here a college, which in a few years was removed to Oxford in augmentation of Merton college. (Tanner, Surrey, xii, in Monast. VI, 1469.)
67. Merrow.—A.D. 1842 this church underwent a thorough repair, or rather partial reconstruction, in particular the interior as entirely refitted; which alterations effected a prodigious improvement in the general appearance, no less than the actual condition, of the edifice, which like many other flint fabrics, was previously in a state of much decay. It is composed of chancel, nave with south aisle and a chancel, north porch, and western tower with a shingled spire. The chancel or chapel to the aisle is the mausoleum of Earl Onslow's family. The porch is mentioned as an example of the Dec. style. (Rickman, 185, ed. 1848.) When the tower was pulled down, preparatory to rebuilding it, there was found in the wall a broken sacring bell, about three inches in diameter, outside measure, at the bottom, two inches and five-eighths high exclusive of the iron handle, and including the latter, four and a quarter inches.
68. Merstham.—"The archbishop holds Merstham for the clothing of the monks de vestitu monachorum." (D. B.) As already mentioned, similar entries not unfrequently occur. The church consists of chancel, nave, north and south aisles with chancels wider than the aisles, south porch, and square west tower with a shingled spire. It contains portions of E.E., Dec., and Perp. work. The high chancel has a double piscina under a square-headed-tref oiled arch. The same roof extends over both nave and aisles. The clerestory windows are quatrefoils opening into the aisles. The font is Norm., square, of Weald marble. Brasses: two wives and seven daughters of John Elmebrygge, husband and son lost 14 .. [N.B. The date is unfinished]; Thomas Elmerugge alias Elynbrugge and wife, 1507. [N.B. Lately reset.] Also a mutilated effigy of a female with a reticule at her right side! The date of John Elmebrygge is given as 1472; John Newdegate, 1498; Peter and Rich. Best (children) 1587. (M. & B.)
69. Merton.—Though Stow places the foundation of the priory here A.D. 1092, the true date appears to be in the commencement of the twelfth century, the founders being K. Henry I and Gilbert Norman. Tanner names the year 1117, and Lysons 1115, but the latter' s statement on the subject is partially invalidated by Mr. Bray in his additions to Manning's account of the priory (in their Hist, of Surrey). K. Henry's charter is dated A.D. 1121, and Gilbert Norman died in 1125 according to Matt. Paris. (Monast. VI, 245, and num. i, 247.)—In M. & B.'s Surrey is a plate of the remains of Merton priory, showing a good window of five lights, with a circle in the upper part.
This place is memorable for the murder of Cynewulf, king of Wessex, A.D. 784, by the ætheling, or prince, Cyneheard, who with his abettors were all afterwards slain by the king's faithful attendants. At that period Merton must have been a considerable settlement, since gates are described as attached to the house, in which the murder was perpetrated, and which was sufficiently large to contain Cyneheard and eighty-four followers, who attempted to defend themselves therein. (Gibs. Chron. Sax. 57, 58, 63.)
70. Mickleham.—Brasses, on an altar-tomb, of William Wyddolkson and wife, 5 of K. Henry VIII. This church is said to have Norm, portions. (M. & B.)
71. Moleseys, The— In the History of Surrey the Domesday church is supposed to have been at West Molesey ; which statement however appears at variance with another, in the same work, that West Molesey was formerly part of the parish of Walton-on-Thames. Yet the church requires examination, because, from Mr. Bray's description, it seems to be ancient.
72.Molesey, West.—Brasses: four small male, six small female figures; originally in the centre an old man in a gown, sitting in an armchair, below, three females praying. (M. & B.)
73. Mortlake.—Mortlake and Putney were originally only chapelries to Wimbledon, therefore the church mentioned in (D. B.) at Mortlake was probably that of Wimbledon, the former being the more extensive manor of the two. (M. & B.) Though the idea is likely to be correct, I leave the church standing against the place where it is named.
74. Newington.—M. & B. consider Newington to be the "Waleorde" (Walworth) of (D. B.), which latter is still the name of the manor, though Walworth is now deemed only a hamlet to Newington. If this is the fact, the Domesday church was actually at Newington, not at Walworth.
A hospital of Our Lady and St. Catherine is mentioned as existing here till February 1551. (Monast. VI, 776.)
75. Nutfield—Church comprises chancel, nave, north aisle, a chapel on the south side of the nave, south porch, and square west tower with battlements, staircase, and a short shingled spire. All the exterior being "rough cast," the construction of the walls is concealed. The chancel contains some E.E. windows, of which date are also the piers between the nave and aisle. The south chapel and most of the windows are Perp. In the chancel are a piscina and a sepulchral arch in the south wall. There are also two small brasses, male and female, with an inscription not belonging to them. In the south wall of the south chapel is another sepulchral arch. There are a few scraps of coloured glass, some small remnants of screen-work, and several oak benches; the last Perp., as is the font. A slight appearance of Tr. Norm, work is visible. The porch has some pierced Dec. woodwork remaining on its eastern side.
Roman coins and other relics are stated to have been found in this parish. (Archaeol. Journal, VI, 288.)
76. Ockham.—Effigies (whether of stone or of brass is not mentioned) : John Weston, in armour, and wife, 1483. (M. & B.)
77. Oxted.—Brasses: John Yuge, rector, 1428; Johanne Haseldean, 1480. (M. & B.)
78. Petersham.—A curacy annexed to the vicarage of Kew. (Clergy List.) "There is a fishery of a thousand eels and a thousand lampreys; piscaria de mille anguillarum et mille lampridulium. (D. B.) Fisheries are continually mentioned, especially of eels (sometimes of so many sticks, of which one stick = 25 eels), but in the three counties now examined, this is the only instance of lampreys being specified.
79. Pirbright.—On the authority of Regist. Wainflete Pirbright is said to have possessed a chapel, subordinate to the church of Woking, but no date is assigned for the foundation of it. (M. & B.)
80. Pirford.—A vicarage united with the rectory of Wisley. The north door of the church has Norm, zigzag mouldings. (M. & B.)
81. Putney.—Anciently a chapelry to Wimbledon; now a perpetual curacy.
82. Puttenham.—The church consists of chancel, nave, north aisle with a chancel, a south chapel, a south porch, and western tower. The nave and aisle are Norm., probably late; the same roof spanning both. The chancel, of which the east end is reported to have been reduced, with the arches and piers opening into the north chancel, are E.E. The latter portion has been rebuilt. The porch, which is now used as a vestry, or at least the door into it is Tr. Norm. The south chapel and the tower are Perp., but both have been so patched, they are difficult to understand. Throughout the interior chalk, not stone, is used. In the chancel, brass, Edw. Cranford, once rector, 1431. In fine preservation, but small.
83. Reigate.—A church of chancel, nave, north and south aisles with chancels extending about half the length of the central, south porch, square west tower with battlements, and a small addition on the north side of the chancel erected A.D. 1513, comprising a vestry and a library above. There are in the building E.E., Dec., and Perp. portions. The first includes the piers between the nave and aisles, though the northern arches may have been rebuilt, they being plain, while those opposite are ornamented with a peculiar border of foliage, which is sunk into the wall. The high chancel has remains of niches on each side of the east window; also a piscina and three sedilia under canopies, which have recently been renovated and richly coloured. In the south chancel is a trefoiled ogée-headed piscina. In the northern are cumbrous seventeenth-century monuments with effigies. The chancels are separated from the nave and aisles by good Perp. screens, which have been well restored. The church has lately undergone extensive repairs, beside alterations for the above purpose about the beginning of the present century.—A priory was founded here by Will. de Warren, fifth earl of Surrey, and his wife Isabel before A.D. 1240, when Will. de Warren died. (Monast. VI, 517.)
Roman remains have been discovered near this town. A flue-tile, ornamented in a very unusual manner, recently found, is represented in (Archseol. Journ. VI, 288.) See also the Note on Nockholt, Kent.
84. Richmond.—The ancient, that is, the Saxon, name of this place was Shene. A priory existed here (which, by the title of Shene, is estimated in Val. Eccl.), and it was a chapelry belonging to Kingston. The park also is old. (M. & B.) It is now a vicarage annexed to Kingston-upon-Thames.
85. Ripley.—This parish was originally only a part of that of Send, with which it still forms one benefice. The old chapel was small, of very late Norm, work, much mutilated in the nave, but more entire in the chancel : which latter portion has been preserved in the rebuilding, with enlargement, of the chapel, for the necessary accommodation of the greatly increased population.
86. Sandersted.—Brass: John Awodde and wife Dyones, 1525. (M. & B.)
87. Seale.—Till a comparatively recent date only a chapelry in Farnham. It is now a perpetual curacy. 88. Send.—Of this church the chancel is E.E. with a Dec. east window of three lights inserted. The nave and tower are late Perp. Nearly all the original late Perp. oak benches remain. In this parish stand the ruins of Newark abbey, which was founded about A.D. 1200, or perhaps rather earlier. (M. & B.) The ruins consist only of some massive, but shapeless, fragments of walls.
89. Shalford.—(Val. Eccl.) annexes Bramley as a chapel to this place, which connection is only very recently dissolved. The church has just been rebuilt. In the old one was a brass of Roger Elyot in a gown, and wife, 1509. (M. & B.) The original building was a cross church with a steeple, which was taken down A.D. 1788. (Russell's Guildford, 292.) On account of the defective state of the new church, that was replaced by the present building in imitation of the E.E. style, A.D. 1846 and 1847.—In Shalford parish stands Unsted, an old farm-house, with a stack of chimnies of unusual magnitude; date temp. Q. Elizabeth, or probably earlier. The latch and handle of the house-door are of precisely the same construction as similar articles in the old parsonage of West Dean, East Sussex (compare the Note there); wherefore they, if not the door, perhaps belonged to an earlier building, than that now existing at Unsted. Part of the original house was pulled down not very many years ago.
90. Shere.—This church, which has a central tower, retains portions of every style of architecture, commencing with Tr. Norm., part being very good, and some the contrary.—Within is a stone effigy, mutilated and laid in the floor, of a Lord Audley, who died A.D. 1491. (M. & B.)
91. Southwark.—In (D. B.) a church is mentioned here only incidentally. It is stated, that there was a monastery in Sudwerce retained by K. Edward (the Confessor) at the day of his death; (consequently it was a Saxon foundation;) and that the possessor of the church (of that monastery) held of the king. In (A.D. 1291) several churches in Southwark are named. (Val. Eccl.) notices those of St. George and St. Olave; as likewise the priory of St. Mary Overy, and the hospital of St. Thomas the Martyr.
92. Stoke next Guildford.—In this church are chancel, nave with north and south aisles, and western tower. The latter is Perp.: the north wall of the north aisle seems to be E.E.; the others have been rebuilt in modern times.
93. Stoke D'Abernon.—Brasses: Two D'Abernons; Elyn Bray, infant, 1516. (M. & B.) The figure of Sir John D'Abernon, about A.D. 1275, is the earliest known example of English brasses. The other commemorates his son, also Sir John D'Abernon, 1327. (Monum. Brasses, 27,41.) The church of Stoke D'Abernon is noticed by Mr. Bloxam as containing vestiges of Anglo-Saxon work. (Goth. Archit. 79.)
94. Streatham.—The church here is styled "capella" in (D. B.). On an altar-tomb a mutilated effigy of a knight in armour, supposed to be of the fourteenth century. (M. & B.)
95. Sutton.—One of the two Domesday churches most probably occupied the site of the existing parish church of Sutton, but I am totally unable to assign the locality of the other, unless it was Morden. (D. B.) describes churches in all the parishes immediately surrounding Sutton, with the exception of Morden. The historians of Surrey, (M. & B.), say there are "no traces of any other than the present" church at Sutton; wherefore we may seek the second in a neighbouring parish. In K. Alfred's will a "Suttune" occurs in connection with other places in both Hants and Surrey, so it is uncertain in which county it might be situated. (Asser's Alfred, by Wise, 77.)
96. Tandridge.—A priory was founded here in the reign of K. Richard I, which was originally a hospital for three priests and several poor brethren, though in later times it was more generally accounted a priory of Austin Canons. The buildings are totally demolished, but on a farm upon the site paving tiles are frequently discovered. (Monast. VI, 603.) The priory is noticed in (Val. Eccl). Compare the following Note.
97. Tellingdone.—This name is evidently to be recognised in Tellingdon, a farm in the parish of Tandridge; and the Domesday church is likely to have been where now stands the parish church of Tandridge, Tillingdon being near the present church. "Tellingedone" is described immediately after "Tenrige," and was held by the same individual.
98. Thursley.—This church was rated with, and as an appendage of, the mother church of Witley 20 of K. Edward I. (M. & B.) Probably therefore it was the chapel intended in (A.D. 1291), and as such it is marked with *. See the Note on Witley, to which as a curacy it remains annexed.
99. Titsey.—Brass: William Gresham, wife and seven children, 1579. (M. & B.) The church of Titsey was removed from its ancient site for the gratification of Sir John Gresham, who died A.D. 1801. 100. Tooting.—An alien priory or cell is spoken of as existing in this place. (Monast. VI, 1053.)
101. Walton on the Hill.—The font in this church is circular, of lead, with figures upon it. (M. & B.)
102. Walworth.—A perpetual curacy attached to Newington; which see. This manor "in the time of K. Edward was for the clothing of the monks; T. R. E. fuit de vestitu monachorum." (D. B.)
103. Wanborough.—(Val. Eccl.) mentions the chapel of St. Bartholomew of Wanborough. Some portion of the building remains, which has been fitted up as the family cemetery of the proprietor's family. It is still nominally annexed to Puttenham.
104. Wandsworth.—Brass: man in armour praying, 1420. (M. & B.)
105. Warlingham.—(A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Warlingham cum capella." In (Val. Eccl.) a similar annexation occurs, Chelsham being named as the chapel; which union of the two cures continues. This small church consists of a nave and chancel, with a wooden bell-turret at the west end. From several lancet windows still remaining it appears to belong to the E.E. period. Some Perp. windows are inserted into the sides, and the east window, which perhaps may be Tr. Dec., seems not unlikely to have replaced a cluster of lancets, as the sides of the interior arch, which is large enough to have contained at least three lancets, are ornamented with slender shafts at the outer angles.
106. Watendone.—Now Whatlington, Wodington, or Waddington in the parish of Coulsdon. The church was granted, 2 of K. Edward VI, to Henry Polsted, converted into a barn, and accidentally burnt about 1780, but some of the walls were standing in 1808. (M. &B.) Conceiving this to be the chapel joined with Coulsdon in (A.D. 1291), I have marked it accordingly.
107. Wimbledon.—In (Val. Eccl.) the chapels of Puttenhith, i. e. Putney, and another place are annexed to Wimbledon; though the latter is now styled only a perpetual curacy.
108. Wisley.—Is annexed to Byflcet in (Val. Eccl.) under the name of Wixley; but now stands in the (Clergy List) as a rectory united with the vicarage of Pirford.
109. Witley.—(A.D. 1291) "Ecclia de Witlegh cum capella;" the latter most probably meaning Thursley, which is named as a chapel to Witley in (Val. Eccl.), to which it remains a curacy in (Clergy List.) Aubrey in his Hist, of Surrey names a nunnery at Oxenford in this parish, belonging to Waverley Abbey, but his idea is probably erroneous. (Monast. VI, 1624.)
110. Woking.—Brasses: Hen. Purdan, in a gown, wife and seven children, 1523 ; John Shadhet, in a gown, and wife, 1527; (from Aubrey) Gilbert Gilpin, keeper of Woldng Park, 1500. (M.&B.)
A monastery existed here in Saxon times, it being stated, that, A.D. 775, "Brordan prayed the king, that he would graciously liberate a certain monastery belonging to him, called Wocingas, because he proposed to bestow it upon (the church of) Medeshamstede." (Gibs. Chron. Sax. 62.) The last-named place is now Peterborough. The enfranchising charter is given by Mr. Kemble, but with the date, A.D. 796. There is no intimation in the document of the above-mentioned intention, though the grant is declared to be in consequence of the request, to that effect, of Brordan, and of an abbot, named Pusa. "Ego Offa ipso piissimo praeordinante deo rex Merciorum, rogatus a uenerabili abbati meo nomine Pusa, simul et a praefato meo uocabulo Brorda, ut aliquam liberalitatem eius aecclesiae quae sita est in loco ubi dicitur Uuoccingas concederem &c." (Cod. Dipl. I, 204.) A.D. 655 a "mynstre," that is, a monastery, had been erected at Medeshamstede " for the love of Christ, and in honour of St. Peter," by the monk Saxulf, in behalf of Peada, king of Mercia, and Oswy, king of Deira. (Gibs. Chron. Sax. 33.) Endowed with large possessions and extensive privileges by successive sovereigns (ut sup. 34, &c. ; 41, &c.; 46), it was plundered and burned, the abbot and monks being slain, by the Danes in 870. (Ut sup. 80.) It remained desolate and in ruins till restored by Athelwald, Bp. of Winchester, A.D. 963, when its former endowment was confirmed, with some addition, by K. Ædgar. (Ut sup. 118.) Kenulf, elected abbot in 992, encircled the monastery with a wall, when the name was changed to Burch, or Burh, that is, Borough (Comp. ut sup. 120 and 127); which last name alone is used afterwards to the end of the Saxon Chronicle. It was again sacked, and the town burned with the exception of a single house, by the Danes under Hereward, A.D. 1070 (ut sup. 176 &c.); after which the repairing is not described. It was a third time destroyed by fire, apparently from accident, except the chapter-house and the dormitory, with the chief part of the town, in 1096 (ut sup. 219), and was only restored by Abbot Martin, A.D. 1140 (ut sup. 240).
Though certainly foreign to our subject it may be mentioned here, that Welsh ale obtained celebrity very early, the Saxon Chronicle recording (ut sup. 75) that ten "mittan" (by Gibson rendered sextaries, about a pint and a half each, altogether about two gallons) of Welsh ale were to be paid yearly by one of the tenants of the monastery of Medeshamstede, A.D. 862. The beverage must have been highly valued to account for this stipulation, considering the small quantity demanded, together with the long, and in those days very hazardous, transit it had to undergo. Another authority, quoting from Fleta, 1. 2, c. 12 (Suss. Arch. Coll. II, 153) states "the sextary of wine" to have comprised four gallons. This amount seems much more likely to have been intended, than the very trifling one, suggested above; though still it sufficiently proves the high estimation, in which Welsh ale was then held.
In a distant part of this parish, toward Guildford, stands Sutton Place, a remarkable brick mansion. The outside of the building is highly ornamented in patterns, which were impressed upon the bricks in the mould. The bricks are said to have been made in, and imported from, Flanders. The house was erected by Sir Rich. West on in 1529 or 1530. "In this manor was formerly a chapel, subordinate to the church of Woking, the vicar of which provided a chaplain to officiate therein three days in the week." The chapel is named in Reg. Wickham, 7 December, 1381. (M.&B.)
111. Woldingham.—This church is described as being only about thirty feet long by seventeen wide, the interior divided by a screen, standing in a lonely situation in a wood. (M. & B.)—Since the above was written, the church must have been rebuilt, the present being a very modern structure of flint with brick dressings, without a single old stone visible in any part of it. Neither is there any screen. In fact the building comprises only a single room, without any mark of separation for a chancel, the pulpit and reading-desk being placed against the wall of the east end, in the south corner. The dimensions are still extremely small, but the situation does not coincide with the statement of the Surrey historians, the churchyard lying between two open fields, remote certainly, but not far from a road (such as it is) nor does the appearance of the ground indicate any recent grubbing of wood.
112. Wonersh.—This church, with the exception of the tower, was rebuilt toward the end of the last century by the then Lord Grantley, the patron, whose residence immediately adjoins. The new fabric is constructed of brick, in very bad taste, being also placed north and south. The upper portion of the tower likewise has been finished with brick. The lower part, as well as a fragment of the west end of, probably, the south aisle, are Norm., though a later window has been inserted in the west wall of the tower. In the ancient aisle wall a round-headed doorway, and the capital of the southern jamb may just be traced. From the rudeness of the masonry these portions appear to be early, and it is just possible, that they may even be ante-Norm. The tower arch, if existing, is quite obliterated by the new building. North of the tower, as if at the west end of a former north aisle, remains a large arch, and in the wall to the north of it a niche, having a cinquefoil-headed canopy within a quadrangular border, and below the bracket is a square flower. These are Perp.—Brass: Henry Elyott, wife and twenty-three children, 1503. (M. & B.)—Though not actually named, the church of this place may possibly have existed A.D. 1086, and be named in (D. B.) See the Note on Bramley.
113. Worplesdon.—In some part of this parish a Roman pavement is reported to have been discovered some years ago, but it was not preserved.
114. Wotton.—The manor of Wotton was given by K. Cedwalla and his Q. Keneldritha to Christ's Church, Canterbury A.D. 687. (Monast. I, 95.) A. D. 1010 Archbp. Elfege appropriated the same for the clothing of the monks. (Utsup. 83, note e.)
In very early times a chapel was erected at Okewood, now Oakwood, Hill, in a remote part of this parish, toward the border of Sussex. It existed A.D. 1290; was farther endowed by Edward de la Hale ; was considered as belonging to the rectory of Wotton; and the lands bestowed by Hale were seized in the reign of K. Edward VI. Since that period the emolument of the chapelry has been augmented by various private donations, as likewise from Queen Anne's Bounty. The building had much decayed in 1673, but was repaired in 1709, and has been preserved in good condition ever since. (M. & B.) The perpetual curacy of Oakwood, possessing an income of 322, is mentioned together with the rectory of Wotton in the (Clergy List) ; whence it would appear, that the property may have been restored; but it is stated to be very slenderly endowed. The chapel contains a small brass of Edwardus de la Hale in armour, 1431. Hale is popularly called the founder of the chapel; wherefore we may infer him to have been the benefactor noticed above.
- N. B. The future references to this work will be simply M. & B.