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Order 54: Trade Liberalization Policy 2004

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COALITION PROVISIONAL AUTHORITY ORDER NUMBER 54

TRADE LIBERALIZATION POLICY 2004

Pursuant to my authority as Administrator of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA),
and the laws and usages of war, and consistent with relevant U.N. Security Council
resolutions, including Resolutions 1483 and 1511 (2003),

Noting the responsibility of the Department of Border Enforcement, in CPA Order
Number 26, to monitor and control the movement of persons and goods into and out of
Iraq,

Further implementing the Reconstruction Levy imposed by CPA Order Number 38
(CPA/ORD/19 September 2003/38),

Having worked closely with the Governing Council, international organizations and
relevant Ministries in developing policies that will foster international trade and a free
market economy in Iraq,

I hereby promulgate the following:

Section 1
Suspension of Customs Charges


All customs tariffs, duties, import taxes (not including the Reconstruction Levy imposed
by CPA Order Number 38), and similar surcharges for goods entering or leaving Iraq are
suspended until the sovereign transitional Iraqi administration imposes such charges
following the CPA’s transfer of full governance authority to that administration.

Section 2
Contraband


1) Prohibited imports and exports (“Contraband”) and restricted exports and restricted
imports are listed in Annex A to this Order.

2) Except with respect to the Contraband and restricted exports and restricted imports

listed in Annex A, there shall be no restriction as to the kind, origin or source of

goods that may be imported into or exported from Iraq.

CPA/ORD/24 February 2004/54


Section 3
Application to Existing Law


1) Notwithstanding any provision in this Order, the following laws shall remain in force:

a) CPA Order Number 38, Reconstruction Levy (CPA/ORD/19 September 2003/38);
and
b) Drugs Law Number 68 of 1965.

2)
This Order shall not apply to the importation or exportation of crude oil, residue crude
and all other oil products, which may only be imported or exported by, or with the
authorization of, the State Oil Marketing Organization. However, importation of
petroleum products intended for use by the Coalition Provisional Authority, Coalition
Forces, and forces of nations working in coordination with Coalition Forces shall not
require authorization of the State Oil Marketing Organization.

3) Customs Law Number 23 of 1984, as amended, (“Customs Law”) shall remain in
force except as amended by this or any other CPA Order, including in particular CPA
Order Number 16, Temporary Control of Iraqi Borders, Ports and Airports
(CPA/ORD/26 June 2003/16) and CPA Order Number 26, Creation of the Department
of Border Enforcement (CPA/ORD/24 August 2003/26).

4) CPA Order Number 12, Trade Liberalization Policy (CPA/ORD/7 June 2003/12) and
CPA Memorandum Number 8, Exportation of Scrap Metal Under Order Number 12,
Trade Liberalization Policy (CPA/MEM/25 January 2004/8) are hereby rescinded.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, any licensing regime established under CPA
Memorandum Number 8 shall continue to be effective to the extent that it is not
inconsistent with the terms of this Order.

Section 4
Reconstruction Levy


1) The Minister of Finance, in consultation with the Director of the CPA Office of
Management and Budget, may issue policy guidance as necessary to implement the
reconstruction levy pursuant to Section 3 of CPA Order Number 38. Consistent with
such policies, the Minister of Interior, in consultation with the Senior Advisor for
Interior, may issue administrative instructions and procedures for implementing the
reconstruction levy.

2) For the purpose of Section 1(2) of CPA Order Number 38, “international practice”
means the customs valuation as set forth in the Agreement on Implementation of

CPA/ORD/24 February 2004/54


Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994. The customs value
shall be determined by the transaction value of the imported goods, which shall be the
price actually paid or payable for the goods when sold for export to the country of
importation plus certain adjustments as provided for in the Agreement on
Implementation. If the customs value cannot be determined on the basis of the
transaction value, it will be determined using one of the following methods, as
provided for in the Agreement on Implementation, in hierarchical order:

a) The transaction value of identical goods;
b) The transaction value of similar goods;
c) The deductive value method;
d) The computed value method; and
e) The fall-back method.


Notwithstanding the definition of value as set forth in Article 34 of the Customs Law
Number 23 of 1984 as amended (“Customs Law”), the principles of this Section 4(3)
shall apply in determining customs value.

3) The reconstruction levy exemption for goods listed at Section 2(1) of CPA Order
Number 38 shall also apply to goods that are imported for the personal use of the
traveler when those goods are not intended for sale.

a)
With respect to an individual who is a resident of Iraq, this exemption will apply
only where the total value of the goods entering Iraq with this individual is less
than ID 500,000 for any 72 hour period. In no event will personal use exceed the
following:

Cigarettes—200
Cigars—10
Cigarillos—25
Smoking tobacco—250 grams
Beer—8 liters
Wine—2 liters
Spirits— 1 liter
Fortified wine


(e.g. port/sherry)—2 liters
b)
With respect to an individual who is not a resident of Iraq, the exemption in
Section 4(4)(a) of this Order will apply to goods entering Iraq with this individual
for personal use irrespective of value of the goods, provided that the goods are not
intended for sale. Procedures for administering this exemption will be issued by
the Ministry of Finance in consultation with the Director of the CPA Office of
Management and Budget.

CPA/ORD/24 February 2004/54


4) For purposes of section 2(1)(g) and (2)(f) of CPA Order Number 38, and subject to
Section 4(8) of this Order, a “not-for-profit organization” is an organization that is not
organized for commercial purposes and no part of the income or surplus of which is at
any time payable to, or otherwise available for the personal benefit of, any proprietor,
member, shareholder, or any individual who is a spouse, child, grandchild, parent,
grandparent, or sibling of any of the aforesaid, or majority owner of an entity that is a
member or shareholder of the organization. The organization may provide such a
proprietor, member, shareholder or any individual who is a spouse, child, grandchild,
parent, grandparent, or sibling of any of the aforesaid, or majority owner of an entity
that is a member or shareholder of the organization with benefits that are generally
available to the general public.

5)
For purposes of section 2(1)(g) of CPA Order Number 38, the term “public benefit”
means activities aimed at achieving a universal or common good for the general
public through the advancement, protection, maintenance, support, improvement or
enhancement of:

a)
Health, which includes without limitation, the prevention and relief of

sickness, disease or of human suffering;
b) Education;
c) Social and community welfare, which without limitation includes:


i.
The prevention and relief of poverty;
ii.
The care, support and protection of the aged, minors, vulnerable persons
and populations, and people with a disability;
iii.
The care and support of members or former members of the armed
services;
d) Religion;
e) Culture;
f) The natural environment; and
g) Other purposes beneficial to Iraq.


6) For purposes of Sections 2(1)(g) and (2)(f) of CPA Order Number 38, an
“international organization” is an organization with an international legal personality
and an independent decision-making organ that is established under international law
by an international agreement or other formal constitutive document, and performs
functions of a genuinely international character. Such term includes, but is not
limited to, the United Nations (including its agencies), the Arab League, the
International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Organization for the Prohibition of
Chemical Weapons, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Trade
Organization.

CPA/ORD/24 February 2004/54


7) Organizations that meet the definitions of not-for-profit organizations and
international organizations set forth in Section 4, paragraphs (4) and (6), respectively,
of this Order will be considered a not-for-profit organization or international
organization for purposes of Section 2(1)(g) and (2)(f) of CPA Order Number 38 only
after the organization has registered with the Customs Department, including, where
applicable, registration as a non-governmental organization pursuant to CPA Order
Number 45. An organization that has not registered with the Customs Department
prior to importation of goods will be required to pay the reconstruction levy at the
time of importation. The levy will be refunded if the organization meets the
applicable definition and registers with the Customs Department within 60 days of the
date of importation.

8) The reconstruction levy exemption for the persons and entities listed at Section 2(2)
of CPA Order Number 38 shall apply as follows:

a) Section 2(2)(c) of CPA Order Number 38 covers forces of countries and their
contractors and sub-contractors acting in coordination with Coalition Forces only
to the extent of activities that are in coordination with Coalition Forces and with
respect to goods imported for such activities;

b) Section 2(2)(d) of CPA Order Number 38 covers Coalition contractors and subcontractors
only with respect to imported goods supplied to the Coalition
Provisional Authority and Coalition Forces; and

c)
Sections 2(2)(e) and 2(2)(f) of CPA Order Number 38 cover contractors and
sub-contractors of Coalition Forces’ departments and agencies, governments,
international organizations, and not-for-profit organizations, only with respect to
goods that those persons or entities import for the provision of technical, material,
financial and human resource assistance.

Section 5
Revision of Customs Law


For purposes of implementing the reconstruction levy, the Customs Law shall be applied
with the following revisions:

1)
Article 55 of the Customs Law is revised by adding the following sentences at the end
of that article to read as follows:

The Director General of Customs shall determine the type of Reconstruction Levy
Computation Form, number of copies, information that must be included on the
form, documents to be attached and any exceptions to the stated requirements.
Reference to “Customs Declaration” or “Declaration” in this law shall refer to the
“Reconstruction Levy Computation Form” whenever applicable.

CPA/ORD/24 February 2004/54


2)
Claims for repayment of overpayments of the reconstruction levy resulting from
disputes of valuation may be submitted to the Opposition Body pursuant to Articles
74 to 77 of the Customs Law, regardless of whether the goods remain in the custody
of the Customs Department.

3)
Article 77(2) of Customs Law is hereby suspended for purposes of this Order.

4)
The exemption provided by free zones legislation will not apply to the reconstruction
levy.

5)
The reconstruction levy will not be imposed on the value of goods that entered Iraq
under an exemption set forth in section 2 of CPA Order Number 38 if the property is
destroyed or is otherwise no longer usable. Article 149(2)(c) of the Customs Law is
hereby suspended for purposes of this Order.

6)
The reconstruction levy shall not be refunded as a drawback when goods are reexported
abroad. Articles 151 and 152 of Customs Law are hereby suspended for
purposes of this Order.

7)
The reconstruction levy shall not be imposed on goods in transit, as defined in Part 8
of the Customs Law.

8)
Section 2 of CPA Order Number 38 provides the exclusive list of exemptions (both
exempt goods and exempt persons and entities) for purposes of the reconstruction
levy. Part 10 of the Customs Law is hereby suspended for purposes of this Order.

9) Fines imposed for offenses under Part 15, Chapters 4, 5, and 7 of the Customs Law
(as amended by Decision 103 of 2001) shall apply to the reconstruction levy. To
account for inflation, the amount of fines listed in dinars in those chapters will be
multiplied by 10.

Section 6
Excise Tax on Alcohol and Tobacco


Notwithstanding Section 1 of this Order, the Administrator or his delegee may reinstate
the Excise Tax on Alcohol and Tobacco products.

Section 7
Effective Date of Reconstruction Levy


CPA/ORD/24 February 2004/54


ANNEX A
COALITION PROVISIONAL AUTHORITY ORDER NUMBER 54
TRADE LIBERALIZATION POLICY 2004


RESTRICTED IMPORTS

The following items cannot be imported in any quantity unless the Ministry of Trade issues
a license authorizing the import:

.
Non-military explosives imported for industrial and commercial uses;
.
Industrial materials that may be used in the manufacture of explosives, but that have a
primary use unconnected to the manufacture of explosives, such as fertilizer; and

.
Fowl or poultry products from countries known or suspected to have had outbreaks of
pathogenic bird flu (avian influenza virus). As of the date of signing of CPA Order Number
54, these countries are Cambodia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Viet Nam, Indonesia, Laos,
China and Thailand.

Items and technologies listed in the following international nonproliferation regimes (that
are not otherwise prohibited under United Nations Security Council Resolutions or CPA
Orders) cannot be imported in any quantity unless the Ministry of Trade issues a license
authorizing the import:

.
Australia Group
.
Missile Technology Control Regime
.
Nuclear Suppliers Group
.
Wassenaar Arrangement

PROHIBITED IMPORTS

.
Magazines, films, videotapes and CDs contrary to public norms;

.
Arms, ammunition, all explosives other than industrial and commercial explosives, and
materials used in the manufacture of explosives that do not have a primary use unconnected
to the manufacture of explosives (other than any such items required by, or for purposes of,
the CPA (including contractor security personnel), Coalition Forces, and foreign liaison
mission security personnel ;

.
Non-medical narcotics (heroin, cocaine, cannabis etc.);

.
Nuclear, chemical, biological materials or weapons; components of such systems;
technologies and equipment for the development, manufacture, use or storage of such
materials or systems; delivery systems for such weapons; components of delivery systems for
such weapons; technologies and equipment for the development, manufacture, use or storage
of such delivery systems; and

.
Nuclear materials, except for radioisotopes for legitimate industrial, agricultural or medical
purposes.

CPA/ORD/24 February 2004/54


RESTRICTED EXPORTS

The following items cannot be exported in any quantity unless a license is issued by the
Ministry of Trade authorizing the export;

.
Non-military explosives imported for industrial or commercial use
.
Industrial materials that may be used in the manufacture of explosives, but that have a
primary use unconnected to the manufacture of explosives, such as fertilizer

Items and technologies listed in the following international nonproliferation regimes (that
are not otherwise prohibited under United Nations Security Council Resolutions or CPA
Orders) cannot be exported in any quantity unless the Ministry of Trade issues a license
authorizing the export:

.
Australia Group
.
Missile Technology Control Regime
.
Nuclear Suppliers Group
.
Wassenaar Arrangement

The following items in quantities in excess of personal use cannot be exported unless the
Ministry of Trade issues a license authorizing the export:

Foodstuffs

.
Sugar
.
Tea
.
Imported Rice
.
Wheat and Wheat Flour
.
Imported Vegetable Oils and Fats
.
Lentils and Chickpeas
.
Dried Beans
.
Milk Powder and Infant Formula
.
Yellow Corn for Animal Feed

Animals

.
All animals (including fowl), excluding household pets

Manufactured Goods

.
Ferro-concrete, Iron, Iron Reinforcing Rods
.
Galvanized Iron Plates, Steel Sheets and Plates
.
Wood of all kinds
.
Mineral Water Pipes and their Fittings
.
Ceramic and other Bathroom Furnishings including Taps and Sinks
.
Plain and Colored Window Glass
.
Metals of all kinds, including scrap

Other Articles

CPA/ORD/24 February 2004/54


.
Bar soap and detergents (in quantities that exceed personal use)
.
Date palm seedlings and shoots

PROHIBITED EXPORTS

.
Historical artifacts (excluding modern military artifacts and items not prohibited from export
under existing Iraqi law)

.
Magazines, films, videotapes, and CDs contrary to public norms

.
Arms, ammunition, and all explosives other than industrial and commercial explosives and
materials used in the manufacture of explosives that do not have a primary use unconnected
to the manufacture of explosives (other than such items originally imported by, or required
for historical or other purposes of, the CPA (including contractor security personnel),
Coalition Forces, and foreign liaison mission security personnel)

.
Non-medical narcotics (heroin, cocaine, cannabis, etc.)

.
Nuclear, chemical, biological materials or weapons; components of such systems;
technologies and equipment for the development,, manufacture, use or storage of such
materials or systems; delivery systems for such weapons; components of delivery systems for
such weapons; technologies and equipment for the development, manufacture, use or storage
of such delivery systems. Except that such materials, components, systems may be delivered
to Coalition authorities for disposition and elimination.

.
Nuclear materials, except for radioisotopes for legitimate industrial, agricultural or medical
purposes, and nuclear materials delivered to Coalition authorities for disposition and
elimination.

CPA/ORD/24 February 2004/54

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).