Oregon Historical Quarterly/Volume 24/Documentary number 1

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Introductory Note

Rev. George Gary, who was sent by the Mission Board of the Methodist Episcopal Church to Oregon with broad powers, left New York November 30, 1843, accompanied by Mrs. Gary, on board the Lawrence. After an uneventful voyage they arrived at Honolulu, April 24, 1844, and sailed thence by the bark Brothers of Guernsey, Captain Flere, for the Columbia River. Although the vessel entered the river May 23, it was not until the last day of that month that Vancouver was reached. Mr. Gary proceeded to the Willamette Valley, and as his diary shows, acted with promptness and vigor in curtailing the activities and disposing of the properties of the Mission, His reasons are clearly stated, and the diary gives his side of the long debated controversy as to whether his acts were justified by the circumstances.

Mr. Gary's diary is in the possession of his descendants and has never been printed. Until the present time none of its important contents has been accessible to students of the period, although some of his letters relating to Oregon have been available and have been published. The diary is voluminous and covers much besides the portion of his life that was spent in Oregon, from 1844 to 1847. This portion, however, is important to Oregon history, and arrangements have been made to publish so much of it in the Quarterly, where it will appear in several successive numbers.

George Gary was a native of Middlefield, New York, having been born there December 8, 1793. He was therefore fifty years of age when he went to Oregon in 1843.

He was licensed to preach by the Annual Conference of New England in 1809, at the age of fifteen and one-half years, and is said to have been the youngest candidate for traveling preacher ever received into the Methodist Episcopal Church. He spent the greater part of his life in the State of New York and became one of the most prominent preachers of his time in that region. An account of his life is to be found in Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit. His death occurred in Vernon, New York, March 25, 1855.

The excerpts from the diary, which are here published, begin with the arrival at Honolulu.

Charles Henry Carey

Thurs. April 25, 1844. After having spent twentyone weeks on the ever moving sea, we go on shore and the ground holds still for us to walk upon it. We are conducted by Mr Hall[1] to his dwelling and are made welcome to the hospitalities of his house. We spend a week in this place, entertained and accommodated by this kind family. We visited quite a number of families in this place. All treated us with attention and respect as far as I am able to see and judge, from this short period, our Presbyterian brethren are doing a good and great work here, certainly we are under many obligations for the cordial and Christian manner in which they received and treated us while we remained at Honolulu. The natural scenery here was new to us. Every hill in view reminded us, from its appearance, of lava, which had been 70 Charles Henry Carey poured forth from some heated and active volcano, whose fires had gone out from time immemorial. The soil if soil it may be called, is unproductive. Almost every article of vegetation has to be frequently watered, espe- cially in the dry season. Labor from the natives can be readily and cheaply obtained. Almost every tree, shrub and plant was new to us. We saw the fig tree, cocoanut tree, bananna tree and many others. The valleys a little back from the village where there are frequent rains, are somewhat productive. From these valleys natives daily appear in the streets and certain other places called mar- kets, with potatoes, melons, cucumbers, bananas &c. The manner of building houses was also new. They are built of adobe, a kind of brick made of mud and grass dried in the sun. The door yards and gardens are fenced with the same material. When whitewashed these houses and gardens fences appear very nice. Such is the warmth of the climate that foreigners, especially Ameri- cans and Englishmen, are very much prostrated and have but very little vigor. Our cold winters of the north, I think, contribute very much to make a healthy and vigor- ous people. After spending one week very pleasantly and sharing abundantly in the hospitalities of the people, which often most seasonably appears in choice and well prepared vegetables, we left Honolulu in the morning, Tuesday, May 2nd, 1844, and went on board the barque Brothers of Guernsey, now taking freight to Fort Vancouver for Hudson Bay Company. In this vessel we take passage for Columbia River. At our dinner table, in our new and floating home, brandy and wine plenty. Nothing else very nice. But here we are and must go forward trust- ing the event with him whose ways are equal. About one o'clock P. M. anchor hoisted and the pilot conducts the Brothers out to sea. Three P. M. a good drink crowns the parting scene with our pilot and he leaves us in great cheer amidst Diary of Rev. George Gary 71 hurrahs. When will the cause of temperance triumph so as to banish alcohol from the business walks of life? Let the friends of temperance work on. They have done much already and yet much remains to be done, but there is something so benevolent and good in the cause of tem- perance it must succeed. It has so many redeeming traits and carries with it such distinguished and great blessings to all classes and has enlisted such strength and talent in its favor and has already achieved so much for man in different parts of the civilized world. I ask is it visionary to congratulate ourselves it can and will and must succeed. We now find ourselves in a new circle, not one amongst us an American. There are two pas- sengers besides us. Mr Roberts 2 and lady, Mr R. has been for many years in the service of the Hudson Bay Company in Oregon. He went to England more than a year ago a single man, is now returning with a wife. She is much out of health, yet we feel well pleased we have a female fellow passenger with us and from present appearances, flatter ourselves we shall enjoy much pleas- ure in their society in our voyage and get some informa- tion concerning affairs in Oregon. We have to go west bearing north in order to pass through the trade winds to the least disadvantage and make all the northing we can, which is but little at present. To our amazement [although] we have been but one week on the land the motion of the vessel reminds us there is such a thing, if thing it may be called, as seasickness. Mrs Gary is so affected as to vomit occasionally. Our berth is the most quiet place. [1844] Sun. May 5. Sea very rough. No meeting to- day, but everything about the vessel as quiet as can be expected. Wed. 8. Our wind continues very strong in the north- 2 G. B. Roberts. His autobiography is set out in part in Bancroft, Vol. I, Oregon, p. 38, note. His wife, formerly Miss Martha Cable, of Aldborough, was his first cousin, and married him on his recent visit to England. 72 Charles Henry Carey east, so we cannot make any easting at all and here we are more than thirty-five degrees west of the Columbia River. Fri. 10. We are crowded west by the trade wind alto- gether beyond our expectations. We are nearly 162 c West Longitude. We are more and more confirmed in the opinion there is nothing scarcely provided on board this vessel for the comfort and decent support of passen- gers. Everything indicates penuriousness except wine and brandy, as though these constitute the sum total of a respectable entertainment for passengers on board an English merchantman. Our vessel does not belong to the Hudson Bay Company, but is only chartered to take a cargo to Fort VanCouver in the Columbia River for said Company. Our Captain drinks hard and there is no telling how unpleasant, yea, painful it is to be at sea under the management and control of a man who is often disguised by alcohol. Sun. 12. We have meeting today in the cabin. We have prayers every evening. Mon. 13. Wind more favorable. Lon. 156.33, Lat 45. Mon. 20. We have done very well for a few days as far as progressing on our route, or course is concerned. Lon. 134.14 Lat 43.36 We find very agreeable persons in our fellow passengers, Mr and Mrs Roberts. They appear as very moral persons, respecting religion and sacred things, as though well educated and religiously disposed. We all groan under the poverty of our fare. Our unanimous opinion is our Captain is too niggardly close to be considered a possible captain for a vessel in ordinary business of commerce, especially one that has accommodations for passengers. Last, but not least, of our evils, our Captain disguised every day by strong drink so as to be foolish in his conversation, and the tongue, generally so active in a sea captain, appears in conversation thick and clumsy. We cannot avoid some anxiety as we approach the river under the command of Diary of Rev. George Gary 73 such a man, seeing the entrance is very difficult and some- what dangerous, but we remember in whose hands we are and this gives not only hope but a tolerable degree of quietude of spirit. Wed. 22. We are progressing finely. We hope to see land tomorrow, we have cool weather, small and frequent showers of rain. Ther 53, Lat 45.25, Lon 127.14. Thurs. 23. Our wind through the night was light after a little while, appearances of land, at 10 A. M. land abundantly in sight. There has been some error in our calculations. We find we are one day nearer land than we had expected. Providence was kind and tender to- ward us in our moderate wind last night, otherwise we might have unexpectedly run upon land to our injury and peril. There are breakers near the entrance into the river. About 4: P. M. just within the breakers, we struck, but the wind was light and the waves very quiet. We cast anchor and sent out a boat to sound out our route, fired our cannon perhaps eight or ten times in hope of being heard at Fort George (formerly Astoria), and that Mr Birnie, 3 who has the charge at that place would hear and come to our aid, though the fort is per- haps ten miles off. After we had made the best exami- nation we could by our boat in various soundings and knowing our situation to pass the night would be peril- ous, especially if the wind should increase, we hoisted anchor and spread our sail with trembling solicitude and our barque moved most favorably, and before seven o'clock P. M. we cast anchor in Baker's Bay, at the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon Territory. In a little while we saw an Indian canoe approaching us. They soon came up with some geese and a few other things which were purchased by our captain. Mr Roberts took the dispatches for Fort VanCouver and got into the canoe with the Indians and left us, his sick wife remaining on board the vessel. 3 James Birnie. 74 Charles Henry Carey Fri. 24. This morning our Captain is making a stir to start up the river, but soon a canoe is seen coming toward us ; he is persuaded to wait until its arrival. To our great joy it proves to be Mr Birnie. He informed our Captain of the unfavorable state of the tide and, consequently, we wait a while. As the land is near us, the Captain has some of his men take a boat and take himself and Mr Birnie, Mrs Gary and myself on shore. Here we spend an hour or two and here we are walking on land in Oregon. Vegetation is in a very flourishing state, everything indicates a very strong soil. We return to our vessel and in a favorable state of the tide make an effort to go up the river. Fort Vancouver is about one hundred miles up the river. For vessels to pass up the river it is necessary to move in low tide, then if she strikes the bars, when the tide rises she will float. We spent the day in trying to get up the river and with all care and toil and until twilight. We passed perhaps eight miles. Being about two miles below Fort George, our Captain went home with Mr Birnie. Sat. 25. Our mate and men, being desirous to show their competency easily hoisted anchor and before the arrival of the Captain and Mr Birnie, spread their sail and made an effort to go up the river ; and very soon we are snugly on a sand bar. The Captain and Mr Birnie came and finding the vessel so fast on the bar, our cannon is again fired as a signal to a vessel at anchor at Fort George, for aid. Captain Scarborough 4 and five of his men come to our aid. About ten A. M. our vessel is afloat again. The Captain and his men remain with us all day and we ascend the river perhaps two miles, so we are near Fort George. Last night Mrs Roberts was very sick. She suffered very much during the night. We had some fear as to the results. She is some better today although the noise and tumult about our vessel is

  • Capt. James Scarborough, of the Hudson's Bay Company's vessel, Diary of Rev. George Gary

75 very annoying to her, yet she bears it with as much patience and fortitude as could be expected. We are now sharing in the very seasonable hospitalities of Mr Birnie and his family. We have good board, bread and butter with eggs, salmon &c. We are feasting. Sun. 26. Our seamen are so worn down by yester- day's toil, and we are much worn by our care and toil night and day for and with Mrs Roberts. We have no meeting today and lie still and quiet at anchor. A day of rest. Mon. 27. This morning while waiting for wind, also tide, and Mrs Roberts being now comfortable, we go on shore and visit Mr Birnie and family, look at the sur- rounding scenery, no appearance of a fort, we see where the Indian dead have been deposited in their canoes, the bones of some are visible. We saw where the once great and famous Concomly 5 once lay quiet in death. We also visited the great tree which lies still and quiet on the ground, before the tooth of time had gnawed its surface, and also before the passing flames from time to time had singed it, it is very apparent that at a long distance from its roots it was forty or forty-five feet in circumference. The longest sapling by far we ever saw. After spending three or four hours on shore very pleasantly, aided and attended by Mr Birnie and family, we return to the boat. In the afternoon an effort is made to progress up the river. We are attended by Mr Birnie, Capt. Scarbor- ough and an Indian pilot called George ; though the river is wide, the channel is narrow. The Captains and Mr Birnie are so full of talk and also so full of drink, we touch and stick three times in going four miles, but the tide and wind are in our favor. Soon after we cast anchor for the night, a vessel coming down the river sends us a fat sheep. Mr Roberts, I suppose, has let some persons know what poor and miserable fare we have on board this vessel. Mr Birnie and Capt. Schar- 8 Chief of the Clatsops. 76 Charles Henry Carey borough return to the fort, so we are now left with our Indian pilot. Tues. 28. Our men are out early, taking our pilot with them, sounding to find out the channel, leaving their buoys as guides in different place, after making a very careful examination, they return and wait some time for a favorable state of the tide, in this they are particular. Anchor is hoisted and we start, but within an hour we are on a sand bar, as the tide is still ebbing, we are under the necessity of waiting some time, our vessel has hit this bar sidewise, and as the tide continues to ebb, our vessel cants over sidewise very much. Some fears are entertained she may tip over. While in this condition Mr Roberts returns from Vancouver with a Mr Johnson 6 who has come to aid us up the river ; this man is said to be the best in conducting a vessel up the river of any man in the region. As the tide turns and rises, our ves- sel is uprighted. In due time she floats. Mr Johnson takes the helm, and although it is near night, we pass on some miles most pleasantly and finally cast anchor for the night near Pillar Rock. Wed. 29. Our wind up the river very light, the river is very high and at ebb tide the current down is very rapid and strong, our progress is very slow and after sailing ten or fifteen miles we cast anchor and remain at anchor the remainder of the day. Thurs. 30. Six months today since we sailed from the Port of New York. In the night for a short period our wind was fair. Sails were spread and we passed up perhaps fifteen miles. Our wind is very light and prog- ress slow. We are very dependent on this very variable and uncertain element. We have a very distant view of a volcano in action, throwing up clouds of smoke. For some days we have seen Mount Helen [St. Helens] which is covered perpetually with snow; this volcano as it ap- 6 Probably William Johnson, naval veteran of the war of 1812, one of the participants in the organization of the Provisional Government, and one of the first settlers within the present limits of the city of Portland. Diary of Rev. George Gary 77 pears so far off seems to be near it, but I am not able to form an opinion whether this volcano is near enough to melt the perpetual snows or not. On further inquiry I have learned that this volcano is in Mount Helen itself, and that either the snow is diminishing or the soot set- tling upon the white covering of the mountain presents the appearance of wasting snow. It is so cold near these snowy mountains and the snow is so deep I believe there has been no very thorough examination of them, and this volcano is so high up the mountain as that the tempera- ture at its base is but little, if any, affected by it. The falling ashes or soot have been seen and gathered from boards or anything of a smooth surface, say, fifty miles from the crater. 4: P. M. While we are coming up the river very pleasantly, a boat is seen coming down. We all gaze for a while, bye and bye Mr Roberts announces it is Mr Abernethy. 7 In a short time we meet and he comes on board and informs us he has heard we had entered the Columbia River and has come to meet us and take us to Williamette Falls, but as the day is far spent, we remain on board over night. By the papers overland through Mexico, by the way of Sandwich Islands the news of our appointment and of our sailing from New York had preceeded in advance of us. Both at the Islands and in Oregon more than a month. When we arrived at the Islands we learned that Messrs. Frost and D. Lee 8 sailed for the states in the year 1843, in the fall Rev. J. Lee had gone to the states by way of Mexico, Rev G. Hines and family had started from Oregon with J. Lee for the states, but after their arrival at Honolulu, finding no con- venient opportunity to proceed, and hearing of an op- 7 George Abernethy, Steward of the mission, afterward Governor under the Provisional Government. . s Dr Ira L. Babcock, Daniel Lee and J. H. Frost and their families went to the Islands by way of California on the bark Diamond, August 21 1843. Babcock and family returned. Jason Lee and Gustavus Hines and family left Oregon by the English bark Columbia, February 3, 1844, but Hines and family returned. 78 Charles Henry Carey portunity which failed, and learning of our appointment and of the time we sailed from New York, they returned to Oregon, leaving the Islands about a month before we arrived there. Fri. 31. Our wind up the river very light, our prog- ress consequently very slow. About 5: P. M. we leave the Brothers, the place of poor fare and of strong drink. In our voyage in the Laurance from New York to Oahu, of twenty-one weeks, I gained in weight ten pounds, in the Brothers of four weeks (and a few of the days since we came into the river very good fare, but little credit to Capt. Flere however) I have lost more than half I gained on the Laurance. Mrs Kary on board of this vessel would have suffered much more than I did, had it not been for some choice things provided for us by the outfit with which the Board furnished us before we left New York. These supplies were in season and we never shall forget the benefits they afforded us without emotions of inexpressible gratitude to the Board of Man- agers of the Missionary Society of the M. E. Church. And I trust the rememberance of these supplies will be attended with gratitude and praise to the Father of every good and perfect gift. * * * Adieu to the penurious Brothers. Adieu, I say, to the penurious Brothers. After leaving our vessel, we find ourselves in a small boat. Our crew consist of Mr Abernethy as master and helms- man, and an American by the name of Wood, and two Sandwich Islanders called Kanakas. With this crew we are rowed up the river until within about two miles of Fort Vancouver and about ten o'clock in the evening, we go ashore, strike a fire, eat our supper, crawl into a small tent and are soon in the arms of balmy and refreshing sleep on the northern bank of the Columbia River. [1844] Sat. June 1. About three o'clock this morning, our feathered neighbors upon the surrounding branches commence their songs with apparent delight and melody. 4 A. M. We start for Vancouver and soon arrive there, Diary of Rev. George Gary 79 and are introduced to Mr Douglas, 9 one of the leading men in the Hudson Bay Company of this place. We are provided with a breakfast, i. e. Mr Abernethy, Mrs Gary and myself. The men and women in this place — I mean those belonging to the Hudson Bay Company, never eat together, and all visitors either are provided by them- selves when they eat together, or are separated, the man being taken to the hall where the men eat, and the women eat with other women belonging to those who are in the employ of the Company. We made the necessary ar- rangements to have our freight stored and soon start for Williamette Falls. Are conducted to Mr Abernethy's. It is a time of quarterly meeting with them. Most of the members of the mission are here. We are introduced to them. They appear glad to see us and welcome us to this distant field of missionary labor. The most are ex- pecting letters ; we open our mail and distribute our let- ters and papers; what an eventful moment, with what intense interest these letters are opened and the contents hastily glanced at! After spending an hour or two in conversation and answering questions concerning persons and events in the states, and also after eating a good supper, we retire to rest, a little after midnight. Sun. 2. Delightful love feast. No telling how good it is after spending so many months in a desert to find ourselves as in the Garden of the Lord. The language and spirit of this meeting make a favorable impression upon our minds. Mon. 3. This day I have a council with the brethern present, clerical and laymen, composed of Dr. Leslie, G. Hines, A. F. Waller, L. M. Johnson, G. Abernethy, A. Beers and H. Campbell. After prayer and organizing the meeting, I stated to them the views of the Board of Managers at home, as far as I understood them, in which the following points were suggested. They have erred 9 James Douglas (later Sir James). The American named Wood, in the preceding entry, was perhaps W. Wood mentioned by Robert Shortess in Or. Pioneer Trans, for 1896, p. 105. 80 Charles Henry Carey in reference to the prospects of benefitting the Indians of this territory. They are not so numerous as was ex- pected, and are more migratory than was expected. And these improper views have led the Board to too high hopes of their situation as a people. Second, these mistaken views have led the Board into too heavy appropriations of missionaries and persons. Thirdly, They seriously fear the missionary work here is more secular than it ought to be to benefit essen- tially the benighted and destitute of these ends of the earth. Fourth : They have long been afflicted that they have so little information concerning this mission in detailed particulars, concerning its fiscal and spiritual condition and interests. Fifthly : They, the Board, purpose in my visit to the mission to learn how the mission stands in reference to its pecuniary affairs, and especially its moral and re- ligious character and spiritual influence upon community in general and upon the Indians in particular. Sixthly. They are under the necessity of retrench- ment. Their finances are low, have long been seriously embarassed with debts, and though they have made vari- ous efforts to cancel their debts, as yet the debts are lessened but little. One of two things must follow; a riper field for harvest in the moral vineyard must present itself to wake up the missionary zeal and action of the church at home, or the appropriations must be much les- sened, they are driven by necessity to the latter. Seventhly. We cannot draw for any more from their funds than they authorize; in so doing I am sure we should betray our trust and jeopardize our character. We have been authorized to draw for five thousand dollars, but as a number have left our field, we must make a deduction in proportion. Further than this I cannot go. You know the income from the various re- sources in this country put this with the amount for Diary of Rev. George Gary 81 which we can draw and you have our means; and now we must cut our garment according to the cloth. After these remarks were made, I requested them to give me any information they thought proper. From their sug- gestions I gather the following particulars: 1st. Pre- vious to the arrival of the emigrants over the mountains in the fall of 1843, the influence of the Mission was con- tributing; this probably arose from the numbers con- nected with the Mission and from the amount of business carried on by the Mission, and also from the dependent condition of many of the community on the Mission for employ and support. The emigrants of 1843 brought with them a strong prejudice against the Mission as a powerful monopoly, especially in view of the number and location of sections of land to which it had already laid claim. Also, they came with the purpose of riding over and breaking down the Mission. This jealousy and prejudice, on arriving here, was heightened by being cor- dially met, countenanced, and at last indirectly co-operat- ed with on the part of leading and distinguished members of the Hudson Bay Company. 2nd. The Mission, or some of its prominent members, has had a controversy with Doct. McLaughlin [McLoughlin] in reference to a section of land at Williamette Falls. This controversy has arrayed community into parties, some for the Doct. and some for the Mission. In this state of affairs our claims in some places are being "jumped," as it is called. There can be but little doubt, if any, but that the public feeling will sustain the jumpers, and it is probable that to dispute the point with them will tend to the injury and disadvantage of the Mission. The most of this land thus claimed by the Mission is not occupied in any sense by the Mission. This state of things has brought all, or nearly all con- nected with the Mission to the conclusion that there ought to be an essential change in our mode of operation in this Mission. 82 Charles Henry Carey In the evening I had interview with the preachers, how the work shall be arranged or supplied this year were the leading questions. I stated to them that though we are missionaries and can remain many years at the same appointment, yet when the interests of religion do not stand in the way, we should hold ourselves subject to annual or frequent removal, as itinerancy is an estab- lished and prominent trait in Methodism, and we are parts and parcels of this itinerancy. The result of our interview as follows: Williamette Settlement, David Leslie Williamette Falls, Gustavus Hines Dalls, A. F. Waller, H. K. W. Perkins Clatsops, supplied for six months (J. L. Parrish.) Tues. 4. Left for Williamette Settlement in company with D. Leslie, G. Hines and family, Doct. Babcock, L. H. Judson and A. Beers. We went up the river against a strong current about twenty-five miles, then took land conveyance and after traveling about three miles, put up for the night under a large and prickly shaded fir tree. Here we take a fine supper, attend to our devo- tions, wrap ourselves in our mantles, lie down on our bed, which is the ground; spread our umbrellas partly over our heads to keep the night air off. Am ready to exclaim, "Safe in Thine arms I lay me down, Thine ever- lasting arms of love." Here we spend the night pleas- antly in sweet and refreshing sleep. This manner of journeying is new to Mrs Gary and myself. The ground answers the double purpose of table and bed, yes, and of chairs also, and when the traveler or travelers are careful to take a sufficient supply of provisions, it is dif- ficult to tell with what independence he or they may pass through this land, and by the by, it is somewhat pleasant. Wed. 5. We rise early and start for Doct. Babcock's. Take breakfast with his family, who live in a building erected for a hospital in the old settlement on the Wil- liamette. Here is a fine farm belonging to the Mission, Diary of Rev. George Gary 83 managed by Mr Beers. He also carries on a blacksmith- ing business for the mission. Thurs. 6. Today we go up the river about ten miles further, to the place where our Indian manual labor school is established. This is considered an important point in our Mission. We have in this immediate vicin- ity this Indian School, parsonage in which D. Leslie lives, and our milling establishment, both grist and saw mills, and claims to sixteen sections of land. Surely a place of high hopes and large investments and I suppose also a place of great expense annually. I am satisfied I have a burden to meet here which as yet I am unable to foresee how I shall dispose of. The saw and grist mills can be sold or disposed of in some way I presume, without essentially affecting the Mission, but this school has in the hopes of its immediate friends promised much for the benefit and salvation of the Indians of this land. I call a council of the Brethern present in reference to this school. We have in council D. Leslie, G. Hines, I. L. Babcock, A. Beers, J. L. Parish, H. Campbell and W. W. Raymond. In this interview it appears as the unani- mous opinion of all present, that this school costs the Mission more than all the other operations of the Mission in this land. Salary and traveling expenses of H. Campbell, Sup't of said school $1000 Teacher and board of said teacher 590 Female teacher and Board 204 Support of James Bates, a kind of manager, salary and board 450 Clothing and boarding say thirty Indian Children 3432 Expense of transportation of supplies from the Falls 150 Medicine from the physicians 50 Clothing and boarding three young men, as help said to be indispensably necessary 468 $6334 84 Charles Henry Carey There is devoted to the use of the school perhaps five thousand dollars worth of stock and tools to carry it on, in its manual labor operations, but the income of this stock and the productions of the farm will not more than keep the stock and tools good, after all the wear, tear, break loss and stealing of these scholars and their asso- ciates are made good. The benefits of the school were also inquired for. The prevailing opinion was that all or nearly all the good that had resulted from it was that quite a number had experienced religion here and died when in school and hopefully gone to heaven. All agreed the Indian community had not been benefitted by any one who had left the school and returned to the various walks of life. If they have distinguished themselves in any way it is for their depravity. Four only have left the school regularly. Some of them have run away and many have died. The dead have been decently buried. Runaways have been punished as criminals. The most of them have taken their stolen budget and when found have been brought back, put in chains, severely whipped, &c, &c, guarded and kept within a high enclosure, like prisoners. I blush at this information, but it has all the overwhelming evidence of truth, and, indeed, its verity makes me blush the more. In some instances the consent of the parents of these children has been bought that their children may attend school. The health of nearly all in school at this time is very poor, corrupted by crime in their degraded and depraved ancestors, they are seriously affected with venereal scrofula. In some instances there is great reason to fear the boys and girls have had criminal intercourse with each other while at- tending this school. Individuals of them have required medical aid and attention to cure them from the disease so common to the dissipated. Our school has given some occasion, perhaps, to be suspected at this point, but pos- sibly as much caution has been used as could be expected all things taken into account. These children receive no Diary of Rev. George Gary 85 check or restraint on their animal propensities from their parents and friends any more than the pigs in the street, and, as far as I am able to learn, as is the child, so is the parent and the grave is opening to receive them all. A most appalling scene, but so it is. We spent all night in our council, and as some must leave soon we devoted most of Fri. 7. to this most important and very difficult subject, and finally dispersed without settling upon any- thing very definite. One point, however, tacitly fixed, the school must be managed upon a more economical plan or be discontinued. We deliberated on the practicability of letting H. Campbell take the school and have the use of the property connected with the school and a limited appropriation such as we could possibly make, and let him manage it one year on his own pecuniary responsi- bility. While I saw a difficulty here, the Mission would have to father the character of the school and also the management and government of the school, and as it was confidentially suggested to me that rumor has thrown shades over Bro. CampbelPs character in reference to some events which are said to have taken place between Br. Campbell and S — a, a student in the school, I dare not venture this expedient. In the afternoon returned to Doct. Babcock. Sat. 8. Today I sell the farm at Clatsop to J. L. Parish, at Clatsop, as follows: He takes it, stock and tools, as an equivalent for his claims on the Missionary Society, for his return to the states, and also for his claim as a preacher for six months. He has the use of the canoe while employed as a preacher. He is to pay $30 for the chaldron kettle now at Clatsop. Sun. 9. Today we have meeting in the granary at the hospital. About twenty hearers — perhaps ten in class. This to me appears as the day of small things as far as meetings are concerned. This day I complete reading the bible in course the third time since we left New York. 86 Charles Henry Carey Mon. 10. Return to the Indian School. Attend the school, have the children recite, read, spell, examined their writing. They have some aptitude in penmanship, some knowledge of geography. A few of them can read in the testament though poorly. One half of them are in the alphabet or abs. I requested the teacher to give me a list of their names and of the days they were present and absent for two or three months past. Some of these children have been in school or attached to the school for perhaps six years or more, their progress has not been rapid, but there are many reasons why their progress is slow. Their ignorance of the English Language in childhood, their poor health, frequent running away, &c, the loss of time and interruption attendant on these events are among them. The practicability of continuing this school is very doubtful in my mind. I am satisfied there has been very loose management in the business department of the school, great unnecessary waste from a neglect to take care of the various tools and utensils about the premises, which are left here and there in a manner tending rapidly to decay, but even here it should be kept in mind that those who used these tools and left or dropped them here and there, were Indian boys. Tues. 11. This Indian school is the subject of thought and topic of conversation, one of the most difficult and embarassing subjects that has presented itself to my view as connected with the Mission, designed originally as a most noble charity to educate the youth of both sexes so that they may rise in intelligence and virtue to such a degree as to enjoy life itself, and extend a helpful in- fluence among the surrounding Indians. This school has, in some form, and in some way been in progress for per- haps eight years. Formerly it was conducted in the old buildings, as they are called, about ten miles down the Williamette River. More than three years ago it was determined to move this school into this vicinity. The building erected for it is seventy-one feet long, 24 feet Diary of Rev. George Gary 87 wide, three stories high, with two wings 24 feet square. A noble edifice in appearance, it is not finished, the cor- nice is not on, weather-boards not on ; it will, doubtless cost more than two thousand dollars. It will take more than two thousand dollars to finish it? It is decaying for the want of some more labor on it. It has probably cost the Mission now from eight to ten thousand dollars. It will take more than two thousand dollars to finish it. What shall be done? There are no adult Indians in the Williamette part of the territory that appear to lead a religious life, not one in society. A few of the children in school profess religion, but the consistency of their profession depends greatly upon the religious excitement for the time being. This day I received the following exhibit of school for sixty days past from the teacher, which I suppose about the ordinary state of the school. Male children: Benjm. Roberts Present Enoch Mudge Francis Hall G. R. Carter Ion Tuttle Jason Lee Jared Pickins John Hall John Mudge Edgar Spaulding Jos. Shangaster [Shangarati] Thomas Mitchell Osman Baker Peter Akers David Wm. Sutton Thomas Adams Peter Andersen Angelica Carpenter Quimmo Elizabeth Atwell Mary Ann Bastinette Nancy Baker 29 days Absent 30 29 30 29 31 36 24 13 47 9 (Run away.) 12 Absent 48 59 1 12 48 20 40 11 49 39 (Lately Admitted) 16 Absent 44 57 3 59 1 59 1 0 60 0 60 49 11 13 47 57 3 3 (taken away.) 56 4 88 Charles Henry Carey Lucy Hedding 1 Sarah Stevens Sarah Rich I Rebecca Rich, (lately adm.) 32 7 52 28 53 8 10 Deducting the apprentices, the runaway and the one taken away, leaving on the school list twenty-three schol- ars. Some of this absence is from sickness and some for labor on the farm, as it is a manual labor school. I believe I shall come to the conclusion to discontinue this school. I have no idea of ever being able to hear how a great proportion of the appropriation made to this Mis- sion has been expended. Perhaps the Board will obtain from Brother Lee all the information that can be ob- tained on the question. Sat. 15. For a few days I have been right busy in writing to the Board and friends in the states, to be sent over the mountains by a small party who design to return to the states. Sun. 16. Preached at the school, forty-five hearers, old and young, white and Indian. Mon. 17. Finished our letters. My letters to the Board mostly filled with reference to the Indian manual labor school. Tues. 18. Visited at Mr Holman's. 10 Mr H. married Miss Phelps, who came to the territory in the great ex- citement of 1840, as a female teacher. I inquired of her how long she had taught school since she came. Answer, nearly two months. She informed me she used to keep an account of everything that was taken from mission goods for each scholar, but no one had ever inquired for the account. The largest number she had on her school list was 32, the highest number I am able to find on the list at any time was 42. Mrs Holman speaks like all the others I have seen and conversed with on the subject, of the large reinforcement. They were so thick that they 10 Joseph Holman, an immigrant with the Peoria party, 1839-40, mar- ried, in Oregon, Almira Phelps, a teacher, who came with the fourth group of Methodist missionaries, June 1, 1840. Diary of Rev. George Gary 89 were in each other's way and comparatively had nothing to do but to take care of each other or tread on one an- other's toes, and within less than a year she gave her hand in wedlock to Mr. Holman, and is now busily em- ployed in rocking the cradle to quiet her second child. Wed. 19. I have been enjoining it upon Brother Lee [Leslie?] to keep a diary, in which the passing events of each day shall be entered, embracing the opportunities to do good his own feelings, in doing this good any pe- culiar events &c, &c, &c, and if nothing important transpired, his reading for the day, and his remarks con- cerning what he reads, and send the same to the Board. I think it altogether probable I shall find it easier to preach than to practice this diary lecture. This day I read Doctor Clark's general preface to his commentaries, in which I see not only his severe remarks concerning Doctor Coke, but his more just remarks concerning those calculations, or perhaps more properly speaking, prophe- cies of the end of the world, like Mr Miller and the Millerites as they are called in the States. Sat. 22nd. Returned to the hospital, Doctor Babcock's. Sab. 23rd. Preached in the granary about twenty hearers old and young. Mon. 24. Spent in reading books belonging to Doct. Babcock's professional library. Tues. 25. Visited Mr Smith and family. 11 Had a pleasant and religious interview. This visit will not be last. Wed. 26. Returned to the school, met most of the male members belonging to the M. E. Church in the region, at Rev. D. Leslie's in consultation about the state of our property connected with the Indian manual labor school. Their members have already made a beginning to establish a literary institution on the Wallace Prairie, about three miles from our Indian School, to be called 11 Probably Andrew Smith, immigrant with Dr. White's party, Octo- ber, 1842. 90 Charles Henry Carey the Oregon Institute. They have chosen trustees, com- menced a building and expended a few thousand dollars. After the meeting was organized, I stated to them that I had settled it in my mind to close the Indian School in this place, and that if they could arrange their affairs so as to deem it proper to purchase the building used for the Indian School, I was ready to sell it to them on the following conditions : We reserve the parsonage, which is perhaps forty rods from the school building, for a parsonage, and as much land with parsonage as shall be judged proper. Also mission mills and as much land with the mills as we deem desirable; then I would sell them the large school building and our title to as much land as we reserve for the parsonage and also for mills, for four thousand dollars, with annual interest at six per cent, payments to be made annually of $500.00. It is, furthermore, understood and declared that if Rev. J. Lee has obtained, or shall soon obtain any title from the Congress of the United States of this land for the Mis- sion of M. E. Church, such title shall be conveyed to the trustees of Oregon Institute. It is also agreed that if said Mr Lee obtain from Congress a title as above, to more sections of land in this plat of land (formerly designed for the Indian School) than are embraced in the parsonage lot and in the mill reserve, also an equal amount of land to these reserves to be connected with a [the?] large building, then and in that case the surplus lands are to be considered the joint property equally be- longing to the Missionary Society of the M. E. Church and the trustees of Oregon Institute, and their successors in office. They appointed a committee from this Board of Trustees to make the purchase, said committee were also authorized and directed to sell their former premises. In this arrangement there was great unanimity of judg- ment and feeling and it is hoped that a foundation was laid for a literary institution which in its influence will contribute much to the intellectual and moral interest Diary of Rev. George Gary 91 of the rising community. Now it is settled this Indian School is to be given up. In addition to what I have heretofore remarked on the propriety of this measure, I will now say that within eighteen months previous to my arrival in this territory, nine members of the school have died. Within seven months seven of the present members (23) have been lost to human view. Some of the present members can live but a few months. Quite a number of these have scrofula sores about the glands of the neck. Whenever this loathsome disease takes its course toward the lungs, then the poor sufferer soon sleeps in death. There are but very few of the children now in school who do not show evident marks of this disease. From observation I am satisfied the scholars have had a very great opportunity for pilfering. For instance the girls have daily passed through the places of deposit of goods and clothing to and from their lodging rooms and have had every opportunity to take small gar- ments and many things and distribute among visiting Indians. Perhaps twenty opened kegs of nails and many other things [are] every way accessible to where the boys lodge. One peculiar trait in the Indian character is to have everything in common and to use and distribute as they have opportunity to take, consequently there can be calculation of the leaky state of this Indian Manual Labor School. A man employed as an assistant excused himself for giving away to visiting Indians and to squaws, as without measure or weights, saying these things were sent to be given away as though he who gave away the most was the best fellow. Timely charities and noble deeds, but this loose and irresponsible mode of operation must be exceedingly improper. To be sure much of this could be remedied by a careful and judicious arrangement of the internal management of the school, yet I am settled in the opinion that it is not best to con- tinue this school any longer, and I believe I am sustained in this opinion by all in the mission now in this land, 92 Charles Henry Carey except H. Campbell. In the afternoon we went into the fields and sold the growing crops, growing under the management of the Manual Labor School. Oats $4.00 per acre, seventeen acres $68.00; 3 acres of peas $12.25 per acre $36.75; potatoes 2% acres, total $19.12i/ 2 ; twelve acres of wheat total $180.00. By this sale we get rid of the harvest and I am well satisfied, lose nothing and save ourselves from considerable trouble. Thurs. 27. Today we sell our mills to Mr. Force, 12 giving him our title to two sections of land connected with said mills, with the fixtures belonging to said mills. Also one wagon, one cart, 2 saws, 6 log chains, mill hogs, a steer or steers belonging to the mill, and bolting cloth sufficient for a bolt ; he gives up our liabilities for repairs, he having taken these mills on shares heretofore, and also allows Mr Judson his privileges as formerly leased to said Judson. Mr Force pays for the mills $6000 with interest annu- ally at six per cent. Payments annually $500. These mills have cost the mission no telling how much. For breakage, damage, repairs, &c, it is supposed that on an average every day they run from eight to ten dollars. I am well pleased with the sale. Before the papers were executed, Mr Force sells to L. H. Judson 13 and William H. Wilson [Willson]. They are the debtors to the Mis- sion. In the afternoon we sell to H. Campbell the fol- lowing stock: 12 James and John Force were immigrants with Dr. White's party, October, 1842. 13 Judson, Willson and Campbell were members of the Methodist Mission. They were cabinet makers and carpenters. Diary of Rev. George Gary 93 Forty tame horn cattle Sundry lot of wild cattle, supposed to be _*' i *l 1 . ln^n ivi nn $790.00 about one hundred, more or less in sale, However, they are wild as deer. 221 cattle in a barn near the school at $400.00 $10.00 per head 5 Cattle Horses ) 5 old Horses ) 30 mares and colts ) 7 yearling colts ) 12 three and four year old colts ) $2210.00 $835.00 Total $4235.00 To be paid in seven annual payments with annual interest at six per cent, secured by mortgage on the prop- erty. In all my sales I am trying to make my debts secure, but in the very fluctuating state of things here some of these debts made have to be poor, but I guard at this point all I can. Mr Campbell has a fair standing in credit, as far as I am able to learn, yet, if I mistake not he is such a man as I should have to watch if I did much business with him, though they all speak of him as though Rev. J. Lee had more than ordinary confidence in him. We have made arrangements where nearly all the Indian scholars will be as well off in families as they would be in school until they die or run away. This provision for these children is a great relief to my mind. We give them some clothes and the older ones various other articles, as tokens of good will and to encourage them in the way they should go. After making these arrangements, return at evening to Doc. Babcock's with great relief to my mind, or with some satisfaction as though our visit to Oregon was not in vain. If I am not mistaken in what ought to be done here, it is high time to have it done, and a year's delay would sink from seven to ten thousand dollars without any probable benefit. I feel as though I was never serving the church to greater benefit than in my visit to this Mission, though I foresee most of the secular members of the Mission will be crossed in their feelings, as I approach and remodel the 94 Charles Henry Carey peculiar branch at which they are employed I think I see in almost each a disposition to have the other secular branches closed except his own. Fri. 28. I am more and more convinced it was a great error in sending the great reinforcement of 1839. I find no one among the previous persons employed in the Mission who appears willing to own he was for having so large an increase. On the arrival of this heavy com- pany there was nothing for them to do to any possible advantage, and everything they attempted to do was attempted under almost every possible disadvantage and, consequently, attended with loss. In some instances I suspect, the Mission means were used with an indiffer- ence bordering on prodigality. It was almost impossible it should be otherwise, situated as they were, at any rate. Mr Lee could not have his eye in every place, and every one, as far as I am able to learn was master where he was, and if any submitted to Mr Lee's judgment and control, it was those who would have done the best with- out control. The consequences were they had to manage themselves and the affairs about them, they of course must have their own way. I suppose I have sold the large school building for less than half its cost, yet con- sidering our people have bought it and have bought it with the design to devote it as a place for education and as many of their children are in great need of its advan- tages already, and the rising generation in this territory will continue to need it, I feel as though the building is by no means lost, and think we may hope many and great blessings will flow out from this school upon this distant land, giving to its rising youth elevation of char- acter or intelligence and virtue. The Roman Catholics, I understand, are making arrangements to establish a literary institution, but our people entering into this opening may, and probably will, take the lead in educating the youth of this land. There has been subscriptions circulated to some extent among the inhabitants, to raise Diary of Rev. George Gary 95 and establish a school of a high and respectable character, but the constitution under which subscription is made is so exceedingly sensitive in guarding against sectarianism as to open the door for a kind of valetudinarianism, the limits of which cannot be readily calculated, but in the organization of the Oregon Institute, though not sectarian in the common acceptation of the term, yet it is a school under the care and management of the members of the Methodist E. Church, through this board of trustees, and I think there is no doubt but that when there is an annual conference organized in this region, this school will be presented to said conference for its acceptance, patronage and management. It is presumable I might have sold the premises for more to the Romanists, but I should not have felt near as well about the sale. Though I am no prophet, nor the son of a prophet, yet I think this school will be a great blessing to this land. Sun. 30. Preached in the granary in the neighbor- hood of the hospital. Seventeen hearers old and young. There are few who attend our meetings except our own people. The population is sparse to be sure, yet if there was the love of meeting so desirable for the welfare and prosperity of a new country, I think we should have twice as many hearers as we now have. [1844] Mon. July 1. It is now seven months since we left New York. One month since we arrived at Wil- lamette Falls, taking all things into account, the month has been a pleasant one, and, I trust, of some use to the Mission. I guess the secular pursuits of the Mission will feel more and more my arrival in this land. This is a fine country for agricultural pursuits. Wheat is raised very easily. Plow the prairies once and drag in the seed grain, and then the difficulty remains which is the har- vesting. The crop is abundant. I never saw such prom- ising crops of wheat as now appears in the fields. July 4. Independence finds us at camp meeting at Yam Hill. Here we spend five days very pleasantly in 96 Charles Henry Carey a good meeting. Eight tents on the ground, some of them very small. Perhaps eighty hearers in the largest con- gregation. It is the day of small things, yet I hope greater and better things will soon follow. Sunday night a poor, miserable sinner made his confession of guilt and sin. He had murdered in different places, in the state, and been associated with gamblers and, indeed, every club of the vicious which came within his reach, so that all crimes were common — highway robbery and murder excepted, all shielded by avowed infidelity. Such a confession I have never heard before. He left the grounds on Monday morning at the close of the meeting with an humbled spirit and a broken heart. Our symp- athies and prayers will follow him. Tuesday night. We reached Willamette Falls. The Secular affairs of the Mission are again upon my hands, and by the by, the Mission is more known as a secular concern than anything else. Wednesday 10. Busy writing preparing letters for friends in the states. Thursday 11. Today we made a bargain with Mr. Beers to sell him the farm which he occupies, with the stock, tools, &c, at the appraisal of Messrs. Force and Cook. 14 This sale puts a heavy concern off of our hands. We soon shall be able to dismiss Mr Beers from the ser- vices of the Mission; whenever the present crops are secured and disposed of by mutual arrangement, his support from the Mission is to cease. This family is a large one — wife and six children. His salary and table expenses have been nearly eight hundred dollars a year. I gave him out of his purchase one thousand dollars as an equivalent for his claim on the Board to be returned to the place of his former residence in the states. I find a disposition in our laymen to return, unless they can get about what it would cost the Board to return them. By paying them here we save the expense of a delay for 14 Probably Amos Cook, of the Peoria party of 1839-40. Diary of Rev. George Gary 97 a chance to sail, which is no small consideration. Our title as a Mission to the claims of land, is, in my opinion, just good for nothing at all. Such is the state of public feeling in reference to the Mission having many sections of good land not occupying them themselves, and not suffering others to occupy them. A strong reaction is about meeting us, and the sooner we are freed from these land claims, the better, if I judge right. This Mission farm of Mr. Beers has done the best of any of our farm business here, yet I doubt if everything was taken into account, of its more than sustaining itself. Possibly it may a little more than that this year. Friday 12. This day I received a list of charges against Brother A. F. Waller, prepared by Doct. E. White. These charges relate mostly to the controversy between B. [rother] Waller and Doc. McLaughlin [John McLough- lin] in reference to a land claim at Willamette Falls. B. Waller says he cannot safely meet these charges without Rev. Judson [Jason] Lee as a witness in the case. After considerable consultation upon the subject with Brother Waller and others, I came to the conclusion to give Brother Waller the call of the Bishop to return to the states and take his place as a member of the Genessee Conference, designing to send the charges to said con- ference with the evidence. Doctor White may present evidence on the subject, giving an opportunity to Brother Waller to obtain the testimony of Judson Lee in the case. The parties agree in the arrangement. My reasons for this are, I think we can spare Brother Waller from the Mission. Doctor McLaughlin, at the head of Hudson Bay Company in this region, has almost unbounded in- fluence, and Doctor White claims to act as his agent in this matter, consequently I fear for the witnesses what they may say in the prosecution. We cannot form a committee according to the form of discipline, not having traveling preachers enough for such committee, and I dread the tide of sympathy Doctor McLaughlin may raise provided Brother Waller is not highly censured by his brethren. I am of the opinion Doctor McLaughlin, Doc. White are ready to take any and every advantage to the injury and prejudice of the Mission. I find myself attended by Doctor White, who has some following about him. I think we should be better if he was in the states or somewhere else as far from us as that. He was expelled from the church in this land once and when he came back from the states he brought a letter of membership, joined here, professedly made friends with Mr Lee. Now I have him about me. He has withdrawn from the society here, professing the Mission is very corrupt, &c, &c, &c.

Saturday 13. We are busy in preparing to make Doc. McLaughlin an offer of our house and lots in this place, including store and dwelling houses. We reserved two lots for a meeting house now in building, designing if we sell the house where Mr. Abernethy lives to buy and be in a much more eligible situation for a parsonage.

Sab. 14. Meeting at the Falls, congregation small. Everything indicated a strong prejudice against us as a Mission.

Mon. 15. Today Doctor White withdraws his charges against Brother Waller, for the purpose of making out a new set. Agreed we meet tomorrow at two o'clock P. M. to hear evidence to be taken and sent to Genessee Conference. Doctor White is to present a copy of his new charges to Brother Waller today so that he may be ready to meet them. The evidence is to be taken in the presence of the parties and also in the presence of David Leslie, Gustavus Hines and G. Gary. G. Hines is to serve as secretary, all mutual arrangement so far, yet I am sicker and sicker of Doc. White. This day we made a proposition to Doc. McLaughlin to sell him twelve house lots, with the improvements on them, in this village, for six thousand dollars. He is to pay what we may owe the Hudson's Bay Company next fall and pay the remainder in ten years, with interest annually, at six per cent. We talked over the privilege of paying in wheat, what we may wish to, and the impression is we shall not owe more than $2000 after we may deliver what wheat we may wish to deliver.[2]

Tues. 16. Doc. McLaughlin accepts of our proposition, denies employing Doc. White to enter charges against Brother Waller. At two P. M. we meet to receive the testimony against Brother Waller, when lo and behold Doctor White has not given him a copy of the charges. The Doctor gave me the charges yesterday, but took them away to copy for himself and promised to let Brother Waller have them, or a copy of them yesterday. After considerable consultation, we adjourned until evening. In the evening we met and spent most of the night in receiving evidence, then adjourned until tomorrow evening at eight o'clock.

Wednesday 17. Eight in the evening we meet and spend the whole night in taking evidence in Brother Waller's case. The reason we continued all night, there is a vessel in the river soon to sail for Sandwich Islands and we wish to get Brother Waller away in this vessel, as there is no telling when he may have another chance to sail for the Islands. We have heard all the evidence presented against Brother Waller. It has not been so strong against him as I expected. I have a better opinion of Brother Waller than I had before we began. I am still sicker and sicker of Doctor White.

Thurs. 18. Rest today is sweet. Perhaps I may here say we had brother Perkins with us at the Camp Meeting. He was in the place a few days after. Took a great interest in Doctor White's behalf in these charges and when he parted with us last Saturday evening told me, 100 Charles Henry Carey with a good deal of feeling, if I sold these houses and lots to Doctor McLaughlin, it would split the Mission. He wished them to be given to Doctor McLaughlin. Probably he was swayed by Doctor White. Notwith- standing his threat of splitting the Mission, I have sold them. He has gone to the Dells [The Dalles]. Left early Monday morning. If his feelings keep up, I may expect some tremenduous explosion. I may be blown as high as a cat's back. Friday 19. Busy in writing to the Board and to the Genessee Conference. Trouble and vexations with Doc- tor White. See more of it the 25th Inst. Sat. 20. This day drew on the treasurer for $150.00 for an old draft by Rev. J. Lee to Doctor Babcock, dated August 9th, 1842, as a duplicate was wanted. None orig- inally given. I took the old one, drew another new one, also same date. Drew for $500 more for Doctor Babcock in part his salary this year. This draft at thirty days after sight. Jul. 23. Drew on the treasurer to pay Mr Lee's pas- sage from Columbia River to Oahu, which had been paid by Ladd & Co. This draft to pay said Company amounts to $215.00 ten days after sight. I also drew for $210.00 for Mr Waller's passage to the Islands. Another also for Mr Waller to obtain passage from the Islands to the sea, for $700 30 days sight. Advanced to Brother Waller in cash $100.00 to assist him at the Islands in case he should be detained there. He and family have received as an outfit from our old donation goods, about seventy dollars. These are without charge as salary or table expenses. We have to hurry him off with great haste to save this opportunity. He will take a certificate from Mr Aber- nethy setting forth his claim upon the Mission. Wed. 24. Finished our letter to friends in the states and in the one to the Board, the members in Society have given as follows : Diary of Rev. George Gary 101 Williamette Settlement 41 Williamette Falls 16 Dells [The Dalles] 3 Clatsop 5 White Indian F 8 Children Local Preacher n 3 1 65 8 4 Refer to a copy of this letter as it touches some points not entered in the Journal. Thurs. 25. Brother Waller and family now leave this place for the states. He is to take passage in the Chewa- mers [Chenamus], now down the Columbia River. I have been for about two weeks crowded with business. Brother Waller's case and the many vexations and annoy- ances connected with it, and springing out of it, being among strangers and scarcely knowing who is who and what is what, I have had my difficulties. I now think if I had known as much about Doc. White as I think I now know, I never should have paid any attention to him as an accuser of the Brethren. Last Thursday he wished an opportunity to copy the evidence taken on the charges against Brother Waller. I told him we had taken this for the Genessee Conference and he had every oppor- tunity to take his own notes or minutes, and that I should send these papers as they were to the Conference and if he wanted a copy, he must apply to said Conference for a copy. Afterward he handed me a letter directed to me. I asked him who wrote it. He said he did. I told him I wanted no correspondence with him and was not disposed to read his letter. He might take it again, or, if he wished, I would send it to Genessee Conference. He wished it sent. It was sent without reading. I think I shall get rid of Doctor White's palaver and letters. Last Friday he got up a public meeting, so called. Notices were put on the doors of business places. Eight or nine persons met. The most or all of them were known to be under the control of Hudson Bay Company, or Doctor 102 Charles Henry Carey McLaughlin influence. Toward evening the Secretary presented me with the following: "Oregon City, 19th July, 1844. Rev. G. Gary: I have to inform you that, at a public meeting of the citi- zens of this place, of which Mr Lovejoy was Chairman and J. E. Long, Secretary, the following resolutions were passed * "Resolved, 1. That the Secretary be requested to apply to Rev. George Gary for permission to copy the minutes of the trial of A. F. Waller, for the information of this meeting. "Resolved, 2. That when said minutes are obtained, each witness be allowed to place his signature to his own statement." Signed by Chairman and Secretary. I took the letter from the Secretary and read it and replied orally. This was a Church concern and the evi- dence was taken to be sent to the proper authorities of the church. If he or the public meeting wanted a copy of the minutes, they must apply to the proper judicators of the church for it, which would be the annual confer- ence of which Mr Waller is a member. I also told him I thought it was not courteous in the public to intermeddle with the affairs and business of the church. This people may think age has some stubbornness about it. Some of our friends were for attending this public meeting to explain and vindicate our course, but my advice was to take no notice of it. Pay attention to our business and let them alone. This advice was followed and I think the members of this public meeting will not retain the recollection of this meeting and their very important resolutions with a great deal of self -congratulation. Fri. 26. Rest and quietude are in good season and very refreshing. Sat. 27. Spent this day in counsel with Mr Burnett, 15 from the states, now an inhabitant of this territory, in reference to the papers necessary to pass in the sales we is Peter H. Burnett. Diary of Rev. George Gary 103 are making, so that the security may be good, and that our conveyance of claims may be such as to involve us in no trouble hereafter. The state of society here is very unsettled and securities are consequently less certain. Sab. 28. A small meeting, perhaps twenty hearers. Mon. 29. Made an arrangement to buy out Brother Hines, the house where he now lives, for a parsonage. Am to give $1500 for it. Thirteen hundred in this coun- try pay, two hundred the Board. Beautiful situation. Tues. 30. Today I rode with Mr Abernethy to the hospital, about forty miles on horseback. So long since I have rode any, am weary enough. Wed. 31. With Mr Abernethy taking an inventory of goods left here when Mr Abernethy moved to the Falls. Some of them purchased goods and some donation goods from the former purchasers and former parcels of dona- tion goods. Our purchase merchandise we sell to Mr Abernethy at 25% advance on purchase price bills. Old donation goods at 50% discount on the marked prices. Mr Abernethy takes them all. [1844] Thurs. Aug. 1. Busy at the Manual Labor School taking our invoice here of purchased and donation goods. Fri. 2. Continue in the examination of the goods and farming tools at this school. Also here is a great supply of joiner's and carpenter's tools, many of them damaged, and some missing. Sell to Mr Campbell all not found damaged and good, of carpenter's and joiner's tools at 80% advance on the purchase bills. Our donation goods that we are selling to Mr Abernethy are the remnants and refuse of all parcels herebefore sent. Some of them were old clothes when sent; others are moth and mouse eaten and a very great proportion of the garments are suitable for young children. The best have undoubtedly been used. The refuse remains. We sell them cheap, but can do no better. Sat. 3. Returned to Williamette Falls. 104 Charles Henry Carey Sab. 4. Preached at the Falls to about thirty hearers old and young. Though our congregation is small, the meeting is good. Mon. 5. Today I received a letter from Brother Per- kins, in which he declares off from Mission and considers himself no longer connected with the Mission. Now have to provide for the Dells, which is the difficult question before me, but to our great relief Brother Brewer is with us and we are able to avail ourselves of his counsel and all the information he can give us. Today we hear also that there is a strong reinforcement to the Roman Cath- olic Mission in this region. Report says five priests, a number of nurses, one or more laymen. Surely the Protestants ought to wake up. Perhaps, however, the children of this world are not only wiser in this genera- tion than the children of light, but also more accurate and zealous. Tues. 6. The great point of present care is how to provide for the Dells. Had I supposed Brother Perkins would have taken the course he has, I think I should have retained Brother Waller in the mission. As it is, I probably shall go to Dells myself and let Brother Perkins either return to his conference or go to England, as he suggests in his letter in October, or, as I suppose, when the Hudson Bay Company's vessel shall sail, either in October or November. Wed. 7. We this day hear the Chenamus 16 sailed and left Brother Waller. He is at the Clatsop [Indian village] near Baker Bay. The wind was so high and the water so rough he could not get his family safely to the vessel and she went out and left him. I have some inclination to retain him in the mission and send him to the Dells to take the place and labor formerly occupied and attended to by Brother Perkins. Thurs. 8. More and more disposed to have Brother 16 Captain John H. Couch's new brig, built for the Pacific trade, owned by Captain Cushing, father of Hon. Caleb Cushing, active when member of Congress in behalf of Oregon. Waller remain in the mission, provided he is so disposed. Sent a letter to Brother Leslie to get his advice on the subject.

[To be continued]

  1. Probably Edwin Oscar Hall, who had gone to the Islands with the reinforcement of the mission there, leaving Boston in 1834. He was a printer and visited the Whitman and Spalding missions in the Oregon country with his wife, 1839-40, where he assisted in printing with the use of the Nez Perces alphabet. He returned thence to Honolulu, May 19 1840. (History of the Oregon Mission Press, by Howard Malcolm Ballou, Or. Hist. Quar., Vol. XXIII, p. 39.)
  2. Gary's proposal to McLoughlin is set out in Elwood Evans, Hist. Pac. Northwest, Vol. I, p. 253, where the details of the negotiation, arbitration and settlement are stated. See also F. V. Holman, Dr. McLoughlin, p. 110; Frances Fuller Victor, The River of the West, p. 360; Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of Oregon, Vol. I, p. 223.