Oregon Historical Quarterly/Volume 6/Number 4

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THE QUARTERLY

OF THE

OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY.



Volume VI.]
[Number 4
DECEMBER, 1905.


THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY.[1]

On the 14th day of February, 1859, this Commonwealth was admitted into the Union of States, and to be at that time a companion sentinel upon the mountain tops of the Pacific with the State of California. These were the only States at that time west of the Missouri, and the intermediate region was an almost trackless wild. The act of Congress admitting Oregon into the great galaxy of States declared "That Oregon be and she is hereby received into the Union on an equal footing with the other States in all respects whatever." This formal recognition of her equality does not convey to the mind the full meaning perhaps intended. Our State was thus recognized as an equal of any of the original thirteen colonial States, and in an historic sense, she was then, and is now, their equal, if not superior, in the precious memories that cluster about the great Oregon Country, in diplomatic and international events.

The historian says that under the treaty of Ryswick, in 1697, Spain claimed from the Carolinas to the Mississippi, and on the basis of discovery by De Soto and others, westward to the Pacific. She extended her sovereignty from Panama to Nootka Sound. In 1513 Balboa, her brave son, in the name of his country claimed the great Pacific. France, also, was not a mere idler in this conquest of new worlds. The French claimed up to the Louisiana boundary and to the St. Lawrence and farther towards the Arctic than any daring navigators or explorers had ventured at this early period. In one way or another the French encroached upon the Spanish soil, until the dividing line, somewhat vaguely defined, was recognized as beginning at the mouth of the Sabine River, thence up this stream to latitude thirty-two, thence north to Red River, and thence up this to longitude twenty-three, thence north to Arkansas and up it to latitude forty -two. and thence to the Pacific. Notice this last call, for it is the south boundary of our State was always the boundary of what is called "The Oregon Country," and was at one time the northern boundary of Mexico. In the grant from France to Spain in 1762, and from Spain to France, in 1800, this untraced line was recognized. It is thus seen upon what grounds rest the claims made for Mr. Jefferson, that the Louisiana purchase of 1803 gave the United States title to the Oregon Country. Of so much importance was this section, even as early as 1819, that when the United States purchased Florida, an article was inserted in the treaty of purchase, restating this line. The Oregon of that day, as it existed in the minds of publicists, statesmen, and diplomats, embraced all the vast region between forty-two degrees north latitude and the. famous "Fifty-four Forty" of the Polk campaign of 1844, meaning there by fifty-four degrees and forty minutes north latitude, and also extending from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky Mountains. This vast region is now British Columbia, Washington, Oregon^ Idaho, and part of Montana and Wyoming. While Spain and France were thus parceling out empires, and professing in turn and at times concurrently to hold exclusive right to this section of the new world, the busy and active brain of England was not idle. Her navigators, Cook, Meares, and Vancouver were flying her flag in the Pacific waters, and coasting upon these shores. Spain and England in 1789, the year that the Federal Constitution went into effect, and during the first year of the first term of George Washington, attempted to plant rival settlements at Nootka Sound, on the north Pacific coast, beyond Vancouver Island. The Spanish resorted to force, and captured the English ships, which hostile act invited two English fleets to witness the trial of arms. The younger Pitt was then premier of England, and diplomacy finally led to the Nootka treaty of 1790, concluded through the mediation of Mirabeau, the master spirit of France under Louis XVI. The historian records that five years later Spain withdrew from this section, abandoned her claim to everything north of forty-two degrees, then and now the south boundary of Oregon.

Russia also made claim to this coast, and at one time, by formal decree, announced her rights to the country as far south as forty-five degrees and fifty minutes. John Quincy Adams, then our Secretary of State, disputed this claim; Great .Britain protested, and in 1823 President Monroe emphasized the American protests by proclaiming the famous Monroe doctrine, the substance of which was "That the American continents, by the free and independent conditions which they have assumed and maintained, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for colonization by any European power." In 1824 it was agreed between Russia and the United States, that this country should make no new claims north of fifty-four degrees and forty minutes, and that Russia should make none south of this famous line.

From this date the great contest for the Oregon Country of history was between England and the United States 346 W. D. FENTON. alone. The Hudson Bay Company was the English agent arid local defender of Great Britain's claims, and the pioneers of the early forties, participated in the struggle for possession of this great domain, in the name of their kindred and country. Charles II. had chartered this com- pany in 1670, Prirfce Rupert being a charter member, from which fact the region was called "Rupert's Land," and the alleged object of the company was to discover a new pas- sage into the "South Sea." the name by which the Pacific was first known. Under the inspiration of a rival move- ment Alexander Mackenzie came from Canada over the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific, and reached its shores July 22, 1793, the last year of Washington's first term. He touched the coast at fifty-three degrees and twenty-one minutes, and was thus within the limits of what we claimed as our territory. The Hudson Bay Company was given great governmental power and its affairs were ably and prudently managed. It ruled an area of the world in these early days one third larger than modern Europe and larger than the United States. From Montreal, the seat of its power, after it absorbed the Northwest Company, to its farthest western port on Vancouver Island, was 2,500 miles, and on the north its boundaries were the limitless frozen waters. Its direct business was the fur trade on land and sea, but its indirect object was conquest for and in the name of the British flag. It cultivated the Indian tribes, and through contact with its hardy and crafty hunters, these powerful tribes were practical allies in the great struggle for territory and power. Their factors were the merchant princes of the early* days and it is recorded that from an original capital stock of $50,820 it tripled twice in fifty years from profits only, and in 1821 had a capital of $1,916,000. It is also said that in 1846, when the English government conceded our claim to Oregon, the property THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 347- of this company in what was then the Oregon country was valued by if at $4,990,036. Meantime Lewis and Clark in 1804-6, the American Fur Company of St. Louis in 1808, John Jacob Astor in 1810, with his overland expedition and his ships, the Tonquin and the Beaver, the Lark, the builder and founder of As- toria, the restoration of Astoria under the words of the treaty of Ghent of December 14, 1814, which occurred in 1818 when the English flag was hauled down and the Stars and Stripes raised instead these men and these events had done much for the American cause. It was at this time that Rufus Choate said in the senate of the United States : " Keep your eye always open, like the eyes of your own eagle, upon the Oregon. Watch day and night. If any new developments of policy break forth, meet them. If the times change, do you change! New things in a new world. Eternal vigilance is the condition* of empire as well as of liberty." In 1821 Floyd's committee reported to Congress a bill recommending the establishment of small trading guards on the Missouri and Columbia, and to secure immigration to Oregon from the United States and from China. In 1823 a special committee was raised in Congress to consider the military occupation of ,th-e mouth of the Columbia, and it recommended a dispatch of two hundred men overland at once, and two vessels with supplies and stores, and that four or five military posts be established on the Pacific and one at Council Bluffs the latter the frontier post. In 1824 Mr. Rush, the American minister at London, claimed for the United States the country from the forty-second parallel to the fifty-first, to which the English government replied that it would never yield anything north of the Columbia. Presidents Monroe and Adams in 1824 and 1825> respec- tively, in their annual messages recommended a survey of the mouth of the river and the surrounding country, 348 W. D. FENTON. resulting in a bill which was introduced and slept in some dusty pigeonhole until 1828. Thus ^matters rested until the friends of Oregon in Con- gress, notably Thomas H. Benton and Senator Linn of Missouri, many of whose kindred had already hurried into the disputed land, forced the great contending parties to action. From October 18, 1818, to June 15, 1846, the Oregon Country was jointly occupied by the United States and Great Britain, and this was British soil as to the sub- jects of that country and American soil as to those who had been and were born of American parentage or citi- zenship. In the preliminary correspondence between the United States and Great Britain, as conducted by John C. Calhoun as Secretary of State, in his letters to Right Hon. R. Packenham, the British plenipotentiary, dated Sep- tember 20, 1844, and September 3, 1844, the reply to the first, of date September 12, 1844, and as continued by James Buchanan, as Secretary of State, to Mr. Packenham, dated July 12, 1845, and August 30, 1845, and the reply to the first, of date July 29, 1845, the final claims of the two contestants are tersely and clearly stated. These state papers, with a map of the country by Robert Greenhow, compiled from the best known authorities at that time, were published in London at the time. The boundary line of 1818 of the Oregon Country is indicated upon this map, and it began where the present international bound- ary intersects the Rocky Mountains, thence running north- erly into British Columbia along this range of mountains to fifty-four degrees forty minutes north latitude, thence west to the Pacific Ocean, near and north of Dixon chan- nel, thence south along the coast to forty-two degrees, thence east along the north boundary of Mexico to the Rocky Mountains, and thence northerly to the place of beginning. By this map Salt Lake is located in Mexico. The map was lithographed by Day & Haghe, lithograTHE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 349 phers to the Queen, then the good and gracious Victoria, a young queen, aged twenty-six years. The British pro- posal was to limit Oregon to the forty-ninth parallel, where the same is crossed by the Columbia, thence down the Columbia to the sea, excepting that a small circular area from Bulfinch's Harbor to Hood's Canal, as then called, and being the region south and southwesterly from Port Townsend, Wash., was reserved for the United States, but wholly detached from the mainland, and at a point where no harbor exists to-day. The American secretaries based our claim upon prior discovery, and the Spanish and French title, and in part upon the previous treaties. The name of Captain Gray and his discovery of the Columbia are mentioned as strong proof of the American title, and the fact that Captain Meares, the English navigator, failed to discover the same river and gave us a monument to his failure when he named Cape Disappointment and called the inlet opposite the mouth of the mighty river, which he passed by, "Deception Bay." But while Calhouii and Buchanan were fencing in di- plomacy with the representatives of the British crown, and long before, President Polk on August 5, 1846, pro- claimed the treaty with Great Britain by which our title was formally recognized, the pioneers of the great Oregon Country, had taken possession of all this vast domain in the name of their country, and some of them enriched these fertile valleys with the blood of American patriots defending American homes against the Indian savages on the one hand, and the more peaceful aggression of the Hudson Bay Company and other subjects of the British crown. These pioneers as early as July 5, 1845, by their legislative committee, adopted what is now known as the "organic law of the provisional government of Oregon." This document was written by Lee, Newell, Applegate. Smith, and McClure. It was adopted-by the house, or leg350 W. D. FENTON. islative committee, on July 2, 1845, submitted to a vote of the people and carried by a majority of 203 votes. The first attempt at local government in Oregon began in 1841, resulting on July 5, 1843, in an executive and legis- lative committee, the former consisting of three members, and the latter of one member from each district. This was followed by the provisional government under the organic act just mentioned which continued until Gen. Joseph Lane, the first territorial governor, arrived at Oregon City, announced and put into operation the new territorial gov- ernment, established by act of Congress and approved Au- gust 14, 1848. The organic act framed by these illustrious co-workers in the establishment of this Commonwealth breathes the inspiration of the Declaration of Independ- ence, and is grounded upon the laws and constitutions of the older. States, from whence the people had come. It declared that "no person demeaning himself in a peaceful and orderly manner shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious sentiments." It pre- served the writ of habeas corpus, trial by jury, propor- tional representation of the people in the legislature, and judicial proceedings according to the course of the com- mon law. All crimes were subject to bail except capital offenses, where the proof was evident or the presumption great. All fines should be moderate; no cruel or unusual punishment should be inflicted ; no man deprived of his liberty but by the judgment of his peers or the law of the land ; no property to be taken without compensation ; no law ever to be passed to affect private contracts. Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education were to be encouraged. Good faith towards the Indians in every way was required. It is worth notice that section 4, article I, of this organic act which reads, "there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 351 in said territory otherwise than for the punishment of crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted," is exactly reproduced in the thirteenth amendment of the Federal Constitution, which emancipated the slave, and which was formally adopted February 1, 1868, r- nearly twenty years later. The same general lines are used in this act as now appears in the State constitution in the main, and it is a model of brief, clear, and intelligent legislation. Strange as it may now seem, this provisional government was supported by the citizens of both coun- tries, and offices under it could be filled by British subjects, who could in their oath of office swear to support the same and the organic law so far as was consistent with their duties as subjects of Great Britain. This organic act was modeled after the articles of compact contained in the ordinance for the government of the territory northwest of the Ohio River, passed July 13, 1787, which articles were extended to the new territory by the act of Congress approved August 14, 1848, which established the territorial government. It must be that some pioneer who helped to frame the act for the provisional government was an adr mirer of the Ordinance of 1787, and had carried with him into this wild and distant land a printed copy of the same. The treaty was signed as before stated, June 15, .1846, the proclamation thereof made by the President August 5, 1846, and yet the act of Congress creating a territorial government for this immense empire was not passed until August 14, 1848, a delay of more than two years. It is thus seen that although the two greatest nations of the earth, then and now, had decided in a formal way that the territory belonged to the United States, the gen- eral government took no direct control over It until this act, and the distinction is ours, that we were neither a state nor a territory for this time. Section 1 of this Federal statute declared that "from and after the passage of this 352 W. D. FENTON. act all that part of the territory of the United States which lies west of the summit of the Rocky Mountains, north of the forty-second degree of north latitude, known as the Territory of Oregon, shall be organized into and constitute a temporary government by the name of the Territory of Oregon." By act of Congress approved March 2, 1853, the Territory of Washington was created out of that por- tion of the Territory of Oregon lying north of the Colum- bia River, from its mouth to the point where the forty-sixth degree of north latitude crosses such river, and from thence eastward to the summit of the Rocky Mountains, and of the territory north of such degree. Under the congressional act Governor Lane appointed Oregon City the place, and July 16, 1849, the time, for holding the first territorial leg- islative assembly. An extra session was called by him at the same place, May 6, 1850, and a second regular session was held there, beginning on the first Monday of Decem- ber, 1850, By act of February 1, 1851, the territorial assem- bly located the seat of government at Salem, and by the act of January 16, 1855, to take effect March 1 following, the seat of government was removed to and located at Corvallis ; and by an act of date December 12, 1855, it was again re- located at Salem, to take effect in three days thereafter. On September 27, 1850, Congress passed the great land act, known as the "Donation Land Law," being the first congressional legislation affecting the public lands in Ore- gon. The policy of Congress was most liberal to settlers in this respect, the act giving to a single person, man or woman, 320 acres, or to a married man, or if he should become married within one year from the first day of December, 1850, -640 acres. It is the only instance in the public land laws where a half-section of land was offered as a reward to the man who should marry, and at the same time allowed him fourteen months in which to do so. THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 353 The territorial assembly, by an act passed December 12, 1856, authorized a constitutional convention of sixty dele- gates to be chosen at the general election on the first Mon- day of June, 1857. The convention met at Salem on the third Monday of August, 1857, and adjourned September 18,, 1857, having provided for the submission of the con- stitution proposed to a vote of the people at an election to be held November 9, 1857. This constitution was on this day adopted by a vote of 7,195 in its favor and 3,195 against it. The act of Congress admitting Oregon into the Union was approved February 14, 1859, by James Buchanan, the President, thus giving him the double- honor in this, that as Secretary of State under President Polk he had negotiated the treaty with England, by which the United States finally acquired undisputed sovereignty over the. disputed territory, and as President, approved the act which gave the Union another great State. It may be remarked that the constitution as framed, has never been abrogated, modified, or amended excepting any amendment to section 1, article IV, conferring upon the voters the power to enact or veto proposed laws, and is still the organic law of the State. At the time of its submission the slavery question was the burning issue and the ques- tion was submitted therewith, there being 2,645 in favor of slavery and 7,727 votes opposed. George L. Curry was Governor at this time, and B. F. Harding, Secretary of the Territory. The me.mbers of the constitutional convention chosen to represent Yamhill County, and whose names are appended to the document, were J. R. McBride, R. V. Short, R. C. Kinney, and W. Olds. Matthew P. Deady, the pres- ident of the convention, was a delegate chosen to rep- resent Douglas County. Many will remember, also, that John Kelsay was there from Benton ; J. K. Kelly from Clackamas ; John W. Watts from Columbia; Stephen F. Chadwick from Douglas ; P. P. Prim and John H. Reed 354 W. D. FENTON. from Jackson ; Delazon Smith from Linn ; I. R. Moores, W. W. Bristow, and Enoch Houit from Lane ; L. F. Grover, George H.Williams, Richard Miller, and John C. Peeples from Marion ; David Logan from Multnomah ; Thomas J. Dryer from Multnomah and Washington; Reuben P. Boise, B. F. Burch, and Fred Waymire from Polk; Jesse Applegate from Umpqua; E. D. Shattuck from Washing- ton. These twenty-six names have become a part of the public history of Oregon, and these men are widely known. Nearly all of the number have joined the silent dead, a few remain. It would be invidious to speak in detail of their achievements. As early as March 16, 1838, J. L. Whitcomb and thirty- five other settlers prepared a memorial to Congress and the same was presented in the senate January 28, 1839, by Senator Linn, the object being to show the United States the necessity of action. In June, 1840, Senator Linn presented a second memorial signed by seventy citi- zens requesting Congress to establish a territorial govern- ment in Oregon Territory. On February 14, 1841, a meeting was called at Champoeg, Marion County, for the purpose of consultation as to what should be done towards a local government. Rev. Jason Lee was made chairman of the meeting. After the funeral ceremonies over Ewing Young were ended another meeting was held looking to the same end. This meeting decided upon a legislative committee as a governing body, a governor, a supreme judge, three justices of the peace, three constables, three road commissioners, an attorney general, a clerk of the courts, a treasurer, and two overseers of the poor. Being unable to agree upon a candidate for governor, the duties of that office, devolved upon Dr. I. L. Babcock, chosen as the first supreme judge. The majority of the people in the territory at that time were either connected with the THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 355 missions, either Protestant or Catholic, the Hudson Bay Company, or were French Canadians. It is said that the first regular emigration from the United States to this disputed and doubtful territory came in 1841. Senators Linn and Benton of Missouri, by their enthusiastic and noble defense of our rights to this coun- try, encouraged and inspired much of the early emigra- tion. It is fitting that to-day the two valley counties, Benton and Linn, should perpetuate in grateful remem- brance the names and deeds of these illustrious defenders of American control in this great contest. Senator Linn in 1842 introduced a bill granting donations of public lands to settlers, but because of his death October 3, 1843, generous land legislation was temporarily postponed. The most authentic records show that there were only 111 persons in the emigration of 1841 ; that of 1842 only 109, 55 of whom were over eighteen years of age. The train of 1842 left Independence, Mo., May 16, with only sixteen wagons. F. X. Matthieu and Medorum Crawford were leading spirits in this movement that year. Captain Crawford has left a written record of the names of those above the age of eighteen years, some of whom we have known as residents of Yamhill County. There was A. L. Lovejoy, for many years a leading figure at Oregon City, T. J. Shadden, whose donation is situated less than two miles northwesterly from McMinnville. He was also with General Fremont in 1846. There were Andrew Smith, Darling Smith, and David Weston. The party arrived at Oregon City, October 5, 1842-. Captain Crawford records the fact, of great interest to us, that within the present limits of Yamhill County, the only settlers he could re- member who were then living in the county were Sidney Smith, Amos Cook, Francis Fletcher, James O'Neill ; Joseph McLaughlin, Mr. Williams-, Louis La Bonte, and George Gay. Sidney Smith settled in the Chehalem Val356 W. D. FENTON. ley; Amos Cook and Francis Fletcher settled south of Lafayette and immediately adjoining thereto ; George Gay near the present boundary line between the counties of Polk and Yamhill and near the road leading to Salem from Lafayette and Dayton. David Hill, Alanson Beers, and Joseph Gale were chosen the first executive committee on July 5, 1843. A. E. Wil- son was chosen as the next supreme judge. The emigra- tion of 1843 was the most important in the history of this controversy. The emigrants assembled near Independ- ence, Mo., and on May 17, 1843, a preliminary meeting was held there to organize for the journey. Peter H. Bur- nett was a speaker at this gathering and was chosen cap- tain of the train. On May 20, 1843, the train started, having as a guide an army officer, Capt. John Gantt, who knew the country as far west as Green River. Dr. Marcus Whitman and A. L. Lovejoy met the emigrants en route and guided them from Green River to The Dalles, al- though Doctor Whitman was compelled to leave the train at Fort Hall, preceding them to Walla Walla. Senator James W. Nesmith was a conspicuous figure in that party of brave men and women, and has left a record of every male member of the emigration of that year. In that roll of honor are the names of many whom the people of Yamhill County know and who are really arid truly "the pioneers." There is Jesse Applegate, William Ar- thur, Peter H. Burnett, the first governor of California, Andrew J. Baker, still living at McMinnville, John G. Baker, once sheriff of this county and whose donation lies less than a mile north of McMinnville ; John B. Penning- ton, whose donation lies about two miles southwest of Carlton, whose daughter, Mary J. Crimmins, still living on part of the claim, was born en route, at Ash Hollow, on North Platte, July 6 ; Miles Carey, whose widow, Cyrene B. Carey, in a good old age, lives at Lafayette, and was THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 357 one of the party herself, Daniel Cronin, Samuel 'Cozine, whose donation is the site of the Baptist College at Mc- Minnville, and who passed away in 1897 ; Ransom Clarke, Thomas Davis, the three Delanys, Nine van Ford. Ephriam Ford, Charles Fendall, Enoch Garrison, W. J. Garrison, Andrew Hembree, J. J. Hembree, James T. Hembree, A. J. Hembree, W. C. Hembree, Abijah Hendricks, whose donation lies north of Lafayette about four miles ; Joseph Hess of East Chehalem, Jacob Haun, whose donation lies west of Lafayette; Henry Hill, Almoran Hill, Henry Hewett, John Holman, Daniel Holman, who still lives and who has a donation about six miles southwest of McMinn- ville ; G. W. McGarey, the five Mathenys, Elijah Millican, whose donation lies just west of Lafayette; Madison Malone, whose donation lies about a mile northeast of McMinn- ville ; W. T. Newby, who founde'd and named McMinnville from a town of that name in Tennessee and whose dona- tion is the site of the city; Thomas Owen, whose claim is south and west of that of Samuel Davis ; the Waldos of Marion; N. K. Sitton, whose donation is west of Carlton three or four miles. There are many others whose names have been written in the history of the State, and some others perhaps whom I do not recall who may have settled in this section. When these early pioneers arrived they found some whose names are familiar ; Medorum Craw- ford, Francis Fletcher, Amos Cook, George Gay, Sidney Smith, Darling Smith, and F. X. Matthieu, already men- tioned, and in addition thereto the various missionaries and men connected therewith. There were but three legislative districts at the general election on the 14th day of May, 1844, and they were Tual- atin, Champoeg, and Clackamas. Yamhill County was in- cluded in the first named, which also embraced Washing- ton, Multnomah, Columbia, Clatsop, Tillamook, and Polk, as now described. Champoeg district embraced what is 358 W. D. FENTON. now Linn, Marion, Lane, Josephine, Coos, Curry, Benton, Douglas, and Jackson counties; the Clackamas district included what is now Clackamas County, eastern Oregon, a portion of Montana, and all of Idaho, and Washington. At this election 15 to 22 votes were cast in the entire Tualatin district, and 140 to '244 in the entire country for candidates. Ira L. Babcock was elected supreme judge at this time, receiving in the entire Oregon Country 88 votes as against 39 cast for James W. Nesmith. The first speaker chosen was M. M. McCarver, and was so elected at the session of the legislative committee held at Willamette Falls June 18, 1844. All legislative acts were framed by this committee, but were required to be submitted to the people for popular approval before going into effect. The emigration of 1844 added about 800 people to the American population. The starting point were Independence, Mo., the mouth of the Platt and Capler's Landing near St. Joseph. There were three trains or divisions, commanded respectively by Cor- nelius Gilliam, Nathaniel Ford, and Major Thorp. In that year came Joel Chrisman, Gabriel Chrisman, William Chrisman, the Goffs of Polk, Daniel Durbin of Marion, the Gilliams, the Fords, the Gerrishs, Jacob Hoover of Washington, now dead, Joseph Holman, George Kibbler, G. L. Rowland, at one time living east of Carlton, James Johnson and wife, John Perkins, whose donation is located near North Yamhill; Daniel Johnson, now dead, whose donation lies immediately northwest of Lafayette and upon which the Masonic cemetery is located, Elzina John- son, his widow, who is still living at Lafayette ; John Minto of Salem ; the McDaniels of Polk ; Nehemiah Martin, whose sons live near McMinnville ; Luke Mulkey, George Nelson, the venerable "Uncle George," whom many of us knew years ago at Lafayette ; and J. C. Nelson, his son, still living at West Chehalem. There was also Ben THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 359 Robinson, whose donation is just south of Dayton, Joseph Watt of Amity, who is now dead, and Benjamin and Vin- cent Snelling. Jeremiah Rowland, for many years famil- iarly known as Judge Rowland at McMinnville, and long since passed away, was in the party. James Marshall, the man who discovered gold at Sutter's mill in California and which event made that State a world-wide fame, was also an emigrant this year, coming first to Oregon. There was Thomas C. Shaw of Marion, the Eades, the Nichols broth- ers, J. S. Smith, elected to Congress in 1868, Samuel Mc- Swain, Alanson Hinman, John Bird, who died at Lafayette a few years ago and whose donation lies a short distance north of Dayton and east of Lafayette, Charles Burch of Amity, all names closely and honorably identified with .the pioneer history of this State. The first annual election was held June 3, 1845, at which George Aberriethy was elected governor, receiving only 46 votes from Clackamas, 58 from Tualatin, 51 from Cham- poeg, 22 from Clatsop, and 51 from Yamhill. The total vote cast was only 504. J. W. Nesmith was elected su- preme judge, receiving 473 votes and having no opposi- tion. Joseph L. Meek received 267 votes for sheriff to 215 cast for A. J. Hembree, the latter receiving 61 votes in Yamhill to 15 for Meek. Among the representatives chosen at that election was Abijah Hendricks, who was chosen to represent Yamhill district, receiving every vote polled at the time and which was only 38. The legisla- ture consisted of thirteen members, remaining in session .two weeks at Oregon, City and began its session June 24, 1845. The memorial to Congress was framed by this body, dated June 28, 1845, signed by the members, and in addition thereto by Osborn Russell and P. G. Stewart, of the executive committee, and Judge J. W. Nesmith. Mr. Russell had just been defeated by Abernethy for the office of governor, whose friends by his consent, threw 360 W. D. FENTON. their vote against A. L. Lovejoy, who was the regular nominee of the convention held at Champoeg. This leg- islature selected Dr. Elijah White to convey the memorial to Washington, adjourned to August 5, 1845, passed a law making wheat a legal tender at the market price, and ad- journed sine die August 20, 1845. On December 2, 1845, under the new constitution, adopted July 5, 1845, the same body met, held a session of seventeen days, created the county of Polk, and also Lewis County, the latter embracing at that time all of Washington west of the Cascades. Sheriff Meek took a census in 1845 of the population in the five districts, ex- clusive of the region east of the mountains and north of the Columbia. The returns show 18 housekeepers in Clackamas, 24 in Champoeg, 17 in Clatsop, 14 in Tualatin, and 16 in Yamhill. There were 109 heads of families in Yamhill and 405 in the five districts. There were 419 males and 382 females under twelve years of age, of which there were 79 males and 65 females in Yamhill. There were 117 males and 103 females in the five districts over twelve and under eighteen years, of which 31 males and 24 females were in Yamhill. There were 615 males and 322 females over eighteen and under forty-five in the five districts, 124 males and 57 females of which were in Yam- hill. There were 110 men and 41 women forty-five years old and over in the five districts, of which 25 men and 9 women resided in Yamhill. The total population in the five districts was composed of 1,259 males and 851 females, of which 257 males and 158 females lived in Yamhill. Only 415 people at that time in the entire county, ex- tended as its area then was, and of this number only 147 were men, including boys over eighteen years of age. How widely separated were they, and what attachments grew up between these hardy adventurers, far from their kindred and not knowing whether they were living in a THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 361 country ultimately to be ruled and controlled by the Union or the British crown, surrounded by hostile and numerous Indian tribes, deprived of the comforts of civilization, these early builders of a great State deservedly hold an exalted place in the history of Oregon. There was, in addition to this, active opposition to the formation of any local government by many of the subjects of Great Britain, notably the Canadians, who held a public meeting at Champoeg, March 4, 1843, and issued an address couched in friendly terms, but most unmistakably hostile to the action of the Americans who were attempting to organize a provisional government. The eleventh paragraph of this address is a succinct statement of their position, and reads : "That we consider the country free, at present, to all nations, till government shall have decided ; open to every individual wishing to settle without any distinction of origin and without asking him either to become an English, Spanish, or American citizen." The legislative committee recommended that four districts be created, and the boundaries of the Yamhill district, as defined by their report adopted by the people July 5, 1843, embraced all the country west of the Willamette or Multnomah River, and a supposed line running north and south from said river, south of the Yamhill River to the parallel of forty-two degrees north latitude, or the boundary line of the United States and California, and east of the Pacific Ocean. The Tuality district embraced all of the country north of the Yamhill River, east of the Pacific Ocean and south of the northern boundary of the United State's. In a message of the executive committee of date De- cember 16, 1844, addressed to the legislative committee and signed by Osborn Russell and P. G. Stewart, this language, which at this date sounds like romance, was used : "The lines defining the limits of the separate claims of the United States and of Great Britain to this portion 362 W. D. FENTON. of the country had not been agreed upon when our latest advices left the United States, and as far as we can learn, the question now stands in the same position as before the convention in London in 1818." After stating that ne- gotiations had thus far failed of agreement between the two countries, the message proceeds : "And we find that after all the negotiations that have been carried on be- tween the United States and Great Britain, relative to settling their claims to this country from October, 1818, up to May, 1844, a period of nearly twenty-six years, the question remains in the following unsettled condition, namely, neither of the parties in question claim exclusive right to the country lying west of the Rocky Mountains between the parallels of forty-two degrees and fifty-four degrees and forty minutes north latitude, and bordering on the Pacific Ocean, but one claims as much right as the other, and both claim the right of joint occupancy of the whole without prejudice to the claims of any other state or power of any part of said country." In another part it reads: u We are informed that the number of emi- grants who have come from the United States to this country during the present year amounts to upwards of 750 persons." The message concludes : "As descendants of the United States and of Great Britain we should honor and respect the countries which gave us birth ; and as citizens of Oregon we should, by a uniform course of pro- ceeding and a strict observance of the rules of justice, equity, and republican principles, without party distinc- tions, use our best endeavors to cultivate the kind feeling, not only of our native countries, but of all of the powers or states with whom we may have intercourse." This remarkable document was listened to at the time by Peter H. Burnett, David Hill, M. M. McCarver, Mr. Gil- more from Tuality district, A. L. Lovejoy from Clackamas, Daniel Waldo, Thomas D. Keizer, and Robert Newell of THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 363 Champoeg, at the residence of J. E. Long at Oregon City. These men composed the duly elected legislative com- mittee, and were holding an adjourned session of the same body that had been in session in June and July preceding. They adjourned sine die the day before Christmas, 1844. The Yamhill district was not represented at this session, but at the second session, which convened June 24, 1845, at Oregon City, Jesse Applegate and Abijah Hendricks were the members from this district. There were thirteen members in this body and five counties or districts were represented. M. M. McCarver was chosen speaker from Tuality, being his second term in that capacity. On July 3, 1845, on motion of William H. Gray of Clackamas, the following resolution was adopted: Resolved, That a committee of one from each county be appointed to report a bill for the protection of this colony; the building of block- houses, magazines, and the revision of the military laws; and make such suggestions to this house as they may deem important or neces- sary for the peace and safety of the colony. On August 18, 1845, Governor Abernethy sent a message to the house, in substance saying that he had received an answer from Col. Nathaniel Ford declining the office of supreme judge, and the Oregon, archives record that "on motion the house went into secret session to fill the office of supreme judge of Oregon, which resulted in the choice of P. H. Burnett." The session adjourned sine die August 20, 1845. Absalom J. Hembree represented Yamhill County at the session which convened at the hotel in Oregon City, December 1, 1846, fourteen members being present. A. L. Lovejoy was elected speaker, and on the second day it was Resolved, That the editor of the Oregon Spectator be allowed a seat at the clerk's table for the purpose of reporting the proceedings, of the present legislature. The message of Governor Abernethy, dated December 1, 1846, says: "The boundary question, the question of 364 W. D. FENTON. great importance to us as a people, there is every reason to believe is finally settled," and relies for his authority upon the Polynesian, a paper published August 29, 1846, in the Sandwich Islands, which extract quoted reads : "The senate ratified the treaty upon the Oregon question by a vote of 41 to 14." The Governor proceeds to say that the Polynesian credits this news item to the New York Gazette and Times of the issue of June 19, and he adds : "Should this information prove correct, we may shortly expect officers from the United States Government to take formal possession of Oregon and extend over us protection we have long and anxiously looked for." Speaking of the emigration of 1846, the Governor says: "Another emi- gration has crossed the Rocky Mountains, and most of the party has arrived in the settlements. About 152 wagons reached this place very early in the season via Barlow's road, for which- a charter was granted him at your last session. About 100 wagons are on their way, if they have not already reached the upper settlements by the southern route. They have no doubt been detained by traveling a new route. The difficulties attending the opening of a wagon road are very great and probably will account in some measure for their detention. The emi- gration falls very far short of last year, probably not numbering over 1,000 souls. This is accounted for by a great part of the emigration turning off to California. We trust that those coming among us may have no cause to regret the decision that brought them to Oregon." There were sixteen members in this house. In his message to the legislature of date December 7, 1847, Governor Abernethy says: "The emigration the past season has been much larger than any preceding one, amounting to between 4,000 and 5,000 souls. They have all arrived in the settlements, unless a few families should still be at The Dalles and Cascades, and scattered themTHE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 366 selves over the territory. The most of them are farmers and mechanics : They will add much to the future welfare aud prosperity of Oregon." He complains of the long delay upon the part of the United States in assuming Fed- eral control, and excuses this by attributing the same to the war with Mexico, then not concluded, as he states. In the house, which convened at Oregon City, Decem- ber 7, 1847, there were eighteen members, A. J. Hembree and L. Rogers representing Yamhill County. On Wednes- day, December 8, 1847, the journal recites that "The ser- geant-at-arms announced a special communication from the Governor, which was read by the clerk, consisting of a number of letters from messengers of the forts on the Columbia, announcing the horrid murder of Doctor Whit- man, family, and others, accompanied by a letter from the Governor, praying the immediate action of the house in the matter/' Mr. Nesmith offered and there was adopted a resolution requiring the Governor to provide arms for, and equip and dispatch not to exceed fifty men, armed with rifles, to occupy the mission at The Dalles and wait for reinforcements there. This legislature commissioned Joseph L. Meek a special messenger to go to Washington to implore Federal aid in the suppression of the Indian uprising, and a resolution was passed on the day before Christmas, 1847, respectfully inviting and requesting the commander-in-chief of the United States land and naval forces in California and the American Consul at the Sand- wich Islands to render all the assistance in their power. Medorum Crawford was a member of the body represent- ing the county of Clackamas. Mr. Hembree, represent- ing Yamhill County, introduced and had passed a bill to locate a territorial road from Linn City, Tuality County, to Zed Martin's in Yamhill County. But few of us know where this would now be, although it is believed that Linn City was just opposite Oregon City, and Zed Martin's was 366 W. D. FENTON. perhaps near McMinnville. On Tuesday, December 5, 1848, the legislature again assembled at Oregon City, A. J. Hembree, L. A. Rice, and William J. Martin being the rep- resentatives from Yamhill County. Samuel R. Thurston, the first territorial delegate to Washington, was then a member from Tuality, and George L. Curry from Clacka- mas. There were twenty-one members elected to this body. Peter H. Burnett had been again elected as a member from Tuality, but he had resigned and gone to California be- fore the session. In view of the legislative muddle in this State in 1897 it may be interesting to note that on De- cember 8, 1848, this legislative body adopted a resolution authorizing and requiring the arrest of William J. Baily, William Porter, and Albert Gains of Champoeg County, Anderson Cox of Linn County, and Harrison Linville of Polk County. These members, although the resolution recites that they were duly elected and entitled to seats, were treated as members and the sergeant-at-arms was given a writ of attachment for their arrest. They were, promptly arrested as far as found. The members so ar- rested presented excuses, these were accepted, and the members seated. This w r as all done before a speaker was elected, and as a matter of right founded upon plain prin- ciples of parliamentary law. Being unable, however, to procure the attendance of sixteen members at that time necessary to form a quorum, the unorganized house ad- journed to February 5, 1849. On that day Governor Abernethy delivered his annual message into the hands of the sergeant-at-arms, who delivered the sealed docu- ment to the speaker, and the clerk read the same to the members. The Governor notes the fact that the legisla- ture had convened in special session for the purpose of transacting the business of the regular session, but which had failed because that session was not attended by a suffi- cient number to make a quorum. He communicates the THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 367 fact thai-Congress had passed an act creating a territorial government. It is also stated that the expenses for serv- ices of private soldiers and noncommissioned officers in the Indian war, which had been concluded, was $109,311.50, allowing $1.50 per day per man, as authorized by the act of December .28, 1847. Medorum Crawford on Thursday, February 15, 1849, introduced his written protest, saying that he voted "no" on the passage of an act to provide for the weighing and assaying of gold, melting and stamp- ing, the same, because the act authorized the coining of money and was therefore contrary to the Constitution of the United States, because he believed an officer of the United States would soon arrive, whose duty it would be to prohibit the operation of a mint, and because he believed the act inexpedient. William J. Martin also protested, giving as reasons the same as those given by Captain Crawford, but added: "Because it is making this Terri- tory a shaving machine by allowing sixteen dollars and fifty cents per ounce." On December 12, 1846, the Governor approved an act of the legislative committee by which a territorial road was authorized, "commencing at the town of Portland on the Willamette River, proceeding thence the nearest and. best way to where the present road crosses Tuality River near the residence of David Hill, at what is commonly called the ' new bridge,' thence the nearest and best way to the falls below the forks of Yamhill River, thence the nearest and best way to the mouth of Mary's River in Polk County." Joseph Avery of Polk, Sylvanus Moon of Yam- hiH, and Joseph Gale of Tuality were named as commis- sioners to locate this road, and they were to be governed by an act of the Territory of Iowa, approved December 29, 1838. The north boundary line of Yamhill County was fixed by an act December 11, 1846, as commencing at a point opposite the mouth of Pudding River, thence 368 W. D. FENTON. northwest on top of the main ridge dividing the waters of the Tuality River from the waters which flow into Che- halem Valley, thence along the dividing ridge near Jesse Cayton's in a straight line to the top of the dividing ridge between the waters of the rivers of Yamhill and Tuality to the top of the mountain between said river, thence west to the Pacific Ocean." An earlier act approved De- cember 19, 1845, defined the boundaries of the various districts or counties, but the north boundary of Yamhill County, as thereby defined, began in the middle of the main channel of the Willamette River, one mile below the Butte and ran due west to the Pacific Ocean, thus cutting off all the North Yamhill country and a portion of West Chehalem. On June 26, 1844, an act was passed whereby Ransom Clark, H. J. Hembree (evidently intended for A. J. Hem- bree), and Joel Palmer were designated and appointed commissioners 'to view out and mark a way for a road from the Willamette Falls to the falls of the Yamhill River, and required to report to Amos Cook, who was by the same act appointed overseer of the road and required to open the same. It was further provided that all the hands re- siding in Yamhill County and all residing near the Yam- hill River, but living in Tuality County, be assigned to said overseer to work upon the opening of this highway. On January 2$, 1853, the legislative assembly of the ter- ritory, then composed of a house and council, and while B. F. Harding was speaker of the house and M. P. Deady president of the council, passed an act whereby Joseph Garrison, Daniel Matheny, Mr. Leig, and J. B. Chrisman were as commissioners authorized to view and locate a territorial road from Salem to Dayton, crossing the Willamette at Daniel Matheny's ferry, then located at Wheatland. . THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 369 But let us not forget to mention the emigration subse- quent to 1844, and particularly some whose names are familiar to all. It is estimated that about two thousand people were added to the territory by this year's influx, among them J. C. Avery, John Waymire, Frederick Way- mire, Stephen Staats, John Durbin, William J. Herrin, Gen. Joel Palmer, John M. Forrest, James Allen, G. H. Baber, J. M. Bacon, Caroline E. Bailey, now Mrs. Dr. J. W. Watts, William G. Buffum, who was 40 years old when he arrived, but whom we of the younger generation knew as a good old man, many years a resident of Amity ; Benja- min F. Burch, now dead, adjutant in the Cayuse war and captain in the Yakima war; he was a member of the con- stitutional convention and of the first state legislature; J. J. Burton, whose donation adjoins North Yamhill. The Cornelius family of Washington County came this year also. There was Amos Harvey, W. Carey Johnson, and Daniel H. Lownsdale. General Palmer came to the Terri- tory this year, but returned for his relatives and family, who came with him in 1847, and with this party came Geer and Grim of Marion, and the Grahams and the Collards and Christopher Taylor. Colonel Taylor lies buried in the Dayton cemetery. General Palmer was quartermaster and commissary general, and served throughout the Cayuse war. James W. Rogers, whose donation lies just southwest of McMinnville, came this year. Mrs. B. F. Hartman, Mrs. J. T. Fouts, Mrs. J. J.Collard,and R. Gantt are enrolled in the pioneer association of Yamhill County as belonging to the emigration of 1845. There are, no doubt, others whose names I have been unable to obtain. It is impossible to give in detail the names of those who came in 1846. The printed report of the proceedings of the Yamhill County Pioneer Associaiion, recorded at the annual meeting June 26, 1896, gives but a partial list of that and subsequent years. Glenn 0. Burnett, the pioneer minister of the 370 W. D. FENTON. Christian Church, with his family, came in 1846. His daughter, Martha E. Holman, wife of Daniel S. Holman, still survives her beloved father, who died in California several years ago. Mrs. Holman, until recently, resided on her original donation. Another daughter, Mrs. Charles B. Graves, died at Independence this year. George W. Burnett, with his family, came that year. He was born in Tennessee in 1811, served as captain of a company of volunteers, organized in this county and Washington, and led them to the front in the Cayuse war. His venerable widow, Sydney A. Burnett, survives him and at the age of 89 lives at Albany. Samuel Davis, whose donation lies just southwest of McMinnville, the Davis brothers, A. C., Levi, John B., and William, his sons, J. W. Shelton, J. TV Simpson, Mrs. D. W. Laughlin, and Joseph Kirkwood are also mentioned as coming this year. Mrs. Emily J. Snel- ling, at one time secretary of the Yamhill County Pioneer Association, is enrolled as a member. Robert Henderson, whose donation lies west of Amity about three miles and who has been dead some years, was a pioneer of 1846. There is also A. L. Alderman of Dayton, whose donation joins Dayton on the north. Dr. James McBride, father of United States Senator George W. McBride, at one time United States minister to the Hawaiian Islands, came this year at the age of about 40. He died at St. Helens, De- cember 18, 1875. His donation lies nearly west of Carlton about four miles. Here the personal narrative, so interesting to me. must from necessity end. The year 1846 was the turning point in the history of the Oregon question, and while those pioneers who came afterwards and here helped to rear and found a State, deserve to be and are remembered for their deeds of bravery, self-sacrifice, and devotion ; they came to a country whose title had been settled in favor of the- United States, from whence they came. They did not, as f THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 371 those before them, venture into the Oregon Country not knowing whether the struggle would end in their com- plete surrender to and subjugation by the British crown. They knew they were to always remain Americans, and that they and their children should not cease to follow the American flag, and help to form and execute the laws of a common country. In this year began the war with Mexico, which gave us Texas and California. The polit- ical convention which nominated James K. Polk for pres- ident, instructed its candidate to take advanced ground for immediate reannexation of Texas, and reoccupation of Oregon. His party claimed Oregon under the Louisiana purchase, concluded in 1803 by Mr. Jefferson. It declared with vigor that our title up to fifty-four degrees and forty minutes north latitude was clear and undisputable. Elected on this issue and kindred questions Mr. Polk in his inaugural address, as Mr. Elaine says : "Carefully re- affirmed the position respecting Oregon, which his party had taken in the national canvass and quoted part of the phrase used in the platform put forth by the convention which nominated him." It was resolved to give notice to Great Britain that the joint occupation under the treaty of 1827 must cease. John Quincy Adams, then a member of the house of representatives and ex-president of the United States, who had negotiated the first treaty while he was Secretary of State, and the second while he was .President, supported the claim of our government up to fifty-four degrees and forty minutes in a very able and eloquent speech in Congress. He was of course a Whig, and Mr. Polk a Democrat, and by his powerful aid the resolution to give notice passed the house February 9, 1846, by a vote of 163 to 54. It will be remembered that Henry Clay, the most brilliant statesman of our country, had been defeated by Mr. Polk and the Whigs felt cha- grined at the result. They were inclined to chide their 372 W. D. FENTON. opponents with cowardice when it became apparent that to assert our title to fifty-four degrees and forty minutes might lead to war with Great Britain unless a compromise could be effected. Texas was also considered more im- portant by the pro-slavery element, and this encouraged the northern Whigs to hope for an addition of northern territory to maintain the progressive balance between free and slave territory. Mr. Webster, then a senator, read a carefully written speech urging a settlement on the forty- ninth parallel as honorable to both countries. Mr. Ber- rien of Georgia urged this as the rightful line, making an exhaustive argument. Mr. Crittenden of Kentucky, the home of Clay, urged the same position. The senate de- feated the house resolution, passing a substitute leaving the giving of notice to quit to Great Britain to the discre- tion of the President, in which the house concurred. Mr. Blaine, in his "Twenty Years of Congress," speaking of the Washington treaty of June 15, 1846, says : "This treaty was promptly confirmed by the senate, and the long con- troversy over the Oregon question was at rest. It had created a deep and widespread excitement in the country, and came very near precipitating hostilities with Great Britain. There is no doubt whatever that the English government would have gone to war rather than surrender the territory north of the forty-ninth parallel. This fact had made the winter and early spring of 1846 one of pro- found anxiety to all the people of the United States, and more especially those who were interested in the large mercantile marine, which sailed under the American flag! Taking the question, however, as it stood in 1846, the set- tlement must, upon full consideration and review, be ad- judged honorable to both countries." In March, 1847, Senator Benton gave a public letter to Mr. Shively, intended to encourage the settlers in Oregon in respect to early congressional action creating a territoTHE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 373 rial government. He explains the reason for the long delay and closing says : " In conclusion I have to assure you that the same spirit which has made me the friend of Oregon for thirty years which led me to denounce the joint occupation treaty the day it was made, and to oppose the renewal in 1828, and to labor for its abrogation until it was terminated ; the same spirit which led me to reveal the grand destiny of Oregon in articles written in 1818, and to support every measure for her benefit ever since the same spirit still animates me and will continue to do so while I live which I hope will be long enough to see an emporium of Asiatic commerce at the mouth of your river, and a stream of Asiatic trade pouring into the val- ley of the Mississippi through the channel of Oregon." In the great debate which preceded the passage of the act of August 14, 1848, to establish the territorial government. Calhoun and Butler of South Carolina, Davis and Foote of Mississippi, and Hunter and Mason of Virginia were pitted against the bill because of the clause prohibiting slavery, taken from the Ordinance of 1787. Their worthy opponents and friends of the measure were Douglas, Ben- ton, Webster, and Corwin of Ohio. And such, is in brief the story of the struggle for Ore- gon. Such is a part of the early work done by the pioneers in the various forms of legislative, executive, and judi- cial work. These interesting historic records read like a romance, and I am* slow to leave them to be retraced by others. The chapter of international events closes with the decree of the German Emperor given at Berlin, Octo- ber 21, 1873. defining the meaning and extent of the boundary, as given in the treaty of June 15, 1846, declar- ing that the disputed line should be drawn through the Haro Channel. How great a part of the nation's history is bound up in that of Oregon! Events are only great judged by the re374 W. D. FENTON. suits. The chief battles of the world are remembered be- cause they marked division of empire ; end of dynasty or surrender to the victors. The heroic deeds of the pioneers of Oregon will never cease to inspire new courage and new patriotism, and to merit unstinted praise and permanent renown. The histories of our country are replete'with the cruel butcheries inflicted by the Indians upon our ances- tors who settled and subdued the wilds of Virginia, the Carolinas, Kentucky, and Tennessee. The annals of the Indian wars of New England, New York, and the Middle States continue to startle and thrill the American youth. But the pioneers of Oregon risked these dangers and shared with each other these experiences, thousands of miles from kindred and native land. They not only. faced the Indian foe, but they were the watchmen upon this far western coast, commissioned to do their part in the great international struggle between the mother country, the Union, and the British crown. When General Fremont overtook the emigrant train of 1843 at Bear River, near Fort Bridger, he found two brave, patriotic American women, who were moving towards Oregon with their hus- bands and little children. Mrs. Gyrene B. Carey, whom I have already mentioned, had just lost a little daughter, three years old, buried there in that Indian country. As the company of soldiers approached the alarm was given that the Indians were. coming. Some of the men in the train were without bullets, and while they corralled the cattle, she and Mrs. A. J. Hembree moulded bullets for them. Mr. Gray came to the Carey wagon wanting to borrow a gun, whereupon her husband, Miles Carey, told him. he could have hers. She replied, "No, you can not have my gun, for I am going to fight for my little ones and need my gun." Just then the American flag and the soldiers came into plain view, and the brave woman did not do more. A few da) s ago I stood in the cemetery at JacksonTHE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 375 ville, and over the graves of Mr. and Mrs. Harris and their daughter Mary. A friend, who was a soldier in the Rogue River war of 1855, was with me. He, with a party of volunteers from Jacksonville, had rescued the mother and daughter from death and the body of the husband from mutilation. The story of their lives was brief and touch- ing. On the 8th of October, 1855, the Indians had attacked them, killing a Mr. Reed, who lived with the family, carry- ing off, and no doubt killing, the little son of Mr. Harris, for he was never found. Mr. Harris was surprised, and as he retreated into his house wounded by the Indians, shot in the breast. His wife, with courage and bravery, closed and barred the door, and, in obedience to her hus- band's advice, brought out the arms which they had a rifle, a double-barreled shotgun, a revolver, and a single- barreled pistol and opened fire upon the murderous savages. Previous to this the little girl had been wounded in the arm and fled into the attic. For several hours she kept them at bay, although her husband had lived but a little while. She loaded her weapons and kept up a steady fire there alone with a twelve-year-old girl wounded her husband dead, her ten-year-old boy captured. She kept them at bay until nightfall. Under cover of the night she stole out of the house, taking her only remaining child with her and hiding themselves in the underbrush until next day they were rescued by the volunteers. Standing beside her grave I could not repress the unbidden tear, for my heart was touched by the simple story of a brave pioneer woman's defense of her humble home, her chil- dren and her life. To found a State, to build a common- wealth, to establish the national claim, to build American homes in this great unknown country, was the mission of these men and women. Have they not builded wisely and well? The matchless genius of Daniel Webster has made immortal the anniversary of the first settlement of New 376 W. D. FENTON. England in his great masterpiece, delivered on Plymouth Rock at the age of 38, December, 22, 1820, nearly eighty years ago. He there said: "We feel that we are on the spot where the first scene of our history was laid ; where the hearths and altars of New England were first placed ; where Christianity and civilization and letters made their first lodgment in a vast extent of country, covered with a wilderness and peopled by roving barbarians." Speaking of the pilgrims of the Mayflower, he said, "They came hither to a land from which they were never to return. Hither they had brought and here they were to fix the hopes, the attachments, and the objects of their lives." The words fitly describe the pioneers of Oregon. A cen- tury from now some future Webster, perhaps, in these sacred valleys, in some crowded forum, or some secluded spot, to generations yet unborn, may immortalize the deeds and achievements of these men and women, some of whom, bent with age, are still living. Their ranks are fast thinning, and in the course of nature, their race is nearly run. Let their honors rest upon them. We owe them more than we can ever repay. They were perhaps, many of them, unlettered men, unskilled in the arts of diplomac} 7 , untutored in the devious ways of craft, but they were men of courage, devotion, honor, and truthful- ness. Let us receive from them the blessings of a civil government, founded and defended by the bravest of Americans, and consecrated to liberty by their struggles, privations, and losses. Let us each year, as they become few upon earth and many on the other side, meet to commingle our words of praise, and add something to the glorious archives of the country. Turn backward the dial of time fifty years, and look upon this beautiful valley, these hills, verdant with nature, these skies perfect in a summer sun. or jeweled with a myriad of friendly stars! At that time there was no busy city, no mark or hand of THE WINNING OF THE OREGON COUNTRY. 377 man, other than here and there a rude cabin, telling the wary savage or the lonely settler that within its walls the dreams of empire filled the brain of the pioneer. Here in these early days, upon the pathless prairies, and through these untrodden forests, our ancestors made their habita- tions, and in the vigor of youth began the conquest for this great Commonwealth. Uncover our heads, to those who remain! Not much longer will they bid the stranger welcome within their doors. Many of their households are rudely broken ; the companions of these golden and heroic days have long since felt the touch of death, and here and there, unattended, but not forgotten, a few re- main. It is said that when the soldiers under Napoleon at Waterloo met on the field of battle after the great slaughter, and saw the remnant of that once glorious army, they threw down their arms and embracing each other wept like children. When the few remaining pioneers meet together each passing year, and witness their broken ranks, recount their early sorrows and suffering, and treasure the precious memory of those who have fallen in the great struggle, there must come to them an affection- ate recollection of those times and a sense of pain that these reunions will soon cease. They will soon be gath- ered to their fathers. We, their children, who have felt the touch of their hospitable hand and looked into their honest faces, have received from them a priceless inherit- ance. The words spoken seventy-two years ago at Bunker Hill appropriately express our thoughts : "And let the sacred obligations which have devolved on this gen- eration and on us sink deep into our hearts. Those are daily dropping from among us who established our liberty and our government. The great trust now descends to new hands. L^t us apply ourselves to that which is presented to us, as our appropriate object. We can win no laurels in a war for independence. Earlier and worthier hands have gathered them all. Nor are there places for us by the side of Solon and Alfred and other founders of states. Our fathers have filled 378 W. D. FENTON. them. But there remains to us a great duty of defense and preserva- tion ; and there is open to us, also, a noble pursuit, to which the spirit of the times strongly invites us. Our proper business is improvement. Let our age be the age of improvement. In a day of peace let us ad- vance the arts of peace and the works of peace. Let us develop the resources of our land, call forth its powers, build up its institutions, promote all its great interests, and see whether we also, in our day and generation, may not perform something worthy to be remembered. Let us cultivate a true spirit of union and harmony. In pursuing the great objects which our condition points out to us, let us act under a settled conviction and an habitual feeling that these States are one country. Let our conceptions be enlarged to the circle of our duties. Let us extend our duties over the whole of the vast field in which we are called to act. Let our object be OUR COUNTRY, OUR WHOLE COUNTRY, AND NOTHING BUT OUR COUNTRY. And by the blessing of God may that country itself become a great and splendid monument, not of oppression and terror, but of wisdom, of peace, and liberty, upon which the world may gaze with admiration forever!"

WILLIAM D. FENTON.

NOTES ON THE COLONIZATION OF OREGON.[2]

The colonization of Oregon by Americans, which occurred somewhat more than sixty years ago, deserves to rank well up among the four or five principal events of Pacific Coast history prior to the gold discovery. I think this position would not be disputed by those who have investigated the subject; but, unfortunately, the ordinary denizen of our section, whether he lives south or north of the forty-second parallel, begins his chronology with the rush of 1849, not even going back to the gold discovery of the preceding year. "Forty-nine" produced a psychological effect upon the western mind much like that which "the fall of the stars" or "the death of General Jackson" produced upon the Southern negroes of ante-bellum days. Of course, the tremendous revolution in economical and social affairs throughout the length of the coast, which clearly resulted from the gold discovery, is responsible for the false perspective in which our early history is viewed. The excitement beginning in 1848 and '49 was so intense, and the achievements of the years following were so wonderful, that earlier transactions sink, neglected, into the background.

Yet it was precisely the "day of small things" which preceded that made the era of grand things so easily possible. The colonization of Oregon gave to the United States an assured claim upon the valley of the Columbia, and led to the peaceful solution of the boundary question; it realized what twenty years earlier had been but the dream of a few enthusiasts, the American expansion to the 380 JOSEPH SCHAFER. cific ; it provided a base for the long sought commercial contact with the Orient; and it rendered almost inevita- ble the ultimate acquisition by the United States of the ill-governed Mexican province to the south. When the crucial time came, the Oregon colony furnished, in part, the men and means for the conquest of California; from Oregon went the discoverer of gold and also the first out- side party of American miners, who proved a valuable ele- ment in the struggle for order ; Oregonians took a leading part in framing the California government, and an Oregon pioneer became the chief magistrate of the new Common- wealth. I am not a believer in the necessity of a fixed order in historical development ; and it is far from my purpose to declare that the possession of Oregon was absolutely es- sential to the acquisition of California. The truth is, rather, that both events were in the last analysis effects of a common cause, the seemingly irresistible westward tendency of the American population. This great cause, had it been directed somewhat differently, might, con- ceivably, have given us the two territories in reverse order. But such was not the historical fact and we are here con- cerned with history. Were speculation admissible at all it would be easy to show that an. entirely different order of development would have occurred if gold had not been discovered in California, if the discovery had been delayed fifty, twenty-five, or even ten years, if the yellow flakes had been found in the streams of the Inland Empire before they appeared to the Mormon workmen in Mar- shall's historic mill race. Confining ourselves to the strict order of historical evo- lution, we find the Oregon colony fully established in the Willamette Valley by the year 1845; we find in existence there an American government, based on the well known and oft tried American principle of compact a governNOTES ON THE COLONIZATION OF OREGON. 381 ment almost identical in form with that of the ordinary State ; and, while there was apparently nothing more than a sentimental connection with the United States, (some- what like that subsisting between the typical Greek colony and the mother city,) it was well understood, both east and west of the mountains, that these sturdy colonists were holding Oregon subject to the extension of the national jurisdiction over that distant country. During the very time of the Bear Flag revolt in California, Presi- dent Polk concluded the treaty with Great Britain estab- lishing the Oregon boundary line ; and two years later, before the news of the gold discovery had crossed the mountains, Congress erected the region west of the Rockies between the forty-second and the forty-ninth parallels into the Territory of Oregon. The historical relation between Oregon and California, the mental attitude of the American people toward the two territories at the time, is well illustrated by the dis- cussion over the Oregon bill in the spring of 1848. The measure had already been much too long delayed, and in order to delay it still further a member proposed to couple with it a bill for a California and a New Mexico territory also. The objection, hurled back sharp and quick, was that it would be wrong to yoke the "native born" Territory of Oregon with "territories scarce a month old and peopled by Mexicans and half-Indian Californians." The people of the "Golden State" can afford to smile at this rhetorical exaggeration, for all it contains a measure of truth, because in two brief summers the relations of the sections were changed. And from that time to the present California has overshadowed the Northwest as completely as Oregon overshadowed her in the thought of the American people from the return of Lewis and Clark to the days of the "Forty-niners," and especially during the 382 JOSEPH SCHAFER. last decade of that period when the work of colonization was going forward. An event of such moment as the colonization of Oregon has been shown to be, is worthy of careful study by all who are interested in the history of the Pacific Slope ; and in the hope of facilitating the study I wish to present a concise statement covering the most noteworthy phases of the colonizing movement, together with merely sug- gestive notes on the sources. The background of the story includes, on the one hand, the series of incidents transpiring in the far west which culminated in the absolute commercial occupation of Ore- gon by the Hudson Bay Company; and on the other, the general features of westward expansion to the close of the fourth decade of last century. The settling up of the trans-Alleghany West ; the spread of the pioneers along the lower Missouri ; the extension of missionary effort beyond the frontier ; the fur trade of still more distant regions all these form a natural prelude to the great onward movement of population across the last and most formidable barrier separating the two seas. The idea that an advance to the Pacific lay within the possible compass of American achievement was itself a matter of slow growth. Astor may possibly have held it in 1810 as Irving twenty-six years later declares that he did, but we have good reasons for doubting it. Jefferson's vision beheld the growth of a great communit} 7 on the Pacific, planted by Americans and governed on American principles, yet wholly independent of the United States. Settlers, it was generally assumed, would be transported to Oregon by sea. This was about the situation, so far as there is any record of men's views on the subject, until the time when John Floyd of Virginia precipitated the Oregon discussion in Congress in the years 1820 to 1823. Then there emerged NOTES ON THE COLONIZATION OF OREGON. 383 the new thought, though it was not yet asserted with much confidence, that the American people would at no distant time actually overspread the Rocky Mountains, as they had overspread the Alleghanies, and make the Pacific the western boundary of the United States. This idea was forced upon the sensitive mind of Mr. Floyd when he con- templated the startling growth of the United States since the achievement of their independence. It was fully shared by Francis Baylies of Massachusetts, whose remark- able words, uttered more than eighty years ago, have often been quoted as an example of a prophecy fulfilled. He is speaking to Floyd's bill for planting a colony at the mouth of the Columbia, and has alluded to the marvelous progress of the United States within the memories of living men. " Some now within these walls," he continues, "may, be- fore they die, witness scenes more wonderful than these; and in after times may cherish delightful recollections of this day, when America, almost shrinking from the 'shadows of coming events' first set her feet upon un- trodden ground, scarcely daring to anticipate the greatness which awaited her." The object that these men sought was not to be attained by congressional action. Floyd's successive bills were met with indifference or derision on the part of a majority of the house; and, indeed, it was not till twenty years later, February, 1843, that an Oregon bill finally passed one branch of Congress. But the question of colonizing Ore- gon was not permitted to wait for its solution upon the slow and uncertain course of government action. It was to be settled in the natural American way, through an almost spontaneous movement on the part of the pioneer- ing class. By 1840 there were in Oregon a few score Americans, most of whom had entered the country since 1834 as mis- sionaries. These had succeeded in effecting a lodgment 384 JOSEPH SCHAFER. where American traders like Wyeth and Bonneville, had, for obvious reasons, failed. A few Rocky-Mountain trap- pers, of American birth, were likewise settled in the Willamette Valley. All, missionaries and mountaineers alike, were so largely dependent upon the Hudson Bay Company that they can in no just sense be regarded as an American colony. Their presence is to be looked upon rather as one of the things that stimulated the planting of a colony ; for it created a living bond between Oregon and the United States, and led to the publication of the first considerable body of facts about Oregon that had been issued since the appearance of Lewis and Clark's journals. A well known book derived from this source is Parker's "Exploring Tour Beyond the Rocky Mountains," 1838. Many letters, sketches, and short articles bearing on Ore- gon came out in the missionary periodicals of the time. The most complete repository of such material is the file of the Oregonian and Indian's Advocate, a monthly maga- zine issued at Lynn, Massachusetts, from October, 1838, to August, 1839. The special aim of its editor was to gather up and disseminate information about Oregon. It was the organ of a philanthropic society which proposed to plant a large company of Christian people in Oregon, who should, in addition to exploiting the resources of the country, civilize the natives, and establish a new State in which Indians were to have all the political rights of white men. The file is very rare. A privately owned copy in Portland, Oregon, an incomplete copy in Oakland, Cali- fornia, and that of the Wisconsin Historical Society are the only ones known to me. But some of the more im- portant documents contained in it, such as Linn's Senate Report on Oregon in 1838 and Cushing's House Report of 1839, are readily found in the government publica- tions; while others, for example letters written from OreNOTES ON THE COLONIZATION OF OREGON. 385 gon, are gradually being reprinted in the QUARTERLY of the Oregon Historical Society. The Linn and Gushing reports were for some years the most widely read works on Oregon (aside from Irving's Astoria) and were special favorites among the frontiers- men of Missouri, Iowa, Illinois, and other sections of the West. When the wagon companies began crossing the plains Linn's report and the Bible often formed the entire library of a migrating family; but the latter book, as well as the former, was sometimes missing from the collection. As a result of all this new information concerning the Oregon Country, of the agitation re-begun in Congress by Doctor Linn in 1838, and of other causes the idea of colo- nizing Oregon was by 1840 firmly fixed in many minds. It was looked upon as the true method of solving the bound- ary dispute with Great Britain, whose theoretical claims were supported by nothing better than a commercial oc- cupation of the country. In January, 1840, some citizens of Kentucky petitioned Congress to plant a colony at the mouth of the Columbia, (as Floyd had long before urged and as Linn was again urging,) and to protect it with a garrison ; and also to open a road* from western Missouri to Astoria, and plant at convenient distances across the mountains military posts for defense against the Indians. The idea of opening a highway to Oregon was felt in government circles to be eminently practicable. It might be doubtful whether the United States could, under the treaty of joint occupation, maintain a military establish- ment at the mouth of the Columbia; but they could at least open a road into the trans-Rocky Mountain territory and thus facilitate the movement of pioneers thither, which would indirectly serve the same purpose. Begin- ning with the year 1841 this policy was advocated by a succession of war secretaries, whose arguments are con386 JOSEPH SCHAFER. veniently summarized in House Documents, 29th Cong., 1st Sess.( 1845), Vol. I: Repts. of Committees, Rept. No. 13. The policy began to bear fruit at once, for in the spring of 1842 Fremont was commissioned to explore the best route as far as South Pass, though nothing was done about planting posts. At the same time the government yielded so far to the demands of Americans already settled in Ore- gon as to send out Dr. Elijah White, a returned missionary, as Indian sub-agent for that Territory. White was in- structed to go to the Columbia overland, and to take with him as many prospective settlers as he could enlist along the frontier. He gathered a party of about one hundred and twenty, and made a successful journey, although they took their wagons only as far as Fort Hall. White's " Ten Years in Oregon " contains a reminiscent narrative of these events; while the journal of Medorem Crawford, printed by the Oregon Historical Society, is our exclusive primary source for the incidents of the journey. The emigration of the following year, 1843, is the cen- tral fact in the colonizing movement. It resulted in the opening of the wagon road all the way to the Columbia, the planting of nearly a thousand American settlers in the Willamette Valley, the definite inauguration of an agri- cultural and commercial economy, and, above all. in the firm establishment of an American pioneer State on the Pacific. The coming of these emigrants in the fall of 1843 has always been looked upon by old Oregonians as the beginning of the distinctively American period in Pacific Coast history. As the coming of, Winthrop's party of Puritans to Massachusetts Bay in 1630 largely deter- mined the history of New England, so the arrival on the Columbia of Burnett's wagon train and Applegate's "Cow- Column" are events of fundamental significance in the history of the Pacific Northwest. NOTES ON THE COLONIZATION OF OREGON. 387 The sources for the study of this great emigration are now reasonably good and are constantly growing better. Their chief repository is the five volumes of the Oregon Historical Society, 1900 to 1904, inclusive (the sixth vol- ume is now nearly complete), supplemented by the publi- cations of the Oregon Pioneer Association, 1873 to 1886. Having elsewhere covered the narrative history of the movement with reasonable fulness, 1 I shall here simply indicate, for the convenience of students, the nature of the sources at our disposal. First in order is a series of brief documents relating to the manner of raising the emigration. It will be recalled that some writers, most conspicuously Barrows, in his History of Oregon, credit Dr. Marcus Whitman with hav- ing raised this great company for Oregon. Whitman left his Walla Walla mission early in October and reached the frontier of Missouri late in the following January or early in February. Our contemporary sources show, among other things, that prospective emigrants were be- ginning to enroll their names with the emigration com- mittees in western Missouri as early as September, 1842 ; that an association at St. Louis sent an emigration agent to Washington whose duty it was to watch the action of Congress, to keep the western people informed on the progress of the Linn bill for the organization of an Oregon territory and the granting of lands to settlers ; to send out literature bearing on the Oregon question to the emigra- tion committees scattered over the country from Pittsburg west ; and lastly, to secure if possible from the Secretary of War the promise of a company of troops to escort the emigrants on the march. The importance which western people attached to the passage of the Linn bill is illustrated by a number of 1 A history of the Pacific Northwest, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1905; see, especially, chapters XI, XII, and XIII. 388 JOSEPH SCHAFER. documents. These show how public meetings were held, especially in Ohio, for the purpose of urging Congress to pass the Linn bill. These meetings resulted in the famous Oregon Convention at Cincinnati in July, 1843, which virtually determined that plank of the 1844 Democratic platform summarized in the phrase "Fifty-four Forty or Fight," and incidentally had a marked effect upon emi- gration as well. We have the minutes of several meetings held in Bloom- ington, Iowa Territory, whose object was to raise a local company of emigrants for Oregon ; and we find that every detail of the preparation for the journey was carefully dis- cussed in advance. The Platte (Missouri) Eagle notices editorially a lecture on Oregon delivered by Peter H. Burnett, and remarks that this gentleman is arousing great enthusiasm for the settlement of that most desirable country. The article concludes dramatically: "The Ameri- can eagle is flapping his wings, the percursor of the end of the British lion on the shores of the Pacific. Destiny has willed it !" For the organization of the company and the journey across the plains we have a number of distinct sources ; but I shall notice only a few of the most important. So far as is known only one member of this party of nearly one thousand persons kept a diary which has been pre- served. This was Peter H. Burnett, whose children, liv- ing in or near San Francisco, still possess the original docu- ment. It has never been printed entire ; but we have a series of letters written by Burnett in the winter of 1843-44 to the New York Herald, and printed in part a year later, which are based upon the facts noted in his diary and upon recollections of the journey then still fresh in mind. The letters give an account of the trip as far as the Sweetwater. In Burnett's "Recollections and Opinions of an old Pio- neer," New York, 1880, there is a brief account of the NOTES ON THE COLONIZATION OF OREGON. 389 entire journey to the Columbia, which is likewise based upon the diary, and is therefore a safe guide for all matters like dates, places, and distances. The student should carefully avoid the pseudo-Burnett source printed in George Wilkes' so-called "History of Oregon," New York, 1845. This account of the 1843 emigration is based on the letters written by Burnett to the New York Herald ; but Wilkes has worked over the material contained in the letters in his own peculiar way and with the deliberate purpose of deceiving his readers concerning the hardships of the western portion of the road. Detailed evidence to prove this charge has been given elsewhere. (See, especially, the Portland Oregonian, Sunday, November 1, 1903.) The journal of Fremont's second expedition affords some material on the emigration, for Fremont saw much of the emigrants at certain points on the route. However, it is a subsidiary source. So are, also, though for a differ- ent reason, the interesting narratives by J. W. Nesmith and others printed in the Oregon Pioneer Association volume. These, while containing much valuable material, are usually in the form of reminiscences which must always be used with caution. One of them, however, Jesse Applegate's "A Day with the Cow-Column," is de- serving of special notice as a peculiarly valuable source. In this paper, read before the Oregon Pioneer Association in 1877, Applegate, the preeminent literary genius of the 1843 emigration, gives an intimate and most delightful account of a typical day on the plains during the long, dreary, overland march. Dealing almost wholly with matters of a general character easily retained by the mem- ory, the document may be followed with safety. And it is a literary gem, which, in my opinion, ought to have a place in every school reader of appropriate grade used in the Coast States. It was reprinted in the Oregon Trail 390 JOSEPH SCHAFER. number of the QUARTERLY, December, 1900, together with Joaquin Miller's "Pilgrims of the Plains"; and it suffers not at all by comparison with that spirited production. Another source for the emigration of 1843, and one of considerable importance, is Overtoil Johnson and William H. Winter's "Route Across the Rocky Mountains, with a Description of Oregon and California," Lafayette, Ind., 1846. Many letters could be cited to show how the pioneers of 1843 took possession of the Oregon Country on their arrival ; how they reorganized the Provisional govern- ment and made it adequate to the exigencies of the next six years ; how they induced the Hudson Bay Company to recognize this government, and bring themselves and their property under its protection. The serious student will readily find these, and will be convinced that this emigration inaugurated the American era on the Pacific. Burnett speaks truly concerning its influence upon the disputed question of the northern boundary when he says : "We knew to a moral certainty that the moment we brought our families, cattle, teams, and loaded wagons to the banks of the Columbia River in the fall of 1843, the question was practically decided in our favor."

JOSEPH SCHAFER.

MERIWETHER LEWIS.[3]

Lewis Day of the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition is a proper occasion for a review of the leading events in the life of Meriwether Lewis. The only authentic account of his early life and genealogy is contained in the memoirs of Thomas Jefferson. We learn more of the man from the Journals of Lewis and Clark's Expedition than from any other source. It is a marvelous fact that the records of this expedition have never been fully published. There is now an edition in the course of preparation as the explorers wrote them.

Meriwether Lewis was born on the 18th day of August, 1774, near the town of Charlottesville, in the county of Albemarle, in 'Virginia. John Lewis, one of his greatuncles, was a member of the king's council before the Revolution; and Fielding Lewis, another great-uncle, married a sister of George Washington. Colonel Robert Lewis, his grandfather, had five sons, of whom William, the youngest, was the father of Meriwether and Reuben. Charles Lewis, an uncle, was colonel of a Virginia regiment; he died early in the Revolution. Nicholas Lewis, an uncle, commanded a regiment of militia in 1776 against the Cherokee Indians. This member of the Lewis family was endeared to all who knew him for probity, courteous disposition, and modesty of manners. After William Lewis's death, Nicholas Lewis was appointed guardian of Meriwether and Reuben. The mother married John Marks, and from this marriage there were two children, John Marks and Mary Garland Marks. Reuben Lewis 392 ANDREW T. LEWIS. is mentioned in connection with the Missouri Fur Com- pany at St. Louis in 1809. and in the Mandan towns in the fur trade in 1811. There are no descendants of either Meriwether or Reuben Lewis. Of the early life of Meriwether Lewis it is said that at the age of eight years he often went out in the middle of the night, into the forests, with his dogs, to hunt the raccoon and opossum. At thirteen he was sent to a Latin school and continued there for five years. At eighteen he returned home, and for two years had the charge of his mother's farm. At twenty he was a volunteer in the militia, and took part against the discontent produced by the excise taxes in the western part of the United States. Through the influence of Jefferson, he was transferred to the regular army and commissioned a lieutenant in the line, and afterwards was appointed paymaster of his regi- ment. Jefferson had long desired knowledge oT the West; he proposed to the American Philosophical Society in 1792, the year of the discovery of the Columbia River, to raise money for an expedition to ascend the Missouri, cross the Stony Mountains, and descend the nearest river to the Pacific Ocean. Meriwether Lewis applied at the time to make the journey. When Jefferson was inaugurated President the young lieutenant became his secretary; he was commissioned captain in the regular army April 15, 1802. Lewis assisted the President with his confidential mes- sage to Congress of January 18, 1803. In this message the President proposed to send an exploring expedition up the Missouri River, cross the high lands and follow the best water courses to the Pacific Ocean. The President says of Lewis : "I now had an opportu- nity of knowing him intimately; of courage undaunted ; "possessing a firmness and perseverance of purpose which MERIWETHER LEWIS. 393 "nothing but impossibilities could divert from its direc- tion ; careful as a father of those committed to his charge, "yet steady in the maintenance of order and discipline ; "habituated to the hunting life ; guarded by exact observa- tion of vegetables and animals of his own country against "losing time in the description of objects already pos- "sessed ; honest; disinterested; liberal; of sound under- standing, and with a fidelity to truth so scrupulous that "whatever he should report would be as certain as if seen "by ourselves ; with all these qualities as if selected and "implanted by Nature in one body for this special pur- pose, I could have no hesitation in confiding the expedi- tion to him." Captain Lewis selected for his assistant, William Clark, of Louisville, Kentucky, brother of General George Rogers Clark. This selection was approved, and Clark was com- missioned as captain in the regular army, and assigned second in command of the expedition. On the 20th of June, 1803, the President signed "In- structions to Meriwether Lewis, Esquire, Captain of the "First Regiment of Infantry of the United States of "America." The instructions show that the President at this time had no knowledge of the source of the Missouri, the Columbia, and the Colorado rivers, or of the moun- tains, or of the country beyond. On the 1st day of July there came from Paris that astonishing news that the commissioners had purchased the whole of Louisiana. This did not change the plans or the instructions of the President. ]t rather hastened the expedition than otherwise. Lewis had intended visit- ing his mother before starting. He wrote her on the 3d of July, " Day after to-morrow I shall set out for the west- ern country. I had calculated on the pleasure of visiting you, but circumstances have rendered it impossible." 394 ANDREW T. LEWIS. On the 5th he left Washington for Pittsburg, where he began selecting supplies, men, and boats. These were gathered up from Pittsburg, all along the line down the Ohio, until they reached St. Louis in the following De- cember. Clark joined the expedition at Louisville and took charge, Lewis going overland by way of Vincennes. The expedition intended to winter at the highest settle- ment on the Missouri, but the Spanish commandant would not permit them to pass through the country, so the ex- pedition went into camp at the mouth of the Wood River, on the east side of the Mississippi in Illinois. On the 9th day of March, 1804, the first step in the cer- emony of transferring Upper Louisiana to the United States occurred. On that day the Spanish flag was low- ered, and the French tricolor raised in its place. The old French residents begged that their flag might float over Louisiana until the next day. On the following day the flag of France was lowered and the flag of the United States took its place. Lewis was a witness to the last act which finally and forever terminated the authority of Spain and France to Louisiana. This was an inspiring event for an expedition soon to start for the unknown land beyond the Rocky Mountains. On the 14th of May, 1804, the expedition left the mouth of Wood River and started up the Missouri. They met fur traders coming down the river. They began to note in the Journal the important rivers, streams, islands, and to give an account of the Indian tribes. During the spring and summer they labored up the Missouri against the tur- bulent river current, without incident, except a council held with the Indians, and the death and burial of Sergeant Floyd. They encountered Hudson Bay men, who regretted to see the flag of the United States west of the Mississippi River. They proceeded on and entered a country of the Sioux, where thev met with the first hostile demonstration. MERIWETHER LEWIS. 395 A show of force, and the tact and skill of Lewis and Clark, soon commanded the Indians' respect. The two captains were afterwards carried in a buffalo robe by their young men, dressed for the occasion, to the Council House, and were feasted on dog and buffalo meat. Lewis, in the de- scription of the Sioux, mentions their shaved heads, scalp locks, painted faces, the noise of the drums, scalp dance, buffalo robes adorned with porcupine quills, and buffalo- skin lodges. They next found a tribe who refused whisky. From here they entered the Mandan country, near Bis- marck, North Dakota, where they spent the winter. They built two rows of log huts protected by a stockade, the roofs of which were thatched with grass and clay. Here they engaged Charboneau and Sacajawea to accom- pany them. Sacajawea was a Shoshone Indian, who was captured by the Minnetarees near the head of the Missouri, and sold by them to Charboneau, who made her his wife. Lewis believed she would be of great service to the expe- dition when they arrived in the Shoshone country. On April 7, 1805, the soldiers sent as an escort started back. The expedition, consisting of thirty-two persons, again started up the Missouri. Lewis says : "I esteem this moment of our departure as among the most happy of my life." On April 25, Lewis, with four men, found the river known as the La Roche Jaune. He named it the Yellow- stone. On the 26th, from the summit of some high hills, Lewis saw for the first time the Rocky Mountains. On the 2d day of June they reached a point of great importance, two rivers, one from the north, and one from the southwest. Lewis wrote, "On our right decision much "of the fate of the expedition depends ; since, if after "ascending the Rocky Mountains, or beyond them, we "should find that the river we were following did not come "near the Columbia, and be obliged to return, we should 396 ANDREW T. LEWIS. "not only lose the traveling season, but probably dis- "hearten the men." The river from the north Lewis named Maria's River, in honor of his cousin, Maria Wood. On proceeding up the river Clark took charge of the boats, and Lewis, with four men, went by land. On the 13th he heard the sounds of the Great Falls seven miles away. Lewis's description of the falls of Missouri is ac- curate, and is considered at this time a fine description. Lewis was filled with admiration of Nature at the falls. He was impressed with the grandeur of the scenery, the magnitude of the falls, the great herds of buffalo, and the great number of grizzly bears. Nowhere in the Journal is shown his power of description to better advantage. In the distance of ten miles from the first to the last fall, the total descent of the river is 41 2^ feet. The port- age around the rapids was eighteen miles. The clearing of the long path was one of the many examples of hard work done by the explorers. They were about twelve days making the portage. Here they made light canoes to continue their voyage beyond the falls. They passed through a canyon they named "The Gates of the Rocky Mountains," and on to the head of the Missouri, where they found three rivers, as Sacajawea had described them; Lewis named them the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin. They proceeded up the Jefferson, and on the 30th of July arrived at a place Sacajawea pointed out, where, tive years before she was captured by the Minnetarees. They were nearing the summit of the mountains, water transporta- tion would soon end, and with it possibly the further progress of the expedition. Lewis took Drewyer, (Drou- illard), Shields, and McNeal, and left Clark and the party not to return until he found the Shoshone Indians. On the morning of the 12th day of August, 1805, they found an Indian road along the banks of a stream which gradually became smaller, until one of the men, with one MERIWETHER LEWIS. 397 foot on each side of the river, "Thanked God that he had lived to bestride the Missouri." They crossed the Divide, from the waters of the Missouri to the waters that flow into the Columbia, where they camped and ate their last piece of pork. ONE HUNDRED years ago to-day Lewis, Drewyer, and McNeal were the first white men to cross the Rocky Mountains, within the boundary lines of the United States, to the Pacific Slope. Soon after leaving camp, on the 13th, they saw two women and a man and some dogs at a distance, who fled at their approach. They continued a little farther when they suddenly came upon three females, one of them, a young Indian, ran away; the others, an old woman and a little girl, held down their heads expecting death. Lewis put down his gun and went up to them, took the woman's hand and raised her up repeating the words, "Taba Bone," meaning white men, at the same time showing her his bare arm. Drewyer and Shields coming up, Lewis asked Drewyer to request the old woman to recall her companion, which she did. Lewis gave her some beads, a few awls, and a pewter mirror; and then painted the cheeks of the three women vermillion. They proceeded down the road to the Indian camp. They soon met sixty warriors riding at full speed. Lewis put down his gun and with the United States flag flying advanced fifty paces with the Indian woman, when the chief spoke to them and the woman informed him that the party were white men. The chief leaped from his horse and embraced Lewis with great cordiality, applying his left cheek to Lewis's and fre- quently saying, "Ah-hi-e," meaning "I am much pleased." The whole body came forward, and the men received the embraces of the warriors in the same manner. Lewis obtained men and horses to go back after the rest of the party. The next four days form an interesting story of his efforts in the management of the Shoshone 398 ANDREW T. LEWIS. Indians. They were like a flock of quail, ready to fly at the appearance of evil. On their way back the whole party was stampeded, and Lewis carried along on his horse with the rest for a mile before they learned that the Indian who was running toward them desired to inform them that one of the white men had killed a deer. They soon found Clark and the rest of the party with the canoes. The meeting between Sacajawea and her people was very touching; the chief who accompanied Lewis was her brother. From Shoshone Cove to Canoe Camp at the mouth of Clearwater was traveled with horses as pack animals, over the wildest and roughest part of the United States. They left Canoe Camp October 7, and on the 18th started down the Columbia River. Their trip was one continuous ova- tion with the Indian tribes from Canoe Camp to the Great Falls of the Columbia. Lewis gives an interesting de- scription of the horse of the great plains ; he ends by say- ing, "They resemble in fleetness and bottom, as well as in form and color, the best blooded horses of Virginia." On November 7, 1805, the expedition reached the ocean and went into winter quarters at Fort Clatsop on the south side of the Columbia, not far from the city of Astoria. On the 23d of March, 1806, they left Fort Clatsop. Their supplies and trinkets, excepting the salt and am- munition, could have been wrapped in two handkerchiefs. On their way back they discovered the Multnomah River, now called the Willamette. Clark ascended this river twelve miles to the city of Portland. The explorers esti- mated that this country bordering on the Columbia was capable uf supporting fifty thousand inhabitants. When the expedition reached the head of the Missoula at Three Rivers, the party divided, Clark going south with Sacajawea as the guide, and descended the Yellow- stone River; and Lewis with his party proceeded to the MERIWETHER LEWIS. 399 Great Falls, where he left with four men to explore the Maria's River. On this trip Lewis met a party of roving Minnetarees near the north boundary line of Montana. They camped together, the Indians undertook to steal their guns and horses, a fight ensued ; Fields killed one Indian with a knife, and Lewis killed another with his revolver. They recovered their guns and lost one horse, but captured four of the Indian horses in exchange. Lewis, fearing more trouble, started towards the Missouri and made one hundred and twenty miles in the remark- able time of thirty-six hours. Soon after this experience Lewis was taken for an elk by one of his men, and shot through the thigh. After this incident the party proceeded down the river to the mouth of the Yellowstone, where they found a note from Clark, who had passed down some time before. A few miles below the Yellowstone the party was united and proceeded down the river to the Mandan country,' where they parted with Charboneau and Sacajawea, and con- tinued on their way and arrived at St. Louis on the 23d of September, 1806. The actual travel by land and water was 8,270 miles, not counting the side trips, very nearly one third of the distance around the world. Their route was mostly through an unknown land. None but Indians had as- cended the Missouri as far as the Great Falls. No white man had ever crossed the Rocky Mountains within the boundary lines of the United States. None had ascended the Columbia River to the head of tide water. The du- ration of the expedition was two years and four months. The story of their adventure stands alone, as the most successful and important ever accomplished ; they joined the highlands and the Oregon to the Louisiana Purchase. On their return to Washington they were received with tears of joy by the President and were warmly welcomed 400 ANDREW T. LEWIS. by Congress ; they received the applause and gratitude of the people of the United States. The two leaders were voted double pay, and were each granted a large tract of land. Lewis was nominated governor of Louisiana February 28, 1807, confirmed by Congress March 12, and resigned from the army the same day, was commissioned March 3, and entered upon his new duties at St. Louis the follow- ing July, succeeding Governor James Wilkinson. Governor Lewis found the country divided into factions, and general discontent prevailed within the district. He refused to take part in any of the factional controversies, and was able to bring about order and good will among the people. One of his important acts as Governor was his proclamation establishing the Territory of Arkansas. In August, 1808, Governor Lewis held an important council with the Sacs, Fox, and Iowa Indians ; the first post office was established in 1808, and the first book, consisting of the laws of Louisiana, was published during his incum- bency. Before Lewis left St. Louis on his last journey, on the 19th of August, 1809, he appointed his three most intimate friends his lawful attorney, viz., William Clark, Alexander Stewart, and William C. Carr. Some trouble having arisen over his accounts and with a view of editing the Journals, he left St. Louis in the latter part of August for Washington. He proceeded to Chickasaw Bluffs, now the site of the city of Memphis, Tennessee, where he arrived the 16th day of September, 1809. Jefferson says, "While "he lived with me at Washington I observed at times "sensible depressions of mind, he was in a paroxysm of "one of these when his affairs rendered it necessary for "him to go to Washington. Mr. Neely, agent of the "United States with the Chickasaw Indians, arrived at "Chickasaw Bluffs two days afterwards, and found GovMERIWETHER LEWIS. 401 "ernor Lewis extremely indisposed, and he betrayed at "times considerable derangement of mind. Mr. Neely "kindly determined to accompany him and watch over "him. At their encampment, one day's journey beyond "the Tennessee River, they lost two horses, which obliged "Mr. Neely to halt for their recovery. Governor Lewis "proceeded under a promise to wait for him at the house "of the h'rst white inhabitant on the road. He stopped "at the house of Mr. Grinder, who was not at home. His "wife, alarmed at the symptoms of derangement, gave him "up the house and retired to an outhouse. About three "o'clock in the night he did the deed which plunged his "friends into affliction." Jefferson concludes, "I have only "to add that all the facts I have stated are either known "to myself, or were communicated to me by his family or "others, for whose truth I have no hesitation in making "myself responsible." The mother of Meriwether Lewis in 1820, stated that her son's letters before starting on his homeward journey were full of love and affection. She never believed that her son committed suicide. She firmly believed that he was murdered by his Spanish servant. One of the family said that after thirty years this servant sent a trunk of papers to Mary Garland Marks, in which one was a will of Governor Lewis devising his land in St. Louis to her. That she afterwards compromised her claim for the sum cf $6,000. Another relative recognized a gold watch of Meriwether Lewis's in the hands of a man on the Missis- sippi, and secured it, and supposed at the time that the man was Lewis's Spanish servant. . The report of the Lewis Monument Committee of Ten- nessee says that it seems to be more probable that Gov- ernor Lewis died at the hands of an assassin than that he committed suicide. James D. Park, a lawyer of Franklin, Tennessee, sa} T s that the firm belief of the people of that 402 ANDREW T. LEWIS. part of the country is that Governor Lewis was murdered aud robbed. The story of Polly Spencer, a hired girl in the Grinder family, is that Lewis was killed soon after supper, and that the only servant he had was a negro boy. Grinder was part Indian, and was suspected of the murder of Lewis. He soon moved to the western part of Tennessee, where he purchased slaves and a farm, and had plenty of money. There were other strange and mysterious disappearances of rich travelers in this. lo- cality, and it was believed by the people that Grinder had murdered them. It seems strange that there is no account of Lewis's death by Mr. Neely, the Indian agent; that there is no testimony or statement of the negro boy, or the Spanish servant. Jefferson had no hesitation in saying that Governor Lewis did the deed that plunged his friends in amction. Yet subsequent development of facts not probably known to Jefferson point strongly to murder and robbery. The State of Tennessee, where Lewis is buried, created Lewis County out of other counties, and in 1848 erected a monument to his memory. It is twenty-one and one half feet high, with a broken column two and one half feet in diameter upon a square, pyramidal base with hewn steps. Under this monument rest the mortal remains of Meriwether Lewis. On the west plinth is the following inscription : MERIWETHER LEWIS, Born near Charlottesville, Va., August 18, 1774. Died October 11, 1809. Age 35 years. Mr. Park says of Lewis's monument: "FAR OUT IN THE NATIVE FOREST ON THE HIGHLANDS, WITH NO HUMAN DWELL- ING NEAR, IT IS INDEED A LONELY SPOT, WHERE THE WILD HOUNDS.

ANDREW T. LEWIS.

FUNCTIONS OF THE OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY.[4]

Plasticity is the one great advantage of youth. We in the Far West naturally wish to excuse what is crude and primitive in our institutional development as due to our youth. If our most distinctive characteristic is youth, and therefore plasticity, we are warranted in placing a strong emphasis on plans and ideals. Our institutional organization should be designed under the best light and for the broadest and highest service before social habits with us and the forms and centers of social activity become fixed and virtually unchangeable.

The assumption of the youth and plasticity of the social development of Oregon, with respect particularly to the organization to be given to its State Historical Society for social service, is one element in the position taken in this paper. The other element in the position assumed is, that in the present stage of development of the social sciences and the exigent need of light for the application of scientific methods in social administration, the work of a State historical society normally comes into active, intiniate, and manifold connections with the life of the commonwealth.

I wish to submit to your judgment the lines of work and the active relations which this society should propose to itself. To do this to any purpose I must by way of preface give some account of the conditions under which the Society was originally organized and the influences that have controlled its development. This will serve to 404 F. G. YOUNG. explain some rather anomalous features that you see in it, and will indicate the conditions under which it lives and must work. out its development. Institutions, like plants and animals, must develop their strength out of the elements, of the environment which is their habitat. After we have before us the salient factors in the situation under which this Society has lived and developed its re- stricted activities, and appreciating the exigent needs of skilfully classified data covering all subjects, if public interests rapidly growing in magnitude and complexity are to be conserved, a program of more effective activity and larger usefulness for this society can be outlined, i The spirit of a historical society is necessarily strongly affected by what was unique in the discovery and explo- ration of the land that is its home and in the origin of the people whose interests it conserves. There was a large measure of the heroic in the founding of the Oregon com- munity and a large degree of autonomy exercised in its early history. Historical literature makes use of the ex- pression "the Oregon Country." The discovery of the Columbia with its empire by Captain Gray, the explora- tion of this section of the continent by Lewis and Clark, the initiative in the exploitation of this other side of the continent by the enterprise of Astor, the extension of the operations of the American fur traders across the conti- nent, the on-coming and the organization of the home- building pioneers on this western slope all taking place before the home government had secured sovereignty over this imperial region each and all of these achievements kindle historical sentiment and arouse an historical con- sciousness among the later generations making their home here. What was more natural than that as these deeds became hallowed with time the surviving actors in great drama and their sons and daughters should associate themselves that they might the better live over again a FUNCTIONS OF THE OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 405 glorious past and celebrate a great heritage ? Pioneer organizations sprang up, and in the course of a quarter of a century developed a strong consciousness of a heroic epoch, with experiences connected with a great migration and life on a far-flung frontier. Then, too, the Oregon question in our national history, which may be said to date from Thomas Jefferson's letter to George Rogers Clark in 1783 to the settlement of the Northwest bound- ary in 1846, added to this nucleus of a distinct Oregon sentiment. All this made Oregon good soil for organiza- tions of an historical character. Among the more im- portant to originate were the Oregon Pioneer Association, which was organized in 1873 at Butteville (an intermedi- ate point between old French Prairie and Champoeg on one side and old Willamette Falls on the other), and the Oregon Pioneer and Historical Society founded at Astoria. The latter has not been active in recent years. The former continues its existence, but makes its life purpose consist more and more in the maintenance of a cult of the pio- neers rather than in a systematically planned conserva- tion of historical sources and stimulation of historical activities. This restricted interest and function of these pioneer organizations was natural and probably fortunate. There was with them a hallowed regard .for pioneer rec- ollections and pioneer relics as tokens of a heroic past. EveVits more nearly contemporary suffered in comparison and seemed mean and commonplace. Records of achieve- ments, great or small, that did not hark back over a period of forty or fifty years were counted things of little worth. History in their view had about all been made and the evidence for it was to be found mainly in the memories of its makers. Appreciation of the higher authenticity of the contemporary record was woefully weak. At least no adequate provision was made by these pioneer associations 406 F. G. YOUNG. for the systematic collection and preservation of such con- temporary records. The capital ready at hand, therefore, when this Society was organized nearly seven years ago, was the existence here of historical sentiment from an appreciation of the heroic in the beginnings of Oregon. This the annual meetings of the pioneer associations had brought strongly into the community consciousness. The main idea added when this Society had its origin was that of an apprecia- tion of the higher authenticity of the contemporary record in all its various forms and a sense of the urgency of an immediate and thorough canvass for them and the print- ing of the most important in a form absolutely faithful to the original. This idea had been acted upon some two or three years in the then Department of History and Eco- nomics of the State University by which cooperation in Portland was awakened which resulted in the founding of this Society. The two main assets for a historical society in Oregon, then, were a well-founded pride in a heroic past and the idea of the value of contemporary records with full appre- ciation of the urgency of an immediate canvass for them that they might be collected and preserved. Alongside these two advantages in the situation for the society there must, however, be mentioned a stubborn disadvantage in the form of a strong individualistic or laissez faire attitude among our people discountenancing State support for ac- tivities of the nature of those of a historical society. The warm feeling for the pioneers and for the preservation of pioneer relics and records was, however, strong enough to overcome opposition to State support for an organiza- tion engaged in this line of activity. Such were the ideas and sentiments embodied in this society at its origin, and such were and are the elements in the Oregon environment in which this society must FUNCTIONS OF THE OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 407 develop its strength. Dependence on membership fees, large in number, and on State appropriations made it ab- solutely necessary to place emphasis upon the collection and display of relics and other tokens of pioneer life. It was, however, with genuine appreciation that we sought these tokens through which to idolize the pioneers. Still the society during the six and one half years of its exist- ence has striven assiduously and insidiously to extend its activities so that it might much more nearly accomplish th- work of a full-fledged State historical society. An un- catalogued library and unindexed collections betray how closely we are still bound in our swaddling clothes. We are in position now to consider the aims and ideals which should shape the future of the society. The condi- tion of the field for a historical society as to the presence of rivals is an important matter, bearing upon what should advisedly be undertaken in the future. There was nothing in the nature of historical activity at our State capital. The nucleus or germinal activity at the State University, from which the society was an outgrowth, was merged into this organization by making the then professor of history the secretary of the society. The main pioneer association was also placed in satisfactory relation to the society by employing its secretary as the assistant secretary of the historical society. The rooms and the main body of the collections of the society are at Portland the principal center of population in the State and the home of the great body of the active and influential membership of the so- ciety. Alongside these elements of advantage in the loca- tion of the society must be noted the fact that Portland is not the capital, nor is it the home of the State University. A State historical society ideally constituted for larger and higher service contemplates the cooperation of appropriate agencies at each of these points, the State capital, the State University, and the center of population. But separation 408 F. G. YOUNG. in space is a drawback of constantly diminishing impor- tance in library activity. The main problem then with the Oregon Historical Society is to determine and to de- fine the functions that normally fall to a historical society and State library in a fully developed and well regulated commonwealth organization, and then to secure the means to fulfil such functions. The question, then, is what are a commonwealth's main interests in the development of home activities in historical investigations? Or, in other words, for what services in the life of a commonwealth are historical activities indispensable? If the contributions of a commonwealth or section to the national life are to be fully recognized accredited records must be preserved, made available, and the annals of the commonwealth brought into relation with the main trends of national development. To the activity of the historical societies of the Middle West is to be mainly attributed the larger place the growth of the West has in our National Story. As historical activity in the Pacific Northwest gets the sources of the history of this section into the hands of the historical scholars the things done on the Lewis and Clark and the Oregon trails and in the develop- ment of the institutions of civilization here, will figure more largely in future histories than they have in those of the past. A people is neither true to itself nor true to truth as a whole unless it conserves the sources of its his- tory. But there is no such thing as perceiving the significance of the facts of local history except through an understand- ing of the history of the nation and of the world. So or- ganic is the unity of history. To seize upon the really significant in local history and preserve it, the workers in it must be possessed of a comprensive scholarship, and there must be available library facilities through which to apply the power of perceiving the wider and deeper FUNCTIONS OF THE OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 409 relations. That a commonwealth may really gain large results from an efficient corps of workers in history, there must not only be a library equipped to meet the needs of research, but there must also be such organization of those using the materials of history that the advantage of associa- tion in suggestion, in stimulation, and in emulation may be secured. A State historical society as the center of State historical activities must, therefore, be provided with a library of research, and must maintain meetings from which the largest benefits of association are derived. That largest source of historical records, the legislative and administrative archives of the commonwealth, comes in for special care from a State historical society. This large mass of material should be given the form that will make it most serviceable for the purposes for which it was created. State publications need the supervision of the best historical acumen that they may tell most effectively all that should be recorded. The archives for the past are generally so bad, so defective, and so lacking that rehabilitation and reprinting are necessary. An impor- tant and essential part of the operations of a State his- torical society will have to do with these archives. This responsibility for the supervision of the archives of the Sta^e seems to be represented by quite a movement among the)3tate historical societies of the South. In identifying historic sites and stimulating local com- munities to mark them and beautify them a historical society is performing an important service in rendering more hallowed, richer in association and more stimulating to the imagination the land upon' which a people dwells. A still more intimate relation to the life of a common- wealth seems, in this scientific and dynamic age, to be- long to the state historical society. That a State may understand accurately and closely and handle skilfully and scientifically its problems of progress a state historical 410 F. G. YOUNG. society must keep filed and indexed for readiest use data giving forms and results of experience at home and the world over in all lines of its development. This it must do that the commonwealth may have and utilize the best light in dealing with its own affairs. The files of the Oregon Historical Society should have that order, completeness, and up-to-dateness which would afford a sufficing guid- ance for legislative and administrative work of the State. The fully equipped Oregon Historical Society one meeting the needs of the commonwealth will thus have in best working order a library of research into all lines of world activities which touch the life of Oregon. It will be the" center of association and discussion on the part of the students of these commonwealth, national, and world problems. It will have supervision of the archives of the State and serve as the reference library and libra- rian for the. legislative and administrative activities for the commonwealth as a whole and for any of its local organizations or communities. It will also deepen that historical sentiment through which the land becomes hallowed for the heart and rich for the imagination. This program for the Oregon Historical Society of wide and active relations to the life of the Oregon common- wealth is urged on three fundamental grounds. It is in harmony with the widest and highest application of the principle of cooperation among the agencies for the pro- motion of the higher life interests of Oregon ; it would bring into largest and most effective play scientific meth- ods and principles for the shaping of the future of Ore- gon, and would at the same time result in the best selec- tion of data for future history and provide for the highest utilization of them fro'm day to day. And, lastly, the Oregon Historical Society, from its nature as a historical society in relation to the methods of progress in this scientific age and its position among the institutions of the commonwealth, is best intrusted with this function of mentor in the commonwealth life of Oregon.

F. G. YOUNG.

WASHINGTON ACTIVITIES IN HISTORY.[5]

The early history of "Old Oregon" is that of Washington until the latter separated from the parent Territory. The history of the voyages of discovery along the ocean coast, the explorations across the continent, the trapping and trading ventures of American and foreign companies, the grand and heroic work of the early missionaries and the pioneers of the great Northwest, is the common heritage of the sister States on opposite sides of the mighty Columbia.

Prior to the separation in 1853, good newspapers had been established in Olympia, the capital of Washington, and at no time since has the country west of the Cascade Mountains been without one or more of them.

Our early history was thus gathered week by week, in the most painstaking way by the men who wrote the matter for those early journals, and printed it.

Of course the official records of the Territory, its counties and municipalities, have been preserved, and they have suffered but little loss by fire or the ravages of time.

To these two sources must we apply for most of the materials for the history of Washington, that still remains to be written. There have been many more or less pretentious efforts in this direction, but as they were prepared more with an eye to pecuniary results than for the preservation or presentation of our history, they have but little historic value.

Many of the early-day men here, of literary tastes, prepared manuscripts of more or less historical value, but most of these were gathered up by the publisher of a voluminous history of the Pacific states and* territories that emanated from San Francisco in the early eighties, and have thus been lost to us until the possessor of the collection shall have sold it to those who will throw it open to the searchers and writers of history.

Elwood Evans and James G. Swan were the historians of Washington's early days. They came here about the time of our territorial organization, and remained in active life until after the transition to statehood. Both were liberally educated and of literary tastes. They were trained observers and careful writers, and the commonwealth is the loser because they did not give wider range to their historical work. Much of Swan's writings appeared under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institute of Washington City, a sufficient guaranty of their accuracy, while most of Evans' work appeared in the newspapers and in publications where the identity of the writer was not disclosed. He was a lawyer by profession, and a politician as well, whose predilections and prejudices were equally pronounced. His mind was that of the advocate rather than the judge. In all the controversies connected with the Indian war, the claims of the missions and the Hudson Bay and Puget Sound Agricultural Companies, the adjustment of our northern boundaries, and varied public questions of nearly forty years, he took an active part as counsel in the courts or as a partisan in the newspapers. For this reason, due caution should betaken in accepting his published views on those questions.

In the early days of the Territory he devoted much painstaking effort to the collection, writing, and rewriting of pioneer history. He knew almost every man of note in the Northwest, and he was endowed with a happy faculty of eliciting facts concerning our early social, material, and political history. He also gathered almost complete files of the early local newspapers and publications, which later mostly came into my possession, while most of his manuscripts went to Bancroft in California. That he failed to present a complete history of pioneer times in Washington was a loss that can never be made good. His mantle fell upon no worthy successor.

At the Tacoma Hotel, July 2, 1891, pursuant to a call from Charles W. Hobart, a public meeting was held to organize a State historical society. Little was done beyond discussion as to ways and means. October 8 of the same year an organization was effected, the following becoming the charter members of the "Washington State Historical Society," viz., Elwood Evans, Edward Huggins, James Wickersham, L. P. Bradley, Henry Bucey, John Flett, J. N. Houghton, Edward N. Fuller, Charles W. Hobart, Philo G. Hubbell, and Miss Nannie Wickersham, of Pierce County; Edward Eldredge, Henry Roeder, S. Caldwell, of Whatcom County; Clarence B. Bagley, J. B. Houghton, of King County; T. I. McKenney, C. M. Barton, Allen Weir, R. H. Lansdale, of Thurston County; W. P. Gray, of Franklin County; Thomas J. Smith, of Whitman County.

A constitution and by-laws were adopted, and Elwood Evans unanimously chosen president, where he was retained for five years.

The most notable work of the Society was that of celebrating, on May 7 and 8, 1892, the hundredth anniversary of the discovery of Gray's Harbor, one of the most momentous events of our early history. The celebration was largely attended by citizens of Oregon and Washington; its proceedings were given at length in the leading journals of the coast, and later were issued in pamphlet form by the Society. The gathering was on Gray's Harbor, as near as possible to the place of original discovery. Beginning September, 1899, a quarterly, with the title, The Washington Historian, was published by the Society and continued for two years. Thus was preserved interesting, varied, and important matter that future historians will find invaluable. It is a matter of sincere regret that it did not receive the support it deserved that it might have continued its career of usefulness down to the present.

The Society had to depend upon funds raised by private subscription, and the long period of financial depression that soon followed its birth left it without means to carry on its work with any degree of effectiveness, especially in the gathering of original matter. For years it has had a pleasant home in rooms provided for it in the City Hall, and the publishers of the State have been liberal in their contributions of regular and transient newspapers, magazines, and pamphlets, so that it has a valuable collection in this line.

During the last two sessions of the state legislature friends of the Society presented strong arguments for granting aid to the Society from the public treasury, and two years ago $3,000 were included in the appropriation bill for that purpose, but that clause was vetoed by the executive; last session $2,000 were set apart for the same purpose, but have since been diverted to other uses.

Most of its first members have died or moved from the State, and of late years it had little more than a nominal existence. This fact led to the organization of a society of the same kind in Seattle, about three years ago, where considerable interest is taken by a large number of ladies and gentlemen of literary tastes in the history of the State. This later body took the name of "The Washington State University Historical Society." While several of its members have done a large amount, individually, of historical work, as a body the Society has accomplished little outside of erecting several monuments. Four of these have been put up under its auspices, but the credit of securing the funds for their construction and erection belongs almost solely to Prof. E. S. Meany, who occupies the historical chair at the State University, and is also secretary of the historical society. He devotes his vacations and time not taken up in educational work to traveling all over the Northwest, and securing by means of pen and camera an immense amount of original material, particularly regarding the Indians of the Columbia basin, of Puget Sound, and along the rugged shores of the Pacific from Shoalwater Bay to Fuca Straits.

The first monument was set up at Friendly Cove,Nootka Sound, on the spot where Vancouver and Quadra met in August, 1792, to negotiate or carry out some of the details of the treaty of October 28, 1790, between Spain and Great Britain.

The second occasion was in October, 1904, when two monuments were erected on San Juan Island to mark the places of the military camps during the period of joint occupation, prior to the award of that archipelago to the United States.

At Nespelum, in Okanogan County, this State, June 20, 1905, a fourth memorial tablet was set up to mark the last resting place of the famous Indian Warrior, Chief Joseph of the Nez Perces.

Efforts are now making for the union of the two societies, with rooms at the State University. If this good work shall be accomplished the new body will undoubtedly be able to obtain substantial recognition from the state legislature, so that with the aid of the professors of the university and the students coming from all parts of the State much original material of great value can be gathered. There is already in the library of that institution a large collection of books, pamphlets, and papers devoted to the history of the Northwest, and if to this shall be added those belonging to the two societies a valuable historical nucleus will be the result.

Clarence B. Bagley.

SKETCH OF A SECOND JOURNEY TO THE NORTHWESTERN PARTS OF THE CONTINENT OF NORTH AMERICA AND TO SANDWICH ISLANDS

DURING THE YEARS 1829-'30-'3l-'32-'33-'34.

By David Douglas, F. L. S.

VI.

Mr. Douglas Voyage from the Columbia to the Sandwich Islands, and the Ascent of Mouna Roa.[6]

I sailed from the Columbia in November last, in the Hudson Bay Company's vessel, which visited these islands, touching 1 on the way at San Francisco, where I made a short stay, but did nothing in the way of Botany. I arrived here on the 23rd of December, and, after spending Christmas Day with two English ladies, the wife of our Consul, Mr. Charlton, and her sister, I started on the 27th for the island of Hawaii, which I reached on the 2nd of January, 1834. You know I have longhad this tour in contemplation, and having spent three winter months in botanizing here, I proceed to give you a short notice of my proceedings.

The view of this most interesting island, from the sea, is sublime indeed; combining the grand, sweet and beautiful, in a most remarkable degree. For two thousand five hundred feet above the level of the sea, the Banana, Sugar Cane, Coffee, Pandanus, Bread Fruit, etc., grow in the greatest perfection. Then comes a thickly timbered country as high as eight thousand feet, and for three thousand seven hundred feet more a space covered with short verdure, after which the reign of Flora terminates. I made a journey to the summit of Mouna Kuah, which occupied fourteen days, and found it only thirteen thousand eight hundred and fifty-one English feet above the sea; a height, you may observe, much less than has been ascribed to this mountain by early travellers. In this expedition I amassed a most splendid collection of plants, principally Ferns and Mosses; many, I do assure you, 418 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. truly beautiful, and worthy to range with the gig-antic species collected by Dr. Wallich. Of Ferns alone I have fully two hundred species, and half as many Mosses ; of other plants comparatively few, as the season is not yet good for them, nor will be so until after the rains. On my return, I must consult with you on the best mode of publishing the plants of these islands. I also visited the summit of Mouna Roa, the Big or Long Mountain, which afforded me inexpressible delight. This mountain, with an elevation of thirteen thousand five hundred and seventeen feet, is one of the most interesting in the world. I am ignorant whether the learned and venerable Menzies ascended it or no, but I think he must have done so, and the natives assert that this was the case. The red- faced man, who cut off the limbs of men, and gathered grass, is still known here; and the people say that he climbed Mouna Roa. No one, how- ever, has since done so, until I went up a short while ago. The journey took me seventeen days. On the summit of this extraordinary mountain is a volcano, nearly twenty-four miles in circumference, and at present in terrific activity. You must not confound this with the one situated on the flanks of Mouna Roa, and spoken of by the mis- sionaries and Lord Byron, and which I visited also. It is difficult to attempt describing such an immense place. The spectator is lost in terror and admiration at beholding an enormous sunken pit (for it differs from all our notions of volcanos, as possessing cone-shaped summits, with terminal openings), five miles square of which is a lake of liquid fire, in a state of ebullition, sometimes tranquil, at other times rolling its blazing waves with furious agitation, and casting them upwards in columns from thirty to one hundred and seventy feet high. In places, the hardened lava assumes the form of gothic arches in a colossal building, piled one above another in terrific mag- nificence, through and among which the fiery fluid forces its way in a current that proceeds three miles and a quarter per hour, or loses itself in fathomless chasms at the bottom of the cauldron. This vol- cano is one thousand two hundred and seventy-two feet deep; I mean down to the surface of the fire; its chasms and caverns can never be measured. Mouna Roa appears, indeed, more like an elevated Table- land than a mountain. It is a high broad dome, formed by an infini- tude of layers of volcanic matter, thrown out from the many mouths of its craters. Vegetation does not exist higher than eleven thousand feet ; there is no soil whatever, and no water. The lava is so porous that when the snow melts it disappears a few feet from the verge, the ground drinking it up like a sponge. On the higher parts grow some species of Rubus, Fraseria, Vacdnium, and some Junci. I visited also the volcano of Kirauea, the lateral volcano of Mouna Roa; it is nearly nine miles around, one thousand one hundred and fifty-seven feet deep, and is likewise in a terrific state of activity. JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 419 I go immediately to Hawaii to work on these mountains. May God grant me a safe return to England. I can not but indulge the pleasing hope of being soon able, in person, to thank you for the signal kindness you have ever shown me. And really were it only for the letters you have bestowed on me during my voyage, you should have a thousand thanks from me. I send this, under cover to Captain Beaufort, to whom I have written respecting some of my astronomical observations; as also to Captain Sabine. As already mentioned, the only Journal of Mr. Douglas's Second Expedition, which has reached this country, is that commencing with his departure from the Columbia, including the voyage to the Sandwich Islands, and the ascent of Mouna Koa. From this, with the loan of which we have been favoured by its possessor, Mr. John Douglas, we make the following extracts: On Friday, the 18th of October. 1833, we quitted Cape Disappoint- ment, in the Columbia River, and, after encountering much variety of weather, and many heavy baffling gales, anchored off Point de los Reyes on the 4th of November, and remained there till the 29th of the same month, our attempts to beat out of the Harbour of Sir Francis Drake having proved, several times, ineffectual. On the 28th I ac- companied Mr. Finlayson in a small boat to Whaler's Harbour, near the neck of the bay, which leads up to the hill of San Rafaele, the highest peak in the immediate vicinity of the port. We landed at Mr. Reed's farm-house, placed on the site of an old Indian camp, where small mounds of marine shells bespeak the former existence of numerous f boriginal tribes. A fine small rivulet of good water falls into the b|/ at this point. Returning the same afternoon, we cleared the Punto de los Reyes, on the 30th, and, descrying the mountain of St. Lucia, South of Monterey, at a distance of forty or fifty miles, steered southward for the Sandwich Islands. The island of Mauai was indistinctly seen at sun-set of the 21st of December, forty-two miles off; and, on the 22d, Woahu lay ten miles due West of us. Hav- ing quitted the Harbour of Fair Haven, in Woahu, on Friday, the 27th, in an American schooner of sixty tons, she proved too light for the boisterous winds and heavy seas of these channels, and we were accordingly obliged to drop anchor in Rahaina Roads, for the purpose of procuring more ballast. An American Missionary, Mr. Spaulding, having come on board, I accompanied him on shore, to visit the school, situated on the hillside, about five hundred feet from the shore, 420 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. and returned to the ship at night. On Tuesday, the 31st of December, we stood in for the island of Hawaii, and saw Mouna Kuah very clearly, a few small stripes of snow lying 1 near its summit, which would seem to indicate an altitude inferior to that which has been commonly assigned to this mountain. My object being to ascend and explore Mouna Kuah as soon as pos- sible, I started on the 7th of January, 1834, and, after passing for rather more than three miles over plain country, commenced the ascent, which was, however, gradual, by entering the wood. Here the scenery was truly beautiful. Large timber trees were covered with creepers and species of Tillandsio,, while the Tree Ferns gave a pecul- iar character to the whole country. We halted and dined at the Saw Mill, and made some barometrical observations, of which the result is recorded, along with those that occupied my time daily during the voyage, in my journal. Above this spot the Banana no longer grows, but I observed a species of Rubus among the rocks. We continued our way under such heavy rain, as, with the already bad state of the path, rendered walking very difficult and laborious ; in the chinks of the lava, the mud was so wet that we repeatedly sunk in it above our knees. Encamping at some small huts, we passed an uncomfortable night, as no dry wood could be obtained for fuel, apd it continued to rain without intermission. The next day we proceeded on our way at eight o'clock, the path becoming worse and worse. The large Tree Ferns, and other trees that shadowed it, proved no protection from the incessant rain, and I was drenched to the skin the whole day, besides repeatedly slipping into deep holes, full of soft mud. The number of species of Filices is very great, and towards the upper end of the wood, the timber trees, sixty or seventy feet high, and three to ten inches in circumference are matted with Mosses, which, together with the Til- landsias and Ferns, betoken an exceedingly humid atmosphere. The wood terminates abruptly ; but as the lodge of the cattle-hunter was still about a mile and a half farther up the clear flank of the mountain, situated on the bank of a craggy lava stream, I delayed ascertaining the exact altitude of the spot where the woody region ends (a point of no small interest to the Botanist), until my return, and sate down to rest myself awhile, in a place where the ground was thickly carpeted with species of Fragaria, some of which were in blossom, and a few of them in fruit. Here a Mr. Miles, part owner of the saw-mill that I had passed the day before, came up to me; he was on his way to join his partner, a Mr. Castles, who was engaged in curing the flesh of the wild cattle near the verge of the wood, and his conversation helped to beguile the fatigues of the road, for though the distance I had accom- plished this morning was little more than seven miles, still the labouri- ous nature of the path, and the weight of more than sixty pounds on my back, where I carried my barometer, thermometer, book, and JOURNAL AND LRTTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 421 papers, proved so very fatiguing-, that I felt myself almost worn out. I reached the lodge at four, wet to the skin, and benumbed with cold, and humble as the shelter was, I hailed it with delight. Here a large fire dried my clothes, and I got something to eat, though, unluckily, my guides all lingered behind, and those who carried my blanket and tea-kettle were the last to make their appearance. These people have no thought or consideration for the morrow; but sit down to their food, smoke and tell stories and make themselves perfectly happy. The next day my two new acquaintances went out with their guns and shot a young bull, a few rods from the hut, which they kindly gave me for the use of my party. According to report, the grassy flanks of the mountain abound with wild cattle, the offspring of the stock left here by Capt. Vancouver, and which now prove a very great ben- efit to this island. A slight interval of better weather this afternoon afforded a glimpse of the summit between the clouds; it was covered with snow. At night the sky became quite clear, and the stars, among which I observed the Orion, Canis minor, and Canopus, shone with intense brilliancy. The next day the atmosphere was perfectly cloudless, and I visited some of the high peaks which were thinly patched with snow. On two of them, which were extinct volcanos, not a blade of grass could be seen, nor any thing save lava, mostly reddish, but in some places of a black colour. Though on the summit of the most elevated peak, the thermometer under a bright sun, stood at 40, yet when the instrument was laid at an angle of about fifteen degrees, the quicksilver rose to 63, and the blocks of lava felt sensibly warm to the touch. The wind was from all directions, East and West, for the great altitude and the extensive mass of beating matter completely destroy the Trade Wind. The last plant that I saw upon the mountain was a gigantic species of the Composite*? (Argyropliyton Douglasii, Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 75), with a column o/ imbricated, sharp-pointed leaves, densely covered with a silky clcoj ing. I gathered a few seeds of the plants which I met with, among them a remarkable Ranunculus, which grows as high up as there is any soil. One of my companions killed a young cow just on the edge of the wood, which he presented me with for the next day's consumption. Night arrived only too soon, and we had to walk four miles back to the lodge across the lava, where we arrived at eight o'clock, hungry, tired, .and lame, but highly gratified with the result of the day's expedition. The following morning proved again clear and pleasant, and every thing being arranged, some of the men were despatched early, but such are the delays which these people make, that I overtook them all before eight o'clock. They have no idea of time, but stand still awhile, then walk a little, stop and eat, smoke and talk, and thus loiter away a whole day. At noon we came up to the place where we had left the 422 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. cow, and having- dressed the meat, we took a part, and left the rest hanging on the bushes. We passed to the left of the lowest extinct volcano, and again encamped on the same peak as the preceding night. It was long after dark before the men arrived, and as this place afforded no wood, we had -to make a fire, of the leaves and dead stems of the species of Composite mentioned before, and which, together with a small Juncux, grows higher up the mountain than any other plant. The great difference .produced on vegetation by the agitated and vol- canic state of this mountain, is very distinctly marked. Here there is no line between the Phenogamous and Cryptogamous Plants, but the limits of vegetation itself are defined with the greatest exactness,, and the species do not gradually diminish in number and stature, as is generally the case on such high elevations. The line of what may be called the Woody country, the upper verge of which the barometer expresses 21.450 inch.; therm. 46 at two P. M., is where we immediately enter on a region of broken and uneven ground, with here and there lumps of lava, rising above the general declivity to a height of three to four hundred feet, intersected by deep chasms, which show the course of the lava when in a state of fluidity. This portion of the mountain is highly picturesque and sub- lime. Three kinds of timber, of small growth, are scattered over the low knolls, with one species of Rubus and Yaccinium, the genus Ffd- yaria and a few Graminece, Filices, and some Alpine species. . This re- gion extends to bar. 20.620 inch.; air 40, dew-point 30. There is a third region which reaches to the place where we encamped yester- day, and seems to be the great rise or spring of the Iava 3 the upper part of which, at the foot of the first extinct peak, is bar. 2 '.010 inch.; air 39. At six o'clock the next morning, accompanied by three Islanders and two Americans, I started for the summit of the mountain : bar. at that hour indicated 20.000 inch., therm. 24, hygr. 20. A keen West wind was blowing off the mountain, which was felt severely by us all, and especially by the natives, whom it was necessary to protect with additional blankets and great-coats. We passed over about five miles of gentle ascent, consisting of large blocks of lava, sand, scoriae, and ashes, of every size, shape, and colour, demonstrating all the grada- tions of calcination, from the mildest to the most intense. This may be termed the Table Land or Platform, where spring the great vent- holes of the subterranean fire, or numerous volcanos. The general appearance is that of the channel of an immense river, heaved up. In some places the round boulders of lava are so regularly placed, and the sand is so washed in around them, as to give the appearance of a causeway, while in others, the lava seems to have run like a stream. We commenced the ascent of the Great Peak at nine o'clock, on the N, E. side, over a ridge of tremendously rugged lava, four hundred JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 423 and seventy feet high, preferring this course to the very steep ascent of the South side, which consists entirely of loose ashes and scoriae, and we gained the summit soon after ten. Though exhausted with fatigue before leaving the Table Land, and much tried with the in- creasing cold, yet such was my ardent desire to reach the top, that the last portion of the way seemed the easiest. This is the loftiest of the chimneys; a lengthened ridge of two hundred and twenty-one yards two feet, running nearly straight 1ST. W. To the North, four feet be- low the extreme summit of the Pea'k, the barometer was instantly suspended, the cistern being 1 exactly below, and when the mercury had acquired the temperature of the circumambient air, the following register was entered: at 11 hrs. 20 min.; bar. 18.362 inch.; air 33; hygr. /x 5 [?]. At twelve o'clock the horizon displayed some snowy clouds; until this period, the view was sublime to the greatest degree, but now every appearance of a mountain-storm came on. The* whole of the low S. E. point of the island was throughout the day covered like a vast plain of snow, with clouds. The same thermometer laid in the bare lava, and exposed to the wind at an angle of 27, expressed at first 37, and afterwards, at twelve o'clock, 41, though when held in the hand exposed to the sun, it did not rise at all. It may well be conjectured that such an immense mass of heating material, combined with the influence of internal fire, and taken in connexion with the insular position of Mouna Kuah, surrounded with an immense mass of water, will have the effect of raising the snow-line considerably, ex- cept on the northern declivity, or where sheltered by large blocks of lava, there was no snow to be seen; even on the top of the cairn, where the barometer was fixed, there were only a few handsful. One thing struck me as curious, the apparent non-diminution of sound; not as respects the rapidity of its transmission, whieh is, of course, subject to a well-known law. Certain it is, that on mountains of infe- rior elevation, whose summits are clothed with snow and ice, we find it ne^o ! ul to roar into one another's ears, and the firing of a gun at a short distance does not disturb the timid Antelope on the high snowy peaks of N, W. America. Snow is doubtless a non-conductor of sound, but there may be also something in the mineral substance of Mouna Kuah which would effect this. Until eleven o'clock, the horizon was beautifully defined on the whole N. W. of the island. The great dryness of the air is evident to the senses, without the assistance of the hygrometer. Walking with my trousers rolled up to my knees, and without shoes, I did not know there were holes in my stockings, till I was apprised of them by the scorching heat and pain in my feet, which continued throughout the day, the skin also peeled from my face. While on the summit I ex- perienced a violent head-ache, and my eyes became blood-shot, accom- panied with stiffness in their lids. 424 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. Were the traveller permitted to express the emotions he feels when placed on such an astonishing part of the earth's surface, cold, indeed, must his heart be to the great operations of Nature, and still colder towards Nature's God, by whose wisdom and power such wonderful scenes were created, if he could behold them without deep humility and reverential awe. Man feels himself as nothing as of standing on the verge of another world. The deathlike stillness of the place, not an animal nor an insect to be seen far removed from the din and bustle of the world, impresses on his mind with double force the ex- treme helplessness of his condition, an object of pity and compassion, utterly unworthy to stand in the presence of a great and good, and wise and holy God, and to contemplate the diversified works of his hands ! I rn,ade a small collection of geological specimens, to illustrate the nature and quality of the lavas of this mountain, but being only slightly acquainted with this department of Natural History, I could do no more than gather together such materials as seemed likely to be useful to other and more experienced persons. As night was closing and threatening to be very stormy, we hastened toward the camp, descend- ing nearly by the same way as we came, and finding my guide, Honori, and the other men all in readiness, we all proceeded to the edge of the woody region, and regained the lodge, highly gratified with the result of this very fatiguing day's excursion. Having brought provision from the hill, we fared well. January the 13th. The rain fell fast all night, and continued, ac- companied by a dense mist, this morning, only clearing sufficiently to give us a momentary glimpse of the mountain, covered with snow down to the woody region. We also saw Mouna Roa, which was simi- larly clothed for a great part of its height. Thankful had we cause to be that this heavy rain, wind, and fog did not come on while we were on the summit, as it would have caused us much inconvenience and perhaps danger. The same weather continuing till the 15th, I packed up all the baggage and prepared to return. It consisted of several packages tied up in Coa baskets, which are manufactured from a large and beautiful tree, a species of Acacia, of which the timber resembles mahogany, though of a lighter colour, and is beautiful, and said to be durable ; also sotne parcels of geological specimens, my instruments, etc. At seven A. M. I started, having sent the bearers of my luggage before me, but I had hardly entered the wood, by the same path as I took on my ascent, when the r&in began to fall, which continued without the least intermission ; but as there was no place suitable for encamping, and the people as usual had straggled away from one another, I re- solved to proceed. The path was in a dreadful state, numerous rivu- lets overflowed it in many places, and, rising above their banks, rushed JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 425 in foam through the deep glens, the necessity for crossing which im- peded my progress in no slight degree. In the low places the water spread into small lakes, and where the road had a considerable decliv- ity, the rushing torrent which flowed down it, gave rather the appear- ance of a cascade than a path. The road was so soft that we repeatedly sunk to th'e knees, and supported ourselves on a lava block or the roots of the trees. Still, violent as was the rain, and slippery and danger- ous the path, I gathered a truly splendid collection of Ferns, of nearly fifty species, with a few other plants, and some seeds, which were tied up in small bundles, to prevent fermentation, and then protected by fresh Coa bark. Several beautiful species of Mosses and Lichens were also collected ; and spite of all the disadvantages and fatigue that I underwent, still the magnificence of the scenery commanded my fre- quent attention, and I repeatedly sate down, in the course of the day, under some huge spreading Tree fern, which more resembled an indi- vidual of the Pine than the fern tribe, and contemplated with delight the endless variety of form and structure that adorned the objects around me. On the higher part of the mountain I gathered a Fern identical with the Asplevium viride of my own native country, a cir- cumstance which gave me inexpressible pleasure, and recalled to my mind many of the happiest scenes of my early life. In the evening I reached the saw-mill, when the kind welcome of my mountain friend, Mr. Miles, together with a rousing fire, soon made me forget the rain and fatigues of the day. Some of the men had arrived before me, others afterwards, and two did not appear till the following day, for having met with some friends, loaded with meat, they preferred a good supper to a dry bed. My guide, friend, and interpreter, Honori, an intelligent and well-disposed fellow, ar- rived at seven, in great dismay, having in the dark entered the river a short distance above a chain of cataracts, and to avoid these, he had clung (a a rock till extricated by the aid of two active young men. Though he had escaped unhurt, he had been exposed to the wet for nearly ten hours. A night of constant rain succeeded, but I rested well, and after breakfast, having examined all the packages, we quitted the saw-mill for the bay, and arrived there in the afternoon, the arrangement and preservation of ray plants affording me occupa- tion for two or three days. It was no easy matter to dry specimens and papers during such incessantly rainy weather. I paid the whole of the sixteen men who had accompanied me, not including Honori, and the king's man, at the rate of two dollars, some in money and some in goods: the latter consisted of cotton cloth, combs, scissors, and thread, etc., while to those who had acquitted themselves with willingness and activity, I added a small present in addition. Most of them preferred money, especially the lazy fellows. The whole of the number employed in carrying my baggage and provisions was five 426 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. men, which left eleven for the conveyance of their own Tapas and food. Nor was this unreasonable, for the quantity, of Poe which a native, will consume, in a week, nearly equals his own weight ! A dreadful drawback on an expedition. Still, though the sixteen per- sons ate two bullocks in a week, besides, what they carried, a threatened scarcity of food compelled me to return rather sooner than I should have done, in order that the Calabashes might be replenished. No people in the world can cram themselves to such a degree as the Sandwich Islanders; their food is, however, of a very light kind, and easy digested. On the 22nd of January, the air being pleasant, and the sun occasionally visible, I had all my packages assorted by nine A. M., and engaged my old guide, Honori, and nine men to accompany me to the volcano and to Mouna Roa. As usual, there was a formidable display of luggage, consisting of Tapas, Calabashes, Poe, Taro, etc., while each individual provided himself with the solace of a staff of sugar cane, which shortens the distance, for the pedestrian, when tired and thirsty, sits down and bites off an inch or two from the end of his staff. A friend accompanied me as far as his house on the road, where there is a large church, his kind intention being to give me some provision for the excursion, but as he was a stout person, I soon outstripped him. On leaving the bay, we passed through a fertile spot consisting- of Taro patches in ponds, where the ground is pur- posely overflowed, and afterwards covered with a deep layer of Fern- leaves to keep it damp. Here were fine groves of Bread-fruit, and ponds of Mullet and Ava-fish; the scenery is beautiful, being studded with dwellings and little plantations of vegetables and of Morus papyrifera of which there are two kinds, one much whiter than the other. The most striking feature in the vegetation consists in the Tree-Ferns, some smaller species of the same tribe, and a curious kind of Compositce, like an Eupatorium. At about four miles and a half from the bay, we entered the wood, through which there is a tolerably clear path, the muddy spots being rendered passable by the stems or trunks of Tree-Ferns, laid close together cross-wise. They seemed to be the same species as I had observed on the ascent to Mouna Kuah. About an hour's walk brought us through the wood, and we then crossed another open plain of three miles and a half, at the upper end of which, in a most beautiful situation, stand the church, and close to it the chief's house. Some heavy showers had drenched us through; still, as soon as our friend arrived, and the needful ar- rangements were made, I started and continued the ascent over a very gentle rising ground in a southerly direction, passing through some delightful country, interspersed with low timber. At night we halted at a house, of which the owner was a very civil person, though re- markably talkative. Four old women were inmates of the same dwellJOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 427 ing, one of whom, eighty years of age, with hair white as snow, was engaged in feeding two favourite cats with fish. My little terrier dis- puted the fare with them, to the no small annoyance of their mistress. A well-looking young female amused me with singing, while she was engaged in the process of cooking a dog on heated stones. I also ob- served a handsome young man, whose very strong stiff black hair was allowed to grow to a great length on the top of his head, while it was cut close over the ears, and falling down on the back of his head and neck, had all the appearance of a Roman helmet. January the 23rd. This morning the old lady was engaged in feed- ing a dog with fox-like ears, instead of her cats. She compelled the poor animal to swallow Poe, by cramming it into his mouth, and what he put out at the sides, she took up and ate herself; this she did, as she informed me, by way of fattening the dog for food. A little while before daybreak my host went to the door of the lodge, and after calling over some extraordinary words which would seem to set orthography at defiance, a loud grunt in response from under the thick shade of some adjoining Tree-Ferns was followed by the appearance of a fine, large, black pig, which, coming at his master's call, was forthwith caught and killed for the use of myself and my attendants. The meat was cooked on heated stones, and three men were kindly sent to carry it to the volcano, a distance of twenty-three miles, tied up in the large leaves of Banana and Ti-tree. The morning was deliciously cool and clear, with a light breeze. Immediately on passing through a narrow belt of wood, where the timber was large, and its trunks matted with parasitic Ferns, I arrived at a tract of ground, over which there was but a scanty covering of soil above the lava, interspersed with low bushes and Ferns. Here I beheld one of the grandest scenes imagin- able, Mouna Roa reared his bold front, covered with snow, far above the region of verdure, while Mouna Kuah was similarly clothed, to the timber! region on the South side, while the. summit was cleared of the snow tLat had fallen on the nights of- the 12th and two following days. The district of Hido, "Byron's Bay," which I had quitted the previous day, presented, from its great moisture, a truly lovely appearance, con- trasting in a striking manner with the country where I then stood, and which extended to the sea, whose surface bore evident signs of having been repeatedly ravaged by volcanic fires. In the distance, to the South-west, the dense black cloud which overhangs the great volcano attests, amid the otherwise unsullied purity of the sky, the mighty operations at present going on in that immense laboratory. The lava, throughout the whole district, appeared to be of every colour and shape, compact, bluish, and black, porous or vesicular, heavy and light. In some places it lies in regular lines and masses, resembling narrow, horizontal, basaltic columns; in others, in tortuous forms, or gathered into rugged humps of small elevation ; while, scattered over the whole 428 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. plain, are numerous extinct, abrupt, generally circular craters, varying in height from one hundred to three hundred feet, and with about an equal diameter at their tops. At the distance of five miles from the volcano, the country is more rugged, the fissures in the ground being both larger and more numerous, and the whole tract covered with gravel and lava, etc., ejected at various periods from the crater. The steam that now arose from the cracks bespoke our near approach to the summit, and at two P. M. I arrived at its northern extremity, where finding it nearly level, and observing that water was not far distant, I chose that spot for my encampment. As, however, the people were not likely to arrive before the evening, I took a walk around the West side, now the most active part of the volcano, and sat down there, not, cor- rectly speaking, to enjoy, but to gaze with wonder and amazement on this terrific sight, which inspired the beholder with a fearful pleasure. From the description of former visitors, I judged that Mouna Roa must now be in a state of comparative tranquillity. A lake of liquid fire, in extent about a thirteenth part of the whole crater, was boiling with a furious agitation : not constantly, however, for at one time it appeared calm and level, the numerous fiery red streaks on its surface alone attesting its state of ebullition, when again, the red-hot lava would dart .upwards and boil with terrific grandeur, spouting to a height which, from the distance at which I stood I calculated to be from forty to seventy feet, when it would dash violently against the black ledge, and then subside again for a few moments. Close by the fire was a chimney about forty feet high, which occasionally discharges its steam, as if all the steam-engines in the world were concentrated in it This preceded the tranquil state of the lake, which is situated near the Southwest, or smaller end of the crater. In the center of the Great Crater a second lake of fire, of circular form, but smaller dimensions, was boiling with equal intensity; the noise was dreadful beyond all description. The people having arrived, Honori last, my tent was pitched twenty yards back from the perpendicular wall of the crater; and as there was an old hut of Ti-leaves on the immediate bank, only six feet from the extreme verge, my people soon repaired it for their own use. As the sun sunk behind the western flank of Mouna Roa, the splendor of the scene increased; but when the nearly full moon rose in a cloudless sky, and shed her silvery brightness on the fiery lake, roar- ing and boiling in fearful majesty, the spectacle became so command- ing, that I lost a fine night for making astronomical observations, by gazing on the volcano, the illumination of which was but little dimin- ished by a thick haze that set in at midnight. On Friday, January the 24th, the air was delightfully clear, and I was enabled to take the bearings of the volcano and adjoining objects with great exactness. To the north of the crater are numerous cracks and fissures in the ground, varying in size, form, and depth, some long, JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 429 some straight, round, or twisted, from whence steam continually is- sued, which in two of them is rapidly condensed and collects in small basins or wells, one of which is situated at the immediate edge of the crater, and the other four hundred and eighty yards to the North of it. The latter, fifteen inches deep and three feet deep in diameter, about thirteen feet North of a very large fissure, according to my thermometer, compared with that at Greenwich and at the Royal Society, and found without error, maintained a temperature of 65. The same instrument, suspended freely in the above-mentioned fissure, ten feet from the surface, expressed, by repeated trials, 158; and an equal temperature was maintained when it was nearly level with the surface. When the Islanders visit this mountain, they invariably carry on their cooking operations at this place. Some pork and a fowl that I had brought, together with Tara-roots and Sweet Potatoes were steamed here to a nicety- in twenty-seven minutes, having been tied up in leaves of Banana. On the sulphur bank are many fissures, which continually exhale sulphureous vapours, and form beautiful prisms, those deposited in the inside being the most delicate and fairy in figure, encrusting the hollows in masses, both large and small, re- sembling swallows' nests on the wall of a building. When severed from the rock or ground, they emit a crackling noise by the contrac- tion of the parts irr the process of cooling. The great thermometer placed in the holes, showed the temperature to be 195.5, after repeated trial? which all agreed together, the air being then 71. I had furnished shoes for those persons who should descend into the crater with me, but none of them could walk when so equipped, pre- ferring a mat sole, made of tough leaves, and fastened round the heel and between the toes, which seemed, indeed, to answer the purpose entirely well. Accompanied by three individuals, I proceeded at one P. M. aJ Dng the North side, and descended the first ledge over such rugged) ground as bespoke a long stage of repose, the fissures and flanks being clothed with verdure of considerable size: thence we as- cended two hundred feet to the level platform that divides the great and small volcanos. On the left, a perpendicular rock three hundred feet above the level, showed the extent of the volcano to have been originally much greater than it is at present. The small crater ap- pears to have enjoyed a long period of tranquillity, for down to the very edge of the crust of the lava, particularly on the East side, there are trees of considerable size, on which I counted from sixty to one hundred and twenty-four annual rings or concentric layers. The lava at the bottom flowed from a spot, nearly equi-distant from the great and small craters, both uniting into a river, from forty to seventy y&rds in breadth, and which appears comparatively recent. A little South of this stream, over a dreadfully rugged bank, I descended the first ledge of the crater, and proceeded for three hundred yards over 430 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. a level space, composed of ashes, scoriae, and large stones that had been ejected from the mouth of the volcano. The stream formerly described is the only fluid lava here. Hence, to arrive at the black ledge, is another descent of about two hundred and forty feet, more difficult to be passed than any other, and this brings the traveler to the brink of the black ledge where a scene of all that is terrific to be- hold presents itself before his eyes. He sees a vast basin, recently in a state of igneous fusion, now, in cooling, broken up, somewhat in the manner of the Great American lakes when the ice gives way, in some places level in large sheete, elsewhere rolled in tremendous masses, 1 and twisted into a thousand different shapes, sometimes even being filamentose, like fine hair, but all displaying a mighty agency still existing in this immense depository of subterraneous fire. A most uncomfortable feeling is experienced when the traveler becomes aware that the lava is hollow and faithless beneath his tread. Of all sensation in nature, that produced by earthquakes or volcanic agen- cies is the most alarming: the strongest nerves are unstrung, and the most courageous mind feels weakened and unhinged, when exposed to either. How insignificant are the operations of man's hands, taken in their vastest extent, when compared with the magnitude of the works of God ! On the black ledge, the thermometer held in the hand five feet from the ground indicated a temperature of 89, and when laid on the lava, if in the sun's rays, 115. and 112 in the shade; on the brink of the burning lake, at the South end, it rose to 124. Over some fissures in the lava, where the smoke was of a greyish rather than a blue tinge, the thermometer stood at 94. I remained for upwards of two hours in the crater, suffering all the time an intense head-ache, with my pulse strong and irregular, and my tongue parched, together with other symptoms of fever. The intense heat and sulphurous nature of the ground had corroded my shoes so much that they barely protected my feet from the hot lava. I ascended out of the crater at the South- West, or small end, over two steep banks of scoriae and two ledges of rock, and returned by the West side to my tent, having thus walked quite around this mighty crater. The evening was foggy; I took some cooling medicine, and lay down early to rest. Saturday, Januai-y 25ih. I slept profoundly till two A. M., when, as not a speck could be seen in the horizon, and the moon was un- usually bright, I rose with the intention of making some lunar ob- servations, but though the thermometer stood at 41, the keen moun- tain-breeze affected me so much, of course, mainly owing to the fatigue and heat I had suffered the day before, that I was reluctantly obliged to relinguish the attempt, and being unable to settle again to sleep, I replenished my blazing stock of fuel, and sat gazing on the roaring and agitated state of the crater, where three new fires had JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 431 burst out since ten o'clock the preceding- evening. Poor Honori, my guide, who is a martyr to asthma, was so much affected by their ex- halations (for they were on the North bank, just below my tent,) that he coughed inces&antly the whole night, and complained of cold, though he was wrapped in my best blanket, besides his own tapas and some other articles which he had borrowed from my Woahu man. The latter slept with his head towards the fire, coiled up most luxu- riously, and neither cold, heat, nor the roaring of the volcano at all disturbed his repose. Leaving the charge of my papers and collections under the special care of one individual, and giving plenty of provision for twelve days to the rest, consisting of one quarter of pork, with poe and taro, I started for Kapupala soon after eight A. M. The path struck off for two miles in a North- West direction, to avoid the rugged lava and ashes on the west bank of Mouna Roa, still it was indescribably diffi- cult in many places, as the lava rose in great masses, some perpendic- ular, others lying horizontal; in fact, with every variation of form and situation. In other parts the walking was pretty good, over grassy undulating plains, clothed with a healthy sward, and studded here and there with Maurani Trees in full blossom, a beautiful tree, much resembling the English Laburnum. As I withdrew from the volcano in order to obtain a good general view of the country lying South and betwixt me and the sea, I ascertained the western ridge or verge of the volcano to be decidedly the most elevated of the table land : and a narrow valley lies to the West of it. A low ridge runs from the mountain southward to the sea, terminating at the South end in a number of craters of various form and extent. West of this low ridge between the gentle ascent of grassy ground on Mouna Roa, there is a space of five to seven miles in breadth to the Grand Discharge from the Greaf Volcano, where it falls into the ocean at Kapupala. The present ar pect of the crater leads me to think that there has been no overflowing of the lava for years: the discharge is evidently from the subterranean vaults below. In 1822, the Islanders say there was a great discharge in this direction. Among the grassy, undulating ground are numerous caves, some of them of great magnitude, from forty to sixty-five feet high, and from thirty to forty feet broad, many of them of great length, like gigantic arches, and very rugged. These generally run at right angles with the dome of Mouna Roa and the sea. Some of these natural tunnels may be traced for several miles in length, with occasional holes of different sizes in the roofs, screened sometimes with an overgrowth of large Trees and Perns, which renders walking highly dangerous. At other places the tops of the vaults have fallen in for the space of one hundred or even three hun- dred yards, an occurrence which is attributable to the violent earth- quakes that sometimes visit this district, and which, as may be readily 432 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. imagined from the number of these tunnels, is not well supplied with water. The inhabitants convert these caverns to use in various ways; employing 1 them occasionally as permanent dwellings, but more fre- quently as cool retreats where they carry on the process of making- native cloth from the bark of the Mulberry Tree, or where they fabricate and shelter their canoes from the violent rays of the sun. They are also used for goat-folds and pig-styes, and the fallen-in places, where there is a greater depth of decomposed vegetable matter, are frequently planted with Tobacco, Indian Corn, Melons, and other choice plants. At a distance of ten miles north of Kapupala, and near the edge of the path, are some fine caverns, above sixty feet deep. The water, dropping from the top of the vault, collected into small pools below, indicated a temperature of 50, the air of the cave itself 51, while in the shade on the outside the thermometer stood at 82. The interiors of the moist caverns are of a most beautiful appearance ; not only from the singularity of their structure, but because they are delightfully fringed with Ferns, Mosses, and Jungermannice, thus holding out to the Botanist a most inviting retreat from the overpowering rays of a tropical sun. Arrived at Kapupala, at three P. M., I found that the chief or head man had prepared a house for me, a nice and clean dwelling, with abundance of fine mats, etc., but as near it there stood several large canoes filled with water, containing Mulberry Bark in a state of fer- mentation, and highly offensive, as also a large pig-fold, surrounded by a lava-wall, and shaded with large bushes of Ricinus communis, altogether forming an unsuitable station for making observations, to say nothing of the din and bustle constantly going on when strangers are present, besides the annoyance from fleas, I caused my tent to be pitched one hundred yards behind the house. The chief would have been better pleased if I had occupied his dwelling, but through Honori, I had this matter explained to his satisfaction. He sent me a fowl, cooked on heated stones underground, some baked Taro, and Sweet Potatoes, together with a calabash full of delicious goat's-milk, poured through the husk of a Cocoa-nut in lieu of a sieve. As strangers rarely visit this part of the island, a crowd soon assembled for the evening. The vegetation in this district can hardly be compared with that of Hilo,* nor are the natives so industrious ; they have no fish-ponds, and cultivate little else than Taro, which they call Dry Taro, no Bananas, and but little Sugar-cane, or other vegetables. Flocks of goats brouse over the hills, while fowls, tur- keys, and pigs are numerous, and occupy the same dwellings with their owners.

  • Wherever the word "Hilo" occurs in the text it has been changed from

Hido.', ED. (IUARTEJILY. JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 433 Honori, my guide, interpreter, purveyor, and, I may say, friend (for in every department of his omnifarious capacity he is a good sort of fellow), preached to-day, Sunday, the 26th, in his own language to an assembly of both sexes, old and young, nearly two hundred in number, both morning and evening. I did not see him, but from my tent-door I could hear him in the School-house, a low, small edifice, expounding and exhorting with much warmth. Having made so bold afterwards as to ask him where he took his text, he readily replied, that he "chose no text, but had taken occasion to say to the people a few good words concerning Paul when at Rome." He was evidently well pleased himself with his sermon, and seemed to please his audience also. I visited the school in the interval, when Honori had retired to compose his second sermon, and found the as- semblage under the direction of the chief, who appears to be a good man, though far from an apt scholar; they were reading the second chapter of the Epistle to the Galatians, and proceeded to the third, reading verse and verse, all round. The females were by far the most attentive, and proved themselves the readiest learners. It is most gratifying to see far beyond the pale of what is called civilization, this proper sanctification of the Lord's Day, not only consisting in a cessation from the ordinary duties, but in reading and reflecting upon the purifying and consolatory doctrines of Christianity. The women were all neatly dressed in the native fashion, except the chief's wife, and some few others who wore very clean garments of calico. The hair was either arranged in curls or braided on the temples, and adorned with tortoise-shell combs of their own making, and chaplets of balsamic flowers, the pea-flowering racemes of the Maurarii-Tree, and feathers, etc. The men were all in the national attire, and looked tolerably well dressed, except a few of the old gentlemen. The schoolmaster, a little hump-backed man, about thirty years old, little] more than three feet high, with disproportionately long legs, and having a most peculiar cast in his right eye, failed not to prompt and reprove his scholars when necessary in a remarkably powerful tone of voice, which when he read, produced a trumpet-like sound, resembling the voice of a person bawling into a cask. Honori "had the people called together" by the sound of a conch- shell, blown by a little imp of a lad, perched on a block of lava, in front of the school-house, when as in the morning, he "lectured " on the third chapter of St. John. The congregation was thinner than in the morning, many who lived at a distance having retired to their homes. 1 spent the Monday (January the 27th,) in making observations and arranging matters for returning to Mouna Roa : my men cooked a stock of Taro, and I purchased a fine large goat for their use. 434 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. Tuesday, January the 28th. I hired two guides, the elder of whom a short, stout man, was particularly recommended to me by the chief for his knowledge of the mountain. By profession he is a bird- catcher, going- in quest of that particular kind of bird which furnishes the feathers of which the ancient cloaks, used by the natives of these islands are made. The other guide was a young man. Three volun- teers offered to accompany me; one a very stout, fat dame, apparently about thirty, another not much more than half that age, a really well- looking girl, tall and athletic: but to the first, the bird-catcher gave such an awful account of the perils to be undergone, that both the females finally declined the attempt, and only the third person, a young man, went with me. My original party of ten, besides Honori and two guides, set out at eight, with, as usual, a terrible array of Tara, calabashes full of Poe, Sweet Potatoes, dry Poe tied up in Ti- leaves, and goat's flesh, each bearing a pole on his shoulder with a bundle at either end. Of their vegetable food, a Sandwich Islander can not carry more than a week's consumption, besides what he may pick up on the way. One, whose office it was to convey five quires of paper for me, was so strangely attired in a double-milled grey great coat, with a spencer of still thicker materials above it, that he lamented to his companions that his load was too great, and begged their help to lift it on his back. I had to show the fellow, who was blind of one eye, the unreasonableness of his grumbling by hanging the parcel by the cord on my little finger. He said, "Ah ! the stranger is strong," and walked off. Among my attendants was one singular-looking personage, a stripling, who carried a small packet of instruments, and trotted away, arrayed in "a Cutty-sark." of most "scanty longitude," the upper portion of which had been once of white and the lower of red flannel. Honori brought up the rear with a small telescope slung over his shoulder, and an umbrella, which, owing perhaps to his asthmatic complaint, he never fails to carry with him, both in fair and foul weather. We returned for about a mile and a half along the road that led to the Great Volcano, and then struck off to the left in a small path that wound in a northerly direction up the green, grassy flank of Mouna Roa. I soon found that Honori's cough would not allow him to keep up with the rest of the party, so leaving one guide with him, and making the bird-catcher take the lead, I proceeded at a quicker rate. This part of the island is very beautiful; the ground, though hilly, is covered with a tolerably thick coating of soil, which supports a fine sward of Grass. Perns, climbing plants, and in some places timber of considerable size, Coa, Tutui, and Mamme trees. Though fallen trees and brushwood occasionally intercepted the path, still, it was by no means so difficult as that by which I had ascended Mouna Kuah. To avoid a woody point of steep ascent, we turned a little eastward, after having traveled about five miles and a half, JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 435 and passed several deserted dwelling's, apparently only intended as the temporary abodes of bird-catchers, and sandal-wood-cutters. Cal- abashes and Pumpkins, with Tobacco, were the only plants that I observed growing near them. At eleven A. M. we came to a small pool of fresh water collected in the lava, the temperature of which was 55; here my people halted for a few minutes to smoke. The barometer stood at 26 inch., the air 62, and the dew-point at 58. The wind was from the South, with a gentle fanning breeze and a clear sky. Hence the path turns Northwest for a mile and a half, becoming a little steeper, till it leads to a beautiful circular well, three feet deep, flowing in the lava, its banks fringed with Strawberry Vines, and shaded by an Acacia Tree grove. Here we again rested for half an hour! We might be said here to have ascended above the woody country; the ground became more steep and broken, with a thinner soil and trees of humbler growth, leading towards the South-East ridge of Mouna Roa, which, judging from a distance, appeared the part to which there is the easiest access. I would recommend to any Naturalist who may in future visit this mountain, to have their can- teen filled at the well just mentioned, for my guide, trusting to one which existed in a cave further up, and which he was unable to find, declined to provide himself with this indispensable article at the lower well, and we were consequently put to the greatest inconven- ience. Among the brush-wood was a strong kind of Raspberry-bush, destitute of leaves; the fruit I am told is white. At four P. M. we arrived at a place where the lava suddenly became very rugged, and the brush-wood low, where we rested and chewed sugar-cane, of which we carried a large supply, and where the guides were anxious to re- main all night. As this was not very desirable, since we had no water, I proceeded for an hour longer, to what might be called the Line of Shrubs, a/ d at two miles and a half further on, encamped for the night. V 'e collected some small stems of a heath-like plant, which, with the dried stalks of the same species of Composite which I ob- served on Mouna Kuah, afforded a tolerably good fire. The man who carried the provisions did not make his appearance indeed, it is very difficult, except by literally driving them before you, to make the natives keep up with an active traveller. Thus I had to sup upon Taro-roots. Honori, as I expected, did not come up. I had no view of the surrounding country, for the region below, especially over the land, was covered with a thick layer of fleecy mist, and the cloud which always hovers above the great volcano, over-hung the horizon and rose into the air like a great tower. Sun-set gave a totally dif- ferent aspect to the whole, the fleecy clouds changed their hue to a vapoury tint, and the volume of mist above the volcano, which is silvery bright during the prevalence of sunshine, assumed a fiery aspect, and illumined the sky for many miles around. A strong North436 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. West mountain-breeze sprung up, and the stars, especially Canopus and Sirius, shone with unusual brilliancy. Never, even under a trop- ical sky, did I behold so many stars. Sheltered by a little brush- wood, I lay down on the lava beside the fire, and enjoyed a good night's rest, while my attendants swarmed together in a small cave, which they literally converted into an oven by .the immense fire they kindled in it. Wednesday, January the 29th. The morning rose bright and clear, - but cold, from the influence of a keen mountain-breeze. As the man who carried the provisions was still missing, the preparation of break- fast occupied but little time, so that accompanied by the bird-catcher and Cutty-sark, I started at half-past six for the summit of the moun- tain, leaving the others to collect fuel and to look for water. Shortly before day-break the sky was exceedingly clear and beautiful, espe- cially that part of the horizon where the sun rose, and above which the upper limb of his disc was visible like a thread of gold, soon to be quenched in a thick haze, which was extended over the horizon. It were difficult, nay, almost impossible, to describe the beauty of the sky and the glorious scenes of this day. The lava is terrible beyond description, and our track lay over ledges of the roughest kind, in some places glassy and smooth like slag from the furnace, compact and heavy like basalt; in others, tumbled into enormous mounds, or sunk in deep valleys, or rent into fissures, ridges, and clefts. This was at the verge of the snow not twenty yards of the whole space could be called level or even. In every direction vast holes or mouths are seen, varying in size, form and colour, from ten to seventy feet high. The lava that has been vomited forth from these openings presents a truly novel spectacle. From some, and occasionally, indeed, from the same mouth, the streams may be seen, pressed forward transversely, or in curved segments, while other channels present a floating appearance; occasionally the circular tortuous masses resemble gigantic cables, or are drawn into cords, or even capillary threads, finer than any silken thread, and carried to a great distance by the wind. The activity of these funnels may be inferred from the quantity of slag lying round them, its size, and the distance to which it has been thrown. Walking was rendered dangerous by the multitude of fissures, many of which are but slightly covered with a thin crust, and everywhere our progress was exceedingly labourious and fatiguing. As we continued to ascend, the cold and fatigue disheartened the Islanders, who required all the encouragement I could give to induce them to proceed. As I took the lead, it was needful for me to look behind me continually, for when once out of sight, they would pop themselves down and neither rise nor answer to my call. After resting for a few moments at the last station, I proceeded about seven miles further, over a similar kind of formation, till I came to a sort of low ridge, the top of which I gained soon after eleven P. M., the thermometer indicating 37, and the sky JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 437 very clear. This part was of gradual ascent, and its summit might be considered the southern part of the dome. The snow became very deep, and the influence of the sun melting its crust, which concealed the sharp points of the lava, was very unfavourable to my progress. From this place to the North towards the centre of the dome, the hill is more flattened. Rested a short time, and a few moments before noon, halted near the highest black, shaggy chimney to observe the sun's passage. In recording the following observations, I particularly note the places, in order that future visitors may be able to verify them. To the S. W. of this chimney, at the distance of one hundred and seventy yards, stands a knoll of lava, about seventy feet above the gradual rise of the place. The altitude was 104 52' 45 /x . This observation was made under highly favourable circumstances, on a horizon of mercury, without a roof, it being protected from the wind by a small oilcloth: bar. 18.953; therm. 41; in the sun's rays 43 5'; and when buried in the snow, 31; the dew-point at 7; wind S. W. The summit of this extraordinary mountain is so flat, that from this point no part of the island can be seen, not even the high peaks of Mouna Kuah, nor the distant horizon of the sea, though the sky was remarkably clear. It is a horizon of itself, and about seven miles in diameter. I ought, ere now, to have said that the bird-catcher's knowledge of the volcano did not rise above the woody region, and now he and my two other followers were unable to proceed further. Leaving these three behind, and accompanied by only Calipio, I went on about two miles and a half, when the Great Terminal Volcano or Cone of Mouna Roa burst on my view: all my attempts to scale the black ledge here were ineffectual, as the fissures in the lava were so much concealed, though not protected by the snow, that the under- taking was accompanied with great danger. Most reluctantly was I obliged to return, without being able to measure accurately its extraor- dinary de^oh. From this point I walked along the brink of the high ledg-e, aiong the East side, to the hump, so to speak, of the mountain, the point which, as seen from Mouna Kuah, appears the highest. As I stood on the brink of the ledge the wind whirled up from the cavity with such furious violence that I could hardly keep my footing within twenty paces of it. The circumference of the black ledge of the nearly circular crater, described as nearly as my circumstances would allow me to ascertain, is six miles and a quarter. The ancient crater has an extent of about twenty-four miles. The depth of the ledge, from the highest part (perpendicular station on the East side) by an accurate measurement with a line and plummet, is twelve hundred and seventy feet; it appears to have filled up considerably all round; that part to the North of the circle seeming to have, at no very remote period, undergone the most violent activity, not by boiling and over- flowing, nor by discharging- under ground, but by throwing- out 438 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. stones of immense size to the distance of miles around its opening, together with ashes and sand. Terrible chasms exist at the bottom, appearing-, in some places, as if the mountain had been rent to its very roots; no termination can be seen to their depth, even when the eye is aided with a good glass, and the sky is clear of smoke and the sun shining brightly. Fearful, indeed, must the spectable have been when this volcano was in a state of activity. The part to the South of the circle, where the outlet of the lava has evidently been, must have enjoyed a long period of repose. Were it not for the dykes on the West end, which show the extent of the ancient cauldron, and the direction of the lava, together with its proximity to the existing volcano, there is little to arrest the eye of the Naturalist over the greater portion of this huge dome, which is a gigantic mass of slag, scoriae, and ashes. The barometer remained stationary during the whole period spent on the summit, nor was there any change in the temperature nor in the dew-point to-day. While passing, from eight to nine o'clock, over the ledges of lava of a more compact texture, with small but numerous vesicles, the temperature of the air being 36, 37, and the sun shining powerfully, a sweet musical sound was heard, proceeding from the cracks and small fissures, like the faint sound of musical glasses, but having at the same time, a kind of hiss- ing sound, like a swarm of bees. This may, perhaps, be owing to some great internal fire escaping or, is it rather attributable to the heated air on the surface of the rocks, rarefied by the sun's rays. In a lower region this sound might be overlooked, and considered to proceed, by possibility, from the sweet harmony of insects, but in this high altitude it is too powerful and remarkable not to attract attention. Though this day was more tranquil than the 12th, when I ascended Mouna Kuah, I could perceive a great difference in sound; I could not hear half so far as I did on that day when the wind was blowing strong. This might be owing to this mountain being covered with snow, whereas, on the 12th, Mouna Kuah was clear of it. Near the top I saw one small bird, about the size of a common sparrow, of a light mixed grey colour, with a faintly yellow beak no other living crea- ture met my view above the woody region. This little creature which was perched on a block of lava, was so tame as to permit me to catch it with my hand, when I instantly restored it its liberty. I also saw a dead hawk in one of the caves. On the East side of the black ledge of the Great Terminal Crater, is a small conical funnel of scoriae, the only vent-hole of that substance that I observed in the crater. This mountain appears to be differently formed from Mouna Kuah ; it seems to be an endless number of layers of lava, from different overflowings of the great crater. In the deep caves at Kapupala, two thousand feet above the level of the sea, the several strata are well defined, and may be accurately traced, varying in thickness with the intensity of JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 439 % the action, and of the discharge that has taken place. Between many of these strata are layers of earth, containing 1 vegetable substances, some from two feet to two feet seven inches in thickness, which be- speak a long state of repose between the periods of activity in the volcano. It is worthy of notice that the thickest strata are generally the lowest, and they become thinner towards the surface. In some places I counted twenty-seven of these layers, horizontal and preserving the declination of the mountain. In the caves which I explored near my camp, which are from forty to seventy feet deep, thin strata of earth in- tervene between the successive beds of lava, but none is found nearer the surface than thirteen layers. No trace of animal, shell or fish, could I detect in any of the craters or caves, either in this mountain or Mouna Kuah. At four P. M. I returned to the centre of the dome, where I found the three men whom I had left all huddling together to keep them- selves warm. After collecting a few specimens of lava, no time was to be lost in quitting this dreary and terrific scene. The descent was even more fatiguing, dangerous and distressing than the ascent had proved, and required great caution in us to escape unhurt ; for the natives, benumbed with cold, could not walk fast. Darkness came on all too quickly, and though the twilight is of considerable duration, I was obliged to halt, as I feared, for the night, in a small cave. Here, though sheltered from the N. W. breeze, which set in more and more strongly as the sun sank below the horizon, the thermometer fell to 19, and as I was yet far above the line of vegetation, unable to obtain any materials for a fire, and destitute of clothing, except the thin gar- ments soaked in perspiration in which I had travelled all day, and which rendered the cold most intense to my feelings, I ventured, be- tween ten and eleven P. M. to make an effort to proceed to the camp. Never shall I forget the joy I felt when the welcome moon, for whose appeanr nee I had long been watching, first showed herself above the volcaj .. The singular form which this luminary presented, was most striking. The darkened limb was uppermost, and as I was sitting in darkness, eagerly looking for her appearance on the horizon, I descried a narrow silvery belt, 4 to 5 high, emerging from the lurid fiery cloud of the volcano. This I conceived to be a portion of the light from the fire, but a few moments showed me' the lovely moon shining in splen- dour in a cloudless sky, and casting a guiding beam over my rugged path. Her pale face actually threw a glow of warmth into my whole frame, and I joyfully and thankfully rose to scramble over the rough way, in the solitude of the night, rather than await the approach of day in this comfortless place. Not so, thought my followers. The bird-catcher and his two companions would not stir ; so with my trusty man Calipio, who follows me like a shadow, I proceeded in the descent. Of necessity we walked slowly, stepping cautiously from ledge to ledge, but still having exercise enough to excite a genial heat. The splendid 440 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. constellation of Orion, which had so often attracted my admiring gaze in my own native land, and which had shortly passed the meridian, was my guide. I continued in a South-East direction till two o'clock, when all at once I came to a low place, full of stunted shrubs, of more robust habit, however, than those at the camp. I instantly struck a light, and found by the examination of my barometer, that I was nearly five hundred feet below the camp. No response was given to our re- peated calls it was evident that no human being was near, so by the help of the moon's light, we shortly collected plenty of fuel, and kindled a fine fire. No sooner did its warmth and light begin to diffuse themselves over my frame, than I found myself instantly seized with violent pain and inflammation in my eyes, which had been rather pain- ful on the mountain, from the effect of the sun's rays shining on the snow ; a slight discharge of blood from both eyes followed, which gave me some relief, and which proved that the attack was as much attrib- utable to violent fatigue as any other cause. Having tasted neither food nor water since an early hour in the morning, I suffered severely with thirst ; still I slept for a few hours, dreaming the while of gur- gling cascades, overhung with sparkling rainbows, of which the dewy spray moistened my whole body, while my lips were all the time glued together with thirst and my parched tongue almost rattled in my mouth. My poor man, Calipio, was also attacked with inflammation in his eyes, and gladly did we hail the approach of day. The sun rose brightly on the morning of Thursday, January 30th, and gilding the snow over which we had passed, showed our way to have been infinitely more rugged and precarious than it had appeared by moon-light. I discovered that by keeping about a mile and a half too much to the East, we had left the camp nearly five hundred feet above our present situation ; and returning thither over the rocks, we found Honori en- gaged in preparing breakfast. He had himself reached the camp about noon on the second day. He gave me a calabash full of water, with a large piece of ice in it, which refreshed me greatly. A few drops of opium in the eyes afforded instant relief both to Calipio and myself. The man with the provisions was here also, so we shortly made a com- fortable meal, and immediately after, leaving one man behind with some food for the bird-catcher and his two companions, we prepared to descend, and started at nine A. M. to retrace the path by which we had come. Gratified though one may be at witnessing the wonderful works of God in such a place as the summit of this mountain presents, still it is with thankfulness that we again approach a climate more congenial to our natures, and welcome the habitations of our fellow- men, where we are refreshed with the scent of vegetation, and soothed by the melody of birds. When about three miles below the camp, my three companions of yesterday appeared like mawkins on the craggy lava, just at the very spot where I had come down. A signal was JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 441 made them to proceed to the camp, which was seen and obeyed, and we proceeded onwards, collecting a good many plants- by the way. Ar- riving at Strawberry Well, we made a short halt to dine, and ascer- tained the barometer to be 25.750; air 57, and the well 51; dew 56. There were vapoury, light clouds in the sky and a S. W. wind. We arrived at Kapupala at four P. M. The three other men came up at seven, much fatigued like myself. Bar, at Kapupala at eight P. M. 27.926 ; air 57 ; and the sky clear. This is the closing sentence of Mr. Douglas's Journal; penned, indeed, by the date, some months previous to the letter which immediately precedes this portion of the Journal (May 6, 1834), and which was certainly among the last, if it were not the very last, that he addressed to any friend in Europe, and that gave hopes of seeing him home at no distant period. Of the events which hap- pened between that period and the melancholy accident which occasioned his death, a space of little more than two months, there is unfortunately, no information. The first knowledge of his decease, which reached one of the members of the family in this country, was in a peculiarly abrupt and painful manner. It was seen in a number of the Liverpool Monthly, by his brother, Mr. John Douglas, when looking for the announcement of the marriage of a near relative. He immediatey set out for Glasgow, to com- munf 3ate the unwelcome tidings to me ; and in a few days they were confirmed on more unquestionable authority, by a letter from Richard Charlton, Esq., H. B. M. Consul at the Sandwich Islands, to James Bandinel, Esq., enclos- ing a most affecting document, relative to the event, from two Missionaries, the Rev. Joseph Goodrich and the Rev. John Diell, both of which I am anxious to record here in testimony of the deep interest felt by these gentlemen in the fate of our deceased friend ; a feeling, indeed, which

assuredly extended to all who knew him.

Copy of a Letter from the Missionaries of Hawaii to Richard Charlton, Esq., His Brittanic Majesty's Consul at the Sandwich Islands.

Hilo, Hawaii, July 15th, 1834.

Dear Sir: Our hearts almost fail us when we undertake to perform the melancholy duty which devolves upon us, to communicate the painful intelligence of the death of our friend Mr. Douglas, and such particulars as we have been able to gather respecting this distressing providence. The tidings reached us when we were every moment awaiting his arrival, and expecting to greet him with a cordial welcome: but alas! He whose thoughts and ways are not as ours, saw fit to order it otherwise; and instead of being permitted to hail the living friend, our hearts have been made to bleed while performing the offices of humanity to his mangled corpse. Truly we must say, that the "ways of the Lord are mysterious, and His judgments past finding out!" but it is our unspeakable consolation to know, that those ways are directed by infinite wisdom and mercy, and that though "clouds and darkness are round about Him, yet righteousness and judgment are the habitation of His throne!" But we proceed to lay before you as full information as it is in our power to do at the present time, concerning this distressing event. As Mr. Diell was standing in the door of Mr. Goodrich's house yesterday morning, about eight o'clock, a native came up, and with an expression of countenance which indicated but too faithfully that he was the bearer of sad tidings, enquired for Mr. Goodrich. On seeing him, he communicated the dreadful intelligence, that the body of Mr. Douglas had been found on the mountains, in a pit excavated for the purpose of taking wild cattle, and that he was supposed to have been killed by the bullock that was in the pit, when the animal [he?] fell in. Never were our feelings so shocked, nor could we credit the report, till it was painfully affirmed as we proceeded to the beach, whither his body had been conveyed in a canoe, by the natives who informed us of his death. As we walked down with the native, and made further inquiries of him, he gave for substance the following relation: That on the evening of the 13th instant, the natives who brought the body down from the mountain came to his house at Laupashoohoi, about twenty-five or thirty miles distant from Hilo, and employed him to bring it to this place in his canoe—the particulars which he learned from them were as follows: that Mr. D. left Rohala Point last week, in company with a foreigner (an Englishman), as a guide, and proceeded to cross Mouna Roa on the North side—that on the 12th he dismissed his guide, who cautioned him, on parting, to be very careful lest he should fall into the pits excavated for the purpose mentioned above; describing them as near the place where the cattle resorted to drink—that soon after Mr. D. JOURNAL AND LETTERS OP DAVID DOUGLAS. 443 had dismissed his guide, he went back a short distance to get some bundle which he had forgotten, and that as he was retracing his steps, at some fatal moment he tumbled into one of the pits in which a bullock had previously fallen that he there was found dead by these same natives, who, ignorant of the time of his passing, were in pursuit of cattle, and observed a small hole in one end of the covering of the pit. At first they conjectured that a calf had fallen in; but on further exam- ination they discerned traces of a man's footsteps, and then saw his feet, the rest of his body being covered with dust and rubbish. They went in pursuit of the guide, who returned, shot the beast in the hole, took out the corpse, and hired the natives at the price of four bullocks, which he killed immediately, to convey the body to the seashore. He himself accompanied them, and procured the native who related the affair, to bring the corpse to this place, promising to come himself immediately, and that he would bring the compass-watch, which was somewhat broken, but still going; some money found in Mr. D.'s pocket; and the little dog, that faithful companion of our departed friend. Thus far the report of the native, who brought the corpse in his canoe, and who professes to relate the facts to us, as he learned them from the natives who came down the mountain. We do not stop at present to examine how far it is consistent or inconsistent with itself, as we have not the means of making full investigation into the matter. On reaching the canoe, our first care was to have the re- mains conveyed to some suitable place where we could take proper care of them, and Mr. Dibble's family being absent, it was determined to carry the body to his house. But what an affecting spectacle was presented as we removed the bullock's hide in which he had been con- veyed ! we will not attempt to describe the agony of feeling which we experienced at that moment : Can it be he ? Can it be he ? we each excla/tned. Can it be the man with whom we parted but a few days befof 3, and who was then borne up with so high spirits and expecta- tions, and whom but an hour previously we were fondly anticipating to welcome to our little circle. The answer was but too faithfully contained in the familiar articles of dress in the features, and in the noble person before us. They were those of our friend. The body, clothes, etc., appeared to be in the same state they were in when taken from the pit: the face was covered with dirt, the hair filled with blood and dust; the coat, pantaloons, and shirt considerably torn. The hat was missing. On washing the corpse, we found it in a shocking state : there were ten to twelve gashes on the head a long one over the left eye, another, rather deep, just above the left temple, and a deep one, behind the right ear; the left cheek-bone appeared to be broken, and also the ribs on the left side. The abdomen was also much bruised, and also the lower parts of the legs. After laying him out, 444 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. our first thought was to bury him within Mr. Goodrich's premises ; but after we had selected a spot, and commenced clearing away the ground, doubts were suggested by a foreigner who was assisting us, and who has for some time been engaged in taking wild cattle, whether the wounds on the head could have been inflicted by a bullock. Mr. G. said that doubts had similarly arisen in his mind, while examining the body. The matter did not seem clear many parts of the story were left in obscurity. How had Mr. Douglas been left alone with- out any guide, foreign or native ? Where was John, Mr. Diell's col- oured man, who had left Honolulu with Mr. Diell, and who, on missing a passage with him from Lahaina, embarked with Douglas, as we are informed by the captain of the vessel in which Mr. D. sailed from La- haina to Rohala Point, and then left the vessel with Mr. D. on the morning of the 9th instant, in order to accompany him across the mountain to Hilo ? How was it that Mr. D. should fall into a pit when retracing his steps, after having once passed it in safety? And if a bullock had already tumbled in, how was it that he did not see the hole necessarily made in its covering ? These difficulties occurred to our minds, and we deemed it due to the friends of Mr. D. and the pub- lic, whom he had so zealously and so usefully served, that an examina- tion should be made of the body by medical men. The only way by which this could be effected, was by preserving his body, and either sending it toOahu or keeping it till it could be examined. The former method seemed most advisable ; accordingly we had the contents of the abdomen removed, the cavity filled with salt, and placed in a coffin, which was then filled with salt, and the whole enclosed in a box of brine. Some fears are entertained whether the captain of the native vessel will convey the body; this can be determined in the morning. After the corpse was laid in the coffin, the members of the Mission family and several foreigners assembled at the house of Mr. Dibble, to pay their tribute of respect to the mortal remains of the deceased, and to improve this affecting providence to their own good. Prayers were offered, and a brief address made ; and we trust that the occasion may prove a lasting blessing to all who were present. After the services were concluded, the body was removed to a cool native house, where it was enclosed in the box. 16th. As neither the guide nor any natives have arrived, we have employed two foreigners to proceed to the place where the body was received on the sea-shore, with directions to find the persons who dis- covered it, and go with them to the pit. and after making as full in- quiries as possible, to report to us immediately. So far as we can ascertain, the guide is an Englishman, a convict from Botany Bay, who left a vessel at these islands some years ago. He has a wife and one child with him, and to this circumstance in part may be attributed JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 445 his delay. There are two native vessels in port, besides the one about to sail to-day. By these vessels we shall apprise you of all the infor- mation we can obtain, and yet hope that the darkness which involves the subject may be removed. Mr. G. has just returned from the ves- sel about to sail to-day. The application to convey the remains of Mr. D. to Honolulu will, we fear, prove unsuccessful, as the cargo is already taken in, consisting of wood, canoes, food, etc. It is barely possible that a consent may yet be obtained; but if not, you must be so kind as to dictate what course is to be pursued. Should you deem it advisable to come up in person, we think that the body will be in such a state of preservation as will admit of its being examined upon your arrival. Meanwhile, we shall take all possible pains to procure in- formation. The principal part of Mr. D.'s bag-gage, his trunks, instru- ments, etc., are in Mr. Goodrich's possession, who will take care of them, subject to your order. Three o'clock P. M. Edward Gurney, the Englishman spoken of before, has arrived, and our'minds are greatly relieved, as to the prob- able way in which the fatal event was brought about. He states that on the 12th instant, about ten minutes before six in the morning, Mr. D. arrived at his house on the mountain, and wished him to point out the road, and go a short distance with him. Mr. D. was then alone, but said that his man had gone out the day before (this man was probably Johu, Mr. Diell's coloured man). After taking breakfast, Ned accompanied Mr. D. about three quarters of a mile, and after di- recting him in the path, and warning him of the traps, went on about half a mile further with him. Mr. D. then dismissed him, after ex- pressing an anxious wish to reach Hilo by evening, thinking he could find out the way himself. Just before Ned left him, he warned him particularly of three bullock-traps, about two miles and a half ahead, two oL- uhem lying directly in the road, the other on one side, as ex- hibit^ in the following rude sketch: 1. Trap empty, covered. 2. Ditto, cow in, open. 3. Ditto, bullock, open. 4. The places where Mr. Douglas' dog and bundle were found. 5. Water. JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 447 Ned then parted with Mr. D. and went back to skin some bullocks which he had previously killed. About eleven o'clock, two natives came in pursuit of him, and said that the European was dead; that they had found him in a pit where a bullock was. They mentioned that as they were approaching this pit, one of them, observing- some of the clothing on the side, exclaimed Lole, but in a moment afterwards discovered Mr. D. in the cave, trampled under the beast's feet. They immediately hastened back for Ned, who, leaving- his work, ran into the house for a musket, ball and hide; and on arriving at the pit, found the bullock standing- upon poor Douglas' body, which was lying on the rig-ht side. He shot the animal, and after drawing it to one side of the pit, succeeded in extricating the corpse. Douglas' cane was there, but not his dog- and bundle: Ned knowing that he had the latter with him, asked for it. After a few moments search, the dog- was heard to bark, at a little distance a-head on the road to Hilo. On coming up to the spot, indicated by No. 4, the dog and bundle were found. On further scrutiny, it appeared that Mr. D. had stopped for a moment and looked at the empty pit, No. 1, and also at that where the cow was ; and that after proceeding about fifteen fathoms up the hill, he had laid down his bundle and returned to the side of the pit where the bullock was entrapped, No. 3, and which was situated on the side of the pond oppo- site to that along which the road runs; and that whilst looking in, by making a false step, or some other fatal accident, he fell into the power of the infuriated animal, which speedily executed the work of death. The body was covered in part with stones, which probably prevented its being entirely crushed. After removing the corpse, Ned took charge of the dog and bundle, also of his watch and chronometer (which is injured in some way), his pocket compass, keys and money, and after hiring the natives to convey the body to the shore, a distance of about twenty seven miles, came directly to this place. This narrative clears up mq/iy of the difficulftes which rested upon the whole affair, and per- haps affords a satisfactory account of the manner in which Mr. D. met with his awful death. We presume that it would be agreeable to you that the body should be sent down, and as the vessel is still delayed by a calm, we hope to receive a favourable answer from the captain. If we should not, it may perhaps be well to inter the body, which can easily be disinterred for examination, if desirable. We have thus, dear Sir, endeavoured to furnish you with all the particulars we have been able to gather concerning this distressing event. It is no common death which has thus called forth our tears and sympathies: it presents a most affecting comment on the truth, that "in the midst of life we are in death !" How forcible then is the admonition to all of us, whose privilege it was to be acquainted with him who is thus snatched from us, to "prepare to meet our God," "for the Son of Man cometh at an hour that we know not of." You will be 448 JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. pleased, dear sir, to accept for yourself and family, the expression of our kindest sympathies under this Afflicting- dispensation, and allow us to subscribe ourselves, with sincere regard, your friends and obedient servants. (Signed) JOSEPH GOODRICH. JOHN DIELL. P. S. The bearer, Mr. Martin, will take charge of the little dog. There are several matters of expenses, incurred for conveying the body to this place, paying the natives, etc., which Mr. Goodrich will meet, so far as can be done, with the clothes, etc.. of these and of Mr. D.'s other things, he will present a full statement. A true copy. RICHARD CHARLTON. COPY OF A LETTER FROM MR. CHARLTON TO JAMES BANDINEL,, ESQ. (Inclosing the above.) WOAHOO, August 6th, 1834. MY DEAR SIR : It has devolved on me to inform you of the mel- ancholy death of our friend, poor Douglas. On his arrival at this island from the Columbia River, he took the first opportunity of visit- ing Hawaii, where he remained for some time, with great satisfaction to himself and usefulness to the public. After his return to this island, he suffered much from rheumatism, but on the 3rd ultimo, finding himself quite recovered, he re-embarked for Hawaii. On the 19th ult. I received the accompanying letter from Messrs. Diell and Goodrich, two gentlemen belonging to the Mission: from it you will learn the particulars relative to his melancholy fate. On the 3rd in- stant, the body. was brought here in an American vessel. I imme- diately had it examined by the medical gentlemen, who gave it as their opinion that the several wounds were inflicted by the bullock. I assure you that I scarcely ever received such a shock in my life. On opening the coffin, the features of our poor friend were easily traced, but mangled in a shocking manner, and in a most offensive state. The next day, I had his remains deposited in their last resting place; the funeral was attended by Captain Seymour and several of the officers of his Majesty's ship Challenger, and the whole of the foreign residents. I have caused his grave to be built over with brick, and perhaps his friends may send a stone to be placed*(with an inscription) upon it. As I am about to embark in the Challenger to- morrow for Otaheite, I have left all his effects in the hands of my friend, Mr. Rooke, with a request to sell his clothing, and forward his collections, books, papers, and instruments to the Secretary of the Horticultural Society. One of his chronometers, reflecting circle, and dipping needle, are on board the Challenger, in charge of Capt. JOURNAL AND LETTERS OF DAVID DOUGLAS. 449 Seymour. As I do not know the address of the friends of Mr. Douglas, I shall feel very much obliged to you to forward the copy of Messrs. Goodrich 's and Diell's letter to them. I remain, my dear sir, yours, etc. (Signed) RICHARD CHARLTON. The little dog safely reached this country, and was given, we believe, to Mr. Bandinel. There have come also a box of birds ; and besides the Californian collection already mentioned, several seeds and roots, a small herbarium, chiefly formed, it would appear, in New Caledonia, and another from the Sandwich Islands, consisting of not more than three hundred species. These it is our inten- tion to publish with all convenient speed. A subscription is now in progress for the purpose of erecting a monument to his memory in his native place; and we are sure that his name and his virtues will long live in the recollection of his friends. W. J. H. 450 ACCESSIONS. ACCESSIONS. For the period ending November SO, 1905. PAMPHLETS. Oregon Baptist Annual, 1905. Proceedings of the Twentieth An- nual Session of the Oregon Baptist State Convention held at Eugene, Oct. 9-12, 1905. 8vo, 120 pp. Illustrated. Baptist Convention, The Sixteenth Annual Report of, at Puyallup, Washington, Oct. 6-9, 1903. 8vo, 58 pp. Illustrated. Pacific Milling and Mining Co., Prospectus of: Location, North Fork of Santiam River, Marion County. Offices, Portland, Silverton. 8vo, 20 pp. Illustrated. Map. Portland Post, The. Vol. 1, No. 1, November, 1905. 4to, 16 pp. Cover additional. Illustrated. The Dalles Sorosis. Calendar for 1902-1903. 32mo, 16 pp. - 1903-1904. 16mo, 16 pp. - 1904-1905. 16mo, 16 pp. Pioneer, The. An Annual edited by the Senior class of the Cen- tralia (Wash.) High School. Contains history of school and sketches of Senior class. 8vo, 32 pp., besides cover. Illustrated. Live Stock Exhibit at Lewis and Clark Centennial, official catalogue of. Sept. 19-29, 1905. 8vo, 114 pp., and cover. Illustrated. Entomology, Catalogue of the Exhibit of the Economic, at the Lewis and Clark Centennial, 1905. Compiled by Rolla P. Currie, of the Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C., 1905. 8vo, 128 pp. Porter, Major General Fitz John. Review by the Judge-Advocate General of the Proceedings, and Sentence of a General Court-Martial held ia Washington, D. C., for the trial of. Washington, D. C., 1863. 8vo, 32 pp. Wonderland, 1896. By Olin D. Wheeler. The Country, The Cities, The Resorts, The Game found along the Northern Pacific Railroad. St. Paul, 1896. 8vo, 114 pp. Illustrated. Map. Old Willamette Days. A Souvenir of Old Willamette University Days. Issued in memory of Lucy Anna Maria Lee, daughter of Rev. Jason Lee, born February 26, 1842, at Chemeketa, now Salem. Edited by Miss Ellen J. Chamberlain, 1905. 12mo, 38 pp. Portraits. Columbia River Empire, The. By P. Donan. Passenger Depart- ment of the O. R. & N. Co., 1902. 8vo, 72 pp. Illustrated. Oregon Territory, General and Special Laws of, passed by the Legislative Assembly of 1858-59. Salem, 1859. 8vo, 180pp. (Mutilated.) ACCESSIONS. 451 Multnomah Falls, Leg-end of. By Susan Williamson Smith. Port- land, 190"). 12mo, 44 pp. Illustrated. Deckle edges. Oregon Rar Association, Proceedings of Eighth and Ninth Annual Meetings, November, 1898, November, 1899. 8vo, 172 pp. BOOKS. Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, The. Edited under direction of Congress by Francis Wharton, with Preliminary Index, and notes historical and legal. Published in con- formity with act of Congress of August 13, 1888. Washington, 1889. 8vo, Vol. 1, 666 pp. Sheep. - Vol. 2, 875pp. Vol. 3, 883 pp. - Vol. 4, 869 pp. - Vol. 5, 881 pp. - Vol. 6, 1002 pp. Treaties and Conventions concluded between the United States and other Powers, 1776-1887. Washington, 1889. 8vo, Cloth, 1434 pp. Reconstruction, Report of Joint Committee on, at the first session of 31st Congress. Washington, 1866. 8vo. Cloth. Report of Com- mittee, 22 pp.; Part I, 128 pp.; Part II, 294 pp.; Part III, 187 pp.; Part IV, 182 pp. Commercial Relations of United States with Foreign Nations, for year ending September 30, 1864. Washington, 1865. 8vo, Cloth, 837 pp. +180. Compendium of Tenth Census, 1880. Washington, 1883. 8vo, Cloth. Parts I and II, two vols., 1771 pp. Conduct of the War, Supplemental Report of Joint Committee on. Volume 1, supplemental to Senate Report No. 142, 38th Congress, 2d session-r Washington, 1866. 8 vo, Cloth. Contains report of Gen. W.T. Sherm/n, 391 pp.; report of Gen. Geo. H. Thomas, 472 pp. Transportation Routes to Sea-Board.. Report of Select Committee on, with Appendix and Evidence. Washington, 1874. 8vo, Cloth, and maps. Part I. Report, 260 pp.; Appendix, report on James River and Kanawha Canal, 232 pp. Patent Office Report, 1867. Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4. Washington, 1868. 8vo, Cloth. Reports, 2 vols., 1586 pp ; Illustrations, 1440 pp. Patent Office Reports, 1867, Vol. 1, 880 pp.; Vol. 2, 817 pp.; Vols. 3 and 4, Illustrations, 1611 pp. 8vo, Cloth. Washington, 1869. Commissioner of Agriculture, Report of, 1868. 8vo, Cloth. Wash- ington, 1869. 671 pp. Message and Documents, 1865-66. 8vo, Cloth, 711 pp. - 1866-67. 8vo, Cloth. Washington, 1868. 910 pp. Department of State, Part 1, 1866-67. 8vo, Cloth. Washington, 1867. 693 pp. 452 ACCESSIONS. War Department, 1866-67. 8vo, Cloth. Washington, 1866. 774 pp. - Part III, 1866-67. Washington, 1867. 598 pp. - 1868-69. 8vo, Cloth. Washington, 1869. 1158 pp. -1869-70. 8vo, Cloth. Washington, 1870. 779pp. (Duplicate.) - 1870-71. Washington, 1870. 8vo, Cloth, 616 pp. - 1875-76. Washington, 1875. 8vo, Cloth, 679 pp. - 1879. Washington, 1879. 8vo, Cloth, 1093 pp. - 1881-82. Washington, 1881. 8vo, Cloth, 1094 pp. - 1881. Vol. 2, Part II. Report of Secretary of War. Washing- ton, 1882. Maps. 1042 pp. - Vol. 2, Part III. Washington, 1882. Maps. 8vo, Cloth, 982 pp. -1881-82. Vol. 3, War Department. 8vo, Cloth. Maps and plates. 560 pp. - Vol. 3. Washington, 1882. Maps. 8vo, Cloth, 560 pp. - 1881-82. Report of Secretary of the Interior. Vol. 1. Wash- ington, 1881. 8vo, Cloth, 953 pp. - 1882-83. Report of Secretary of the Interior. Vol. 1. Wash- ington, 1882. 8vo, Cloth, 708 pp. - 1883-84. Washington, 1883. 8vo, Cloth, 1030 pp. - 1883-84. Report of Secretary of the Interior. Vol. 1. Wash- ton, 1883. 8vo, Cloth, 735 pp. - 1884-85. Washington, 1884. 8vo, Cloth, 872 pp. - 1888-89. Interior Department. Vol. 2. Washington, 1888. 8vo, Cloth. Maps. 977 pp. - 1888-89. Interior Department. Vol. 3. Washington, 1888. 8vo, Cloth. Maps. 1036 pp. - 1891-92. Interior Department. Vol. 1. Washington, 1892. 8vo, Cloth, 438 pp. - 1891-92. Interior Department. Vol. 2. Washington, 1892. 8vo, Cloth. Maps. 1286 pp. - 1893-94. Interior Department. Vol. 5, Part I. Washington, 1894. 8vo, Cloth, 1224 pp. -1893-94. Navy Department. Washington, 1894. 8vo, Cloth, 629 pp. Johnson, Andrew, Impeachment of. Vol. 3. Washington, 1868. 8vo, Cloth, iOl pp. Land Laws of the United States, 1882. Local and Temporary, and Digest of Indian Treaties. Washington, 1884. Vol. 2. 8vo, Cloth, 631 pp. Tariff Compilation, 1884. Washington, 1884. 8vo, Cloth, 417 pp. Commissioner of Education, Report of. 1884-85. Washington, 1886. 8vo, 848 pp. +317. Commissioner of Labor, First Annual Report of. 1886. Industrial Depressions. Washington, 1886. 8vo, Cloth, 496 pp. ACCESSIONS. 453 Second Annual Report. Washington, 1887. 8vo, Clotoh, 612 pp. Ninth Annual Report, 1893. Building- and Loan Associations. Washington, 1894. 8vo, Cloth, 719 pp. Fish Commission, Annual Report of, 1886. Part XIV. (a) Inquiry Respecting Food Fishes and the Fishing Grounds; (6) Propagation of Food Fishes. Washington, 1889. Maps and illustrations. 8vo, Cloth, 1071 pp. Commercial Relations of United States with Foreign Nations, Sept. 30, 1865. Washington, 1866. 8vo, Cloth, 778 pp. Internal Commerce of the United States, Report on, Dec. 20, 1886. Part II. Washington, 1886. 8vo, Cloth, 738 pp. Maps and charts. Commerce and Navigation of the United States, 1887. Washing- ton, 1887. Part I: Foreign Commerce, Immigration and Tonnage. 8vo, Cloth, 964 pp. Department of Agriculture, Report for 1887. Washington, 1888. Plates and maps. 8vo, Cloth, 724 pp. Fish and Fisheries, Report of Commissioner. 1887. Part XV. Washington, 1891. Plates and maps. 8vo, Cloth, 899 pp. Education, History of Higher, in Rhode Island. Circular No. 18, by William Howe Tolman, Ph.D. Washington, 1894. Engravings. 8vo, Paper (pamphlet), 210 pp. - History of, in Maryland. Circular No. 19, by Bernard C. Steiner, Ph.D. Washington, 1894. Engravings. 8vo, Paper (pamphlet), 331 pp. Congressional Record, Vol. 18, Part II, 49th Congress, 2d session, Jan. 25 to Feb. 21, 1887. Quarto, Paper, pp. 1009-2016. Index to Vol. 14, Parts I-IV, 47th Congress, 2d session. Wash- ington, 1882. Quarto, Paper, 221 pp. - Index to Vol. 16, Parts I-III, 48th Congress, 2d session. Wash- ington. 1885. Quarto, Paper, 260 pp. (Pyjceding sixty-seven volumes donated by W. Carey Johnson, Oregon CHy. ) Stevens, Isaac I. , Message of, as Governor of Washington Territory, to Legislative Assembly, January, 1857, and accompanying documents. (This is an important acquisition, as it gives the official history of the Yakima Indian war of 1855-56.) Donated by . Koontz, Winlock, Wash., 406pp. Official Records of Civil War, 37 volumes. Washington, 1891-93. 8vo, Cloth. - Plates accompanying, Nos. 1 to 175. Washington, 1891-1895. 15xl8i inches. Statistical Atlas of the United States, 1900. Washington, 1903. Quarto, Cloth. American Historical Serials, Want List, July 31, 1905. Washing- ton, 1905. Quarto, Cloth, 24 pp. 454 ACCESSIONS. Masonic Grand Lodge, Proceedings of, 1905. Portland, 1905. 8vo, Cloth. Portrait. 363 pp. (Donated by F. W. Baltes & Co. , Portland. ) Odd Fellows' Grand Lodge, Proceedings of, First to Eleventh, 1856 to 1866, inclusive, Portland and Salem. 8vo, Cloth, 536 pp. (Donated by F. W. Baltes & Co., Portland.) Padres, In the Footprints of. 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Washington, 1853. 8vo, Cloth. Maps, sketches, views, illustrations. 190 pp. DOCUMENTS. Correspondence between Holderness & Co. and Norris & Co., Port- land merchants, and Winter & Latimer, San Francisco, during the years 1850-52; also numerous letters to Holderness & Co. and Norris & Co. from different persons in Oregon during the years mentioned. 165 letters. Miscellaneous lot of 600 orders, receipts, bills, shipping receipts, etc., in connection with the business of J. Failing & Co., Portland, Oregon, 1853-55. (Preceding two lots of material donated by James F. Failing, Port- land. ) Correspondence of Mrs. Eva Emery Dye, numbering 2,200 letters, connected with the preparation of u McLoughlin and Old Oregon, " ' ' The Conquest, ' ' and a third volume yet unnamed. (Donated by Mrs. Dye, Oregon City.) Commission of Joseph L. Meek, the first United States Marshal of Oregon, and the first commission issued to an officer of Oregon TerriACCESSIONS. 455 tory. Dated Washing-ton, D. C., August 14, 1848 ; signed by James K. Polk, President, and countersigned by James Buchanan, Secretary of State. (Parchment.) (Donated by Stephen A. D. Meek, Glencoe, Ore- gon.) Commission of Joseph Lane as governor of Oregon Territory the second time. Issued on March 16, 1853 ; signed by Franklin Pierce, President, and countersigned by Wm. L. Marcy, Secretary of State. (Donated by Rev. Arthur Lane, Jacksonville, a grandson.) Letter from Leander N. Beliew to his wife Mrs. Sarah Beliew, Luckiamute, Polk County, dated "Boggs' River Valley," May 28, 1849, descriptive of his trip thither, and experiences in the California mines. Pioneer Days, Sketch of. By Tolbert Carter, a pioneer of 1846. Typewritten MS. (Letter and sketch presented by J. A. Carter, a son of Mr. Carter and grandson of Mr. Beliew, Wells, Oregon.) RELICS. Cartridge belt worn by W. G. Ritchey, now of Farmington, Wash., in Nez Perce" Indian war of 1877, when Indians were led by Chief Joseph, and United States troops by Gen. O. O. Howard. Purse found by W. G. Ritchey in yard of a miner on Salmon River, Idaho, who was murdered by Nez Perce" Indians at beginning of the war of 1877. (Both articles from W. G.'Ritchey, Farmington.) Cutlas, from the armament of the steamship Great Republic, which belonged to the Pacific Mail Steamship Company and ran from San Francisco to China for a number of years, beginning with 1867. Dur- ing this period the vessel called at Ladrone Islands, occasionally, and it was generally necessary for the crew to be armed when they went ashore. Tbe Great Republic was sold in 1878 to P. B. Cornwall of San Francisco, whereupon he placed her on the San Francisco- Port- land route. She was wrecked on Columbia River bar April 19, 1879, anf the cutlas secured by E. C. Holden, Astoria, who presented it to tht Society. Winchester rifle with which Howard Maupin killed Indian Chief Paulina in the Bannock Indian war in Eastern Oregon and Idaho, in 1878. Knife made out of a file with which James Clark scalped Indian Chief Paulina during the Bannock war of 1878. Both implements passed through a fire in 1902. (Rifle and knife donated by J. W. Robinson, Ashwood.) Spencer carbine and muzzle-loading rifle barrel secured by Doctor Stewart, Goldendale, from Memaloose Island, Columbia River, in 1890.

  1. Delivered as the annual address before the Yamhill County Pioneer Association at Dayton, Oregon, June 2, 1897.
  2. A paper read at the Mechanics' Institute in San Francisco December 2, 1905, before the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association.
  3. Address on August 12, 1905, Lewis Day at the Lewis and Clark Centennial and American Pacific Exposition and Oriental Fair.
  4. A paper read before the Historical Congress held in connection with the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition.
  5. Reported to the Historical Congress, Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, August 21-23, 1905.
  6. Continuation of his letter from Woahoo, Sandwich Islands, May 6, 1884, a fragment of his journal, and documents bearing upon manner and circumstances of his death.