Oregon Historical Quarterly/Volume 7/Diary of the Emigration of 1843

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of the

Oregon Historical Society.

Volume VII.]


[Number 4


By James W. Nesmith.

[James Willis Nesmith, one of the foremost of Oregon's pioneer citizens, was of Scotch-Irish parentage, and was born on the border line between Maine and New Brunswick, on July 23, 1820. At least two of his forefathers had fought for American liberty in the Battle of Bunker Hill, and others of the family had upheld the cause of the colonies during the great struggle against England, with the result that the young man inherited his love of country by natural consequence. His mother died while he was in infancy, and his early years were spent among relatives in New Hampshire and Ohio. As early as the winter of 1841-2 he had traveled as far west as Jefferson County, Iowa, and had heard of the party that intended leaving Independence in May or June, 1842, under the leadership of Dr. Elijah White. He endeavored to accompany the emigration, but arrived at the starting place too late, and was forced to abandon his trip for the time being. He spent most of the ensuing year in the employment of the Government as a carpenter in the construction of Fort Scott in Kansas, and was on hand at Independence early in May 1843, ready to become a member of the emigration that was to be led across the plains to Oregon by Dr. Marcus Whitman. At the time of the writing of this diary, James W. Nesmith was twenty-three years of age, and his education had been confined almost exclusively to the reading of a few books by standard authors—The editor is indebted to Mr. Lewis Ankeny McArthur for the preparation of the Nesmith journals for publication.]

Thursday, May 18, 1843.—The Oregon company met at the grove West of Fitzhugh's Mill on May 18, 1843. The meeting was organized by calling Mr. Layson to the chair, and Mr. Burnett secretary. It was moved and seconded that there be a committee of nine appointed to draft rules and regulations to govern the company. Resolved, that a committee of seven be appointed for the purpose of inspecting the outfits of the different individuals comprising the company.

Saturday, May 20.—After several days preparatory arrangements, we agreed to rendezvous at the spring near Fitzhugh's Grove.

Sunday, May 21.—Cooper's wagons, with some others, start out from the encampment in the morning. I go to Fitzhugh's Mill with Squire Burnett and others to see the committee and Captain Gantt, in order to ascertain what arrangements had been made to secure the captain's services as pilot. This day was fine and clear. Took a farewell look at the State of Missouri. We overtook the wagons at a grove of timber, south of the Santa Fe Trail, where we encamped for the night.

Monday, May 22.—Trailed to Elm Grove, distance about ten miles. Encamped at the grove, consisting of one old elm stump, which the Sante Fe traders had chipped and trimmed for the purpose of procuring wood to cook with.

Tuesday, May 23.—Traveled about ten miles on the trail, then turned to the right and encamped about one mile from the trail at some timber near a small creek, distance about twelve miles.

Wednesday, May 24.—Pursued our way towards Kansas River. Traveled about twelve miles. Let our wagons down the bank of the Rockariski [Wakarusa] River and encamped on the west side. On this evening, Captain Gantt, the pilot, came into camp. Weather fine.

Thursday, May 25.—Traveled about fifteen miles to a creek. Some of the wagons encamped on each side.

Friday, May 26,—Arrived at Kansas. Crossed the river on a platform made of two canoes. Encamped on the north-west side, at the landing. I swam the river several times with ease, and once assisted a young man named Wm. Vaughn to shore. Another man assisted me. His name was G. W. Stewart. Came near drowning myself in consequence of Vaughn's struggling with me in the water. Camped on Soldier Creek, two miles from Kansas Landing until we first organized and elected Peter Burnett captain and myself orderly sergeant.[2] Moved about five miles and encamped on the banks of the Kansas River, in a square. My duty required me to take the names of men for duty. They numbered 254. The number of wagons was 111.

Friday, June 9.—We moved from the wet encampment about two miles, and encamped about noon at a small grove of timber south of the trail. The weather cleared up about noon. We divided our company into four divisions and elected a captain and orderly sergeant for each. Sergeant Ford on guard.

Saturday, June 10,—Left the encampment about 8:00 o'clock. I went on with the advance guard. About 11:00 o'clock came up to where a dead Indian lay on the prairie, with his head cut off and his body much mutilated. Supposed to have been done by the late Kansas war party against the Pawnees. We picked up some arrows on the ground. Traveled about ten miles and encamped at a grove on the North side of the trail. All prairie to-day. The weather fine and the roads wet and soft. Sergeant Gilmore on guard.

Sunday, June 11.—Left camp about 8:00 o'clock. Weather fine. I traveled in advance with the pilot and advance guard. Time passed agreeably. Company moved on well, considering the soft condition of the ground. Passed the California wagons about 1:00 o'clock. Saw but little timber on the trail, but some in sight on the South side of Blue River, which we have been traveling up for four days, leaving the main fork from two to four miles on our left hand. Camped at night on the West side of Horse Creek, after a day's travel of fourteen miles. Rained in the evening. Had a great deal of difficulty crossing the creek, some of the company remaining on the opposite side all night.

Monday, June 12.—Left the encampment about 10:00 o'clock, this detainment occurred in consequence of some of the wagons being detained in crossing. I went on with the pioneers or advance guard. About 12:00 o'clock I discovered a buffalo on a ridge about two miles North of the trail. Captain Gantt, myself, and four others started in pursuit of him. He, in the meantime, came down in a hollow, either to drink or hide from us. When within about 200 yards, he discovered us, and after taking a most deliberate survey of our numbers, and seeming to weigh the chances like a general, he finally took to his heels, and we in hot pursuit. After running about half a mile, Captain Gantt came up and fired two pistols, which took effect in his fore shoulder. By this time I came up, and fired a rifle, the ball of which struck him in the small of the back and passed under his back bone, after which a Cherokee Indian fired a pistol and carbine. By this time he received seven balls, from pistols, principally, and I was ready with my rifle loaded for another shot, but Captain Gantt advised me not to fire, as he would soon die. He had now stopped, and soon began to reel, and fell. He proved to be one of the male kind, about eight years old. We soon flayed him, and packed our horses and started for the company, which we overtook in about five miles, all highly satisfied with our exploit. Trailed about ten miles and encamped at a small grove of timber South of the trail and one and a half miles North of Blue River. I have been more minute in describing this day's travel in consequence of its having been the first time buffalo have been seen on the tramp, and that merely by accident, as he was probably one who had wandered off from the rest of some drove, as he was the only one seen in the neighborhood, and very poor at that. I mounted as sergeant of the guard for the first time on the trip and had a pleasant night, and had the pleasure of being up to see it all.

Tuesday, June 13.—I left camp this morning with James Williams and Ed. Otey, all mounted on mules, and armed with four pistols, a rifle and a bowie knife each, for the purpose of taking a buffalo hunt. We came to Blue River, made a raft, on which we placed our saddles, blankets, guns, pistols, and clothes, then swam over by the raft, and went back and swam the mules. Packed up and took out on the prairie to the dividing ridge between the Republican fork of the Kansas and Blue River, traveled up the ridge about ten miles, and came onto Blue River and camped at night. Saw no buffalo. Saw five elk and one Indian. Williams shot at one of the elk and missed it. Mister Indian ran off like the devil, leading two horses and riding another.

Wednesday, June 14.—We went up the Blue River about two miles and swam over in the morning, and met the company about noon, when we learned, greatly to our astonishment, that we had killed two buffalo the day before. One man saw us shoot, and saw the buffalo fall, and got Mr. Burnett and went with him and their horses, and swam Blue River to get some of the meat, but, to their astonishment, they could find neither us nor the meat. So much for the camp story, the origin of which was that we had shot two loads out of our guns, which had been loaded some time. This man saw from the opposite side of the river and made up the buffalo. Camped at night with the company on the bank of Blue River, after traveling sixteen miles to-day, and ten yesterday. The night we hunters camped at Blue River, the company camped at Ash Creek.

Thursday, June 15.—Traveled about sixteen miles. Camped on the bank of Blue River. I traveled with the advance guard. I saw several antelope, one killed by a man of our company. Tonight the council assembled to settle some difficulty between John B. Howell and Elbridge Edson. Circumstances too numerous to mention. Weather fine, a little rain at night.

Friday, June 16.—I traveled with the advance guard. Men hunting in every direction, and killed but little game. Company traveled about eighteen miles and camped on the bank of Blue River. I mount guard. Weather fine and cool.

Saturday, June 17.—I traveled with the pilot and advance guard. Crossed some small creeks where the mountain road leaves the river. Camped at night, after traveling sixteen miles, at the last timber on Blue River. Weather in the forenoon, rainy; afternoon, clear and fine. Several Pawnees came into camp this evening for the first time. Mr. Applegate's company passed us in the evening. Sergeant Ford on guard.

Sunday, June 18.—Left the encampment on the waters of the Blue River, and took the upper road across the divide to the River Platte, distance about twenty miles; direction, about Northwest. Crossed several Pawnee trails, but not so numerous as some days previous. Struck up the Platte at Grand Island, not far from the head. River very high, appearance muddy, similar to that of the Missouri. Prairie to-day tolerably level and of a sandy quality. Passed no running water. Some ponds in the prairie. Passed no timber to-day, nor found any that could be got at the river.

Monday, June 19.—Started early in the morning, after passing a night without wood. Went about five miles and got breakfast. Encamped at night near the bank of the Platte, after traveling ten miles.

Tuesday, June 20.—This morning myself and twenty other men started ahead of the company with horses and mules to hunt and pack skins and buffalo meat to the crossing up the South Fork by the time the company should arrive at that point. Encamped at night at a small creek called Ash Creek.

Wednesday, June 21.—Traveled up the Platte River till evening. Killed a buffalo bull and calf, and two antelope, and suffered very much from a very hard, cold rain. Waded a slough and camped on the river bank among some willows. Lay in wet blankets on the wet sand. Extremely cold.

Thursday, June 22.—Trailed about sixteen miles and camped on the bank of the river. Plenty of good wood and water, and for that reason called it Camp Satisfaction, and the place where we camped the night before Camp Disagreeable.

Friday, June 23,—Found buffalo about 2:00 o'clock, and killed four, and encamped on the bank of a slough putting into the river. Tonight lived high, had fine times.

Saturday, June 24.—Laid by all day. I stopped in camp with Mr. Reading and three other men. Dried meat all day. The rest of the men hunted and packed in without much success. Tonight our hunters saw the company encamped four miles in our rear. I stood a tour of guard.

Sunday, June 25.—Nine of us pushed on to near the crossing and camped at night. The rest went to the company. Formed our camp where the bluffs first come to the river, about six or eight miles below the usual crossing place.

Monday, June 26.—The company came up and overtook us about noon at the crossing, but found the water so high that it was impossible to ford the river. Traveled about sixteen miles to-day and camped on the river bank. Burned buffalo wood, as we have done for the last four days. Applegate's company four miles in our rear. General McCarver left us to join the other company.

Tuesday, June 27.—Traveled about twelve miles. Camped on the bank. At noon five buffalos crossed the river and ran close to the wagons. The Invincibles turned out and kept up a running fire, like a military muster. Succeeded in killing three.

Wednesday, June 28.—I went ahead with the pilot. At noon we went out about six miles from the river. Saw several buffalo. Killed one old bull, too poor to eat. Brought in his tongue. Camped at night on the bank of the Platte, after traveling fifteen miles. Weather fine, no rain since the twenty-first of the month. Yesterday we experienced in the morning about 8:00 o'clock a very warm wind from the South and Southwest, which lasted about half an hour. Never experienced the like before. I am for guard to-night.

Thursday, June 29.—Spent some time in the morning attempting to find a fording place in the river, but was unsuccessful in the attempt. Started about 9:00 o'clock. Stopped to eat at 10:00 o'clock near a small pond in the prairie. The water in taste resembled a strong solution of salts, which rendered it unfit for use, in fact, all the water we have had except river water since we struck the Platte has been strongly impregnated with some mineral which is said to be salts and appears to have the effects of that medicine on the person who makes use of it. The ground in many places which are rather low is covered with a white substance which has a salty taste. Captain Gantt calls it sulphate of soda. Traveled to-day about ten miles and encamped at a grove consisting of some large cottonwood trees, where we intend crossing the river. Sergeant Ford to guard.

Friday, June 30.—Today laid at grove making arrangements preparatory to crossing. Killed several buffalo. Packed in the skins of eight that were killed last evening to make skin boats. Myself and some others had some sport with a buffalo bull which had two of his legs broken. Got him very mad by plaguing him and closed the scene by shooting him in the head. Camped in the timber at the same place we camped the night before, not moving our wagons. Sergeant Gilmore on guard.

Saturday, July 1.—Some stir in camp this morning in consequence of a sentinel's gun going off accidentally, which killed a mule belonging to James Williams, the bullet breaking the mule's neck. This is the most serious accident which has yet occurred from carelessness in the use of firearms, though, judging from the carelessness of the men, I have anticipated more serious accidents before this time, and if they do not occur, they will be avoided by great good luck, not by precaution. In the afternoon the company crossed several loads in wagon bodies, which they have covered with raw buffalo hides to prevent their leaking. Captain Applegate and Dr. Whitman came into camp this evening, their company being camped eight miles below this place. Mr. Stewart had the gratification of being presented with a daughter this evening. Weather cool and pleasant.

Sunday, July 2.—Wind cold and strong from Southwest. Our company commenced crossing tolerably early. Weather extremely cold and water still colder. Part of the company crossed the river, and the balance lay at Sleepy Grove. My time for guard to-night. Mr. Childs and Waldo joined us this evening, destination, California.

Monday, July 3.—Continued crossing the river. Two men arrived in our camp this evening from Applegate's company, to get our skin boats for their company to cross eight miles below this place. They bring us intelligence of one of their company being lost by the name of Bennett O'Neil. He had been out three days. They have made vigilant search which proved unsuccessful. An accident occurred to-day in our company. Mr. Kerritook, a half-blood Cherokee, went out in the hills in quest of game. In firing at an antelope, his rifle burst at the breech, and injured him severely, though not dangerously. Most of our company have crossed with their baggage, their wagons still remaining on the South side. I stopped all night on the South side with a small detachment of our company. Weather fine and cool.

Tuesday, July 4.—The glorious Fourth has once more rolled around. Myself, with most of our company, celebrated it by swimming and fording the South fork of the Big Platte, with cattle, wagons, baggage and so forth. All this at Sleepy Grove. However, there seems to be some of our company ruminating upon the luxuries destroyed in different parts of the great Republic on this day. Occasionally you hear something said about mint julips, soda, ice cream, cognac, porter, ale and sherry wine, but the Oregon emigrant must forget those luxuries and, for a time, submit to hard fare, and put up with truly cold-water celebrations, such as we have enjoyed to-day, namely, drinking cold water and wading and swimming in it all day. This ought to satisfy any cold-water man. If it won't, he must go on to a larger stream than the Big Platte.

Wednesday, July 5.—About twenty of us go down below camp in the evening, and haul some wagons out of the river which have been left there since yesterday. Company variously engaged, some bringing over their wagons, others packing their goods, preparatory to starting. Weather extremely warm and sultry.

Remarks—Sleepy Grove. In calculating the distance on our route, we find it 460 miles from Independence. This grove is the first timber of any consequence on the river above where we struck it. The grove consists of large cottonwoods and willows, situated under the bluff on the margin of the river, which is about half a mile wide at this place, and partakes very much of the character of the Missouri River, being full of floating sand, with quicksand beeches, the general direction varying a little from East and West. Finished crossing everything belonging to the company this evening without any serious disaster. After dark we took a little recreation on a sand beach, in the shape of a dance, having two good violin players with their instruments. But that part of the company which is generally most interesting on such occasions, happened to be absent from our party, viz: the ladies. This deficiency was not owing to there being none with the caravan, as we have several bright-eyed girls along, but we deemed it rather unnecessary to invite them to participate in our rough exercise of kicking sand.

Thursday, July 6.—The whole company went seven miles down the river to get timber. Encamped all night on the bank. Killed one buffalo. Childs and Waldo's company left us here and went on three miles further. Several wagons broke off from our company to join them, among the rest, Old Prairie Chicken. Nobody sorry. I mount guard as sergeant. Rained in the night.

Friday, July 7.—Crossed the divide between the two forks of the Platte, course about north, northwest. Traveled twenty-five miles. Camped on the north fork about two miles in the rear of Childs and Waldo. Several of our men lost this evening. A little rain in the night.

Saturday, July 8.—The company traveled up the north fork about eighteen miles. Myself and three others went back on the plains to hunt some lost men belonging to our company. Found them in about seven miles and overtook the company at noon. Roads in some places rather sandy. Saw no buffalo to-day except a few on the north side of the river.

Sunday, July 9.—Traveled about fifteen miles, and camped on the bank of the river. Came in sight of the Chimney about noon. Childs and Waldo's company still ahead. I mount sergeant of the guard and have some sport. Gave two members of the old guard a tour by way of punishment for sleeping on post the night before. Found one of my men sleeping at post and took his gun away from him.

Monday, July 10.—Childs and Waldo out of sight ahead. I go on with a party to look at the Chimney. Eight or ten of us ascend to the top of the mound from whence the shaft or column of clay and sand ascends about 150 feet above the mound, which is about 200 feet high, making 350 feet above the level of the plains, and one of the greatest curiosities I have ever seen in the West, and can be seen distinctly thirty miles on the plains. The shaft is about twenty-five feet in diameter, and at a distance of thirty miles, resembles the trunk of a tree standing erect. There are also many other mounds and high clay bluffs in the neighborhood of the Chimney. We camped at night in the bank of the Platte about nine miles from the Chimney. Its appearance from here resembles a funnel reversed. Traveled sixteen miles today.

Tuesday, July 11.—Company left the Platte this morning and turned to the left in order to avoid some high bluffs on the river. Mr. Reading and myself left the trail and kept between it and the river, in order to examine the curiosities in the hills. Passed some very high bluffs, one of which we named the Betzar, in consequence of its resembling a building of that name in Cincinnati. We went down some very deep ravines, some of which were fifty feet, with perpendicular banks, in some places only wide enough for a mule to pass. We killed one badger and shot at two buffalo. We struck the company at 4:00 o'clock and camped on a small creek in the prairie, about four miles from the river. At this place we got a view of the Black Hills, 100 miles distant. Company today traveled twenty miles. Weather warm.

Wednesday, July 12.—Sold a gun at camp this morning, belonging to Isaac Williams, for having gone to sleep on post last night. In traveling ten miles we struck a sandy creek, and the river in four miles after. Camped on the bank of the river, under some high, sandy and clay bluffs, after traveling sixteen miles. I mounted sergeant of the guard.

Thursday, July 13.—Traveled about twelve miles. Passed an old fort about 2:00 o'clock on the banks of the river. The ground we have traveled over to-day seems to partake of a more undulating character. This evening our advance guard returned over the hills bringing information that there was an Indian village about two miles in advance, probably Sioux. We deemed it expedient to turn over to the right and encamp on the river, rather than camp in the neighborhood of the village. The boys seemed to be busily engaged in scouring up their old rifles and making other arrangements preparatory for Indian fighting, although we anticipate no danger.

Friday, July 14.—Arrived at Fort Laramie about 10:00 o'clock where we found Childs and Applegate's company. Found Laramie Ford very high, and the company was engaged all the afternoon and all night in ferrying. The boys at Fort Platte gave us a ball in the evening, where we received hospitable treatment.

Saturday, July 15.—The company finished crossing this morning. We lay here to-day making some arrangements for starting. Saw some of the Sioux Indians who had come in from the recent fight with the Pawnees on the forks of the Platte, where they killed thirty—six, six or seven only escaping. I swapped guns twice to-day and got the worst of the bargain.

Sunday, July 16.—The company got under way this morning, traveling out to the big spring on Sand Creek, about eight miles, in company with Childs. Camped together, Applegate's company having gone ahead. We camped at the spring all night. Ford on guard.

Monday, July 17.—Traveled about sixteen miles, country very rough and hills very high. Camped at night between the two canyons of the Platte.

Tuesday, July 18.—Childs' company traveled ahead. Stopped at noon, just below a canyon on the Platte. Camped at night at a dry creek with a great deal of cottonwood. Traveled fifteen miles. Made camp in the point between the Platte and the cottonwoods. Very high bluffs on the opposite side.

Wednesday, July 19.—Country very rough, it being the worst part of the Black Hills. Passed some red bluffs, and in some places red pulverized earth, resembling vermillion, covered the ground. Traveled about twenty miles. Camped on Big Rock Creek, having passed Deer Creek during the day. Ford on guard. An alarm at night originated in some very smart young men firing their guns near the camp after dark, and for so doing were put under guard by order of Colonel Martin. They raised a row with the guard, and like to have made a serious matter of it, and as it was, they cocked their rifles and threatened to shoot.

Thursday, July 20.—I came on ahead with Captain Gantt and an advance guard, passed over some very rough road, and at noon came up to a fresh grave with stones piled over it, and a note tied on a stick, informing us that it was the grave of Joel Hembree, child of Joel J. Hembree, aged six years, and was killed by a wagon running over its body. At the head of the grave stood a stone containing the name of the child, the first death that has occurred on the expedition. The grave is on the left hand side of the trail, close to Squaw Butte Creek.[3] After crossing the creek we came to a party of mountaineers from the Black's Fork of Green River. They had stopped for dinner. Had several pack horses packed with furs belonging to Mr. Vasques, who treated us very hospitably. We found with Mr. Vasques and his party, two men returning from Oregon, very bad account of that country. They also had letters, to some of our company, which differed very much from their verbal account. We traveled to-day about twelve miles. Childs' company of five wagons left our company and went on to the crossing of North Fork.

Friday, July 21.—Left Squaw Butte Creek, traveled fifteen miles and camped on the Platte. I mount as sergeant of the guard.

Saturday, July 22.—Trailed six miles and camped on the Platte about noon, and endeavored to find a ford. Several men sick in camp, afflicted with a kind of fever. The company discontented and strong symptoms of mutiny. Some anxious to travel faster, some slower, some want to cross the river here, some want to go ahead, and others want to go any way but the right way. This will always be the difficulty with heterogeneous masses of emigrants crossing these plains. While every man's will is his law, and lets him act or do as he pleases, he will always find friends to support him. In order to obviate this difficulty and maintain good order in large companies, the presence of military force, and a declaration of martial law is highly necessary. Then emigrants will travel in peace, harmony and good order. They have the elements of their own destruction within themselves.

Sunday, July 23.—This is my birthday, being twenty-three years of age, and upwards of 3,000 miles West of the place of my birth. The company got under way. Edwin Otey and myself struck out toward a large mountain South in quest of game. I shot an antelope and returned to the company about noon. Found them nooning on the ground near the ford, where Applegate's company had crossed the river the evening previous. We came in sight of them about 3:00 o'clock crossing a high ridge at right angles with the river. Two men from Childs' company met us this evening, informing us that they were all across the north fork, about ten miles ahead, but could not find Sir William Stewart's gum elastic boat, as they had directions they would find it in the fork of a tree. Elected five councilmen. Traveled twelve miles. Camped on a small creek about a mile from the Platte. Sergeant Gilmore for guard.

Monday, July 24.—Got up to the crossing about noon. Applegate's company on the opposite side. Drove across in the afternoon without difficulty. Camped at night on the banks of the Platte. Traveled six miles. I mount guard.

Tuesday, July 25.—Left the Platte, struck across to Sweet Water, trailed about eighteen miles and camped on a salt creek.

Wednesday, July 26.—Company started on a buffalo hunt under the direction of Captain Gantt. Saw a great many buffalo. Captain Gantt got mad and all separated. I killed a buffalo. Overtook the company at night, they having trailed eighteen miles. Company camped on a beautiful creek seven miles from Sweet Water.

Thursday, July 27.—Six of us started on a buffalo hunt this morning, crossing a mountain, killed three cows and several bulls. Camped out all night; lay without blankets or coats in the rain. Company consisted of Edwin and Morris, Otey, Chimp, Jackson, Howell and myself. Saw a great many buffalo and had a severe night without sleeping. Company traveled eight miles.

Friday, July 28.—Looked around camp this morning; found the buffalo all traveling. Probably got wind of the caravan. Started for the company about 8:00 o'clock in a very cold rain. Howell took sick and threw away his meat. Got up to our wagons in the evening. They lay at Independence Rock, our company having split. Colonel Martin, with most of the wagons, has gone ahead. Our wagon and some others of his company fell in with some deserters from Applegate's company, making in all nineteen wagons. All the rest of the company ahead. Applegate's camp on Sweet Water at the rock, and our company just below. The Oregon emigrating company has been strangely divided, and no doubt the dividend will be again divided. The materials it is formed of can not be controlled.

Saturday, July 29.—Applegate's company leaves the rock this morning. Our little company remains at its first camp. Captain Cooper assumes command of the company. We spend the day in drying meat, cleaning up our wet firearms, making moccasins, etc. Several of our men are out hunting; others came in this evening, and report that the buffalo are all on the move in the direction of the Yellowstone River. Some hunters arrive at our camp to-night, who belong to the other company, bringing but little meat. I mount guard as private tonight for the first time on the trip.

Sunday, July 30.—Most beautiful morning, the weather calm and serene. After breakfast, myself, with some other young men, had the pleasure of waiting on five or six young ladies to pay a visit to Independence Rock. I had the satisfaction of putting the names of Miss Mary Zachary and Miss Jane Mills on the Southeast point of the rock, near the road, on a high point. Facing the road, in all the splendor of gunpowder, tar and buffalo greese, may be seen the name of J. W. Nesmith, from Maine, with an anchor. Above it on the rock may be found the names of trappers, emigrants, and gentlemen of amusement, some of which have been written these ten years. The rock is an unshappen pile, about half a mile long, and half that breadth, and 100 feet high, and is accessible at three or four places. The composition of the rock I am unable to give geologically, but its appearance is a flinty, gray substance, mixed with limestone and very hard. Sweet Water River runs by the foot of it about fifty yards distant, and a great many high mountains and peaks are in the neighborhood. The distance from Sweet Water to Platte by road is about forty-three miles. Wood and water scarce. Plenty of salt water and mountain sage and chamisso,[4] which answers as a substitute for wood. In fact, salt lakes and salt springs may be found all through this country.

Monday, July 31.—Left the encampment near Independence Rock about 11:00 o'clock. Came up to Martin's company about 2:00 o'clock, and found some very sick men in the company. Among the rest were Mr. Payne and Stevenson. The latter seemed very dangerous of fever, and flighty, uttering incoherent sentences. His situation excited my sympathy, to see a fine, stout young man reduced to a wreck by disease, far from his home and friends. I took a parting look, never expecting to behold him again. We went three miles beyond Martin's company and camped, trailed seven miles. We have in company thirteen wagons and thirty-one men, a small band, indeed, but all seemed determined to go on through. We camped on Sweet Water, with a high range of mountains on the right, or Northwest, the mountains composed principally of solid rock. Applegate and Childs ahead. Old Zachary, a man fond of rows, has been excluded from Martin's company for defrauding a young man by the name of Matney out of his provisions, and throwing him off in the wilderness. The old rogue, with the two Oteys, is encamped about a mile ahead alone; a small camp, but a big rascal. Visited the Canyon of the Sweet Water. The cut is in a rock about eight feet wide and 200 feet high.

Tuesday, August 1.—Traveled twenty miles. I went hunting with three others, killed a bull. Vasques and Walker's mountain party came up with us. We all camped close to Child's company at Sweet Water under a point of mountain. Twenty miles.

Wednesday, August 2.—Childs and Walker left us this morning, turning to the left for the purpose of curing meat. I went out with Captain Applegate and Dr. Whitman and took dinner at their encampment, on a sand creek, where they had killed seven cows the evening previous. All hands considerably alarmed about Indians, fearing an attack from the Cheyennes and Sioux, who are said to be in camp in great numbers forty miles South on the Platte. I returned to our camp and found them encamped on Sweet Water, having trailed seven miles today. Martin's company close in the rear. Came in sight of a high range of mountains with snow on them, said to be the Mountains of Wind River. Martin's company passed us and encamped a mile and a half ahead.

Thursday, August 3.—Made an early start; passed Martin's company in corral. Left Sweet Water to the right and made a cut-off of the bend. Traveled eighteen miles before we struck the river; found only a little water in one place, which was strongly impregnated with sulphur. The country presents a barren aspect, very sandy, and covered with sage. Mountains in every direction in sight. Encamped at night where we struck the river. Trailed twenty miles. Martin's company camped on the river 200 yards below our encampment. I mount guard; fourth relief.

Friday, August 4.—Mr. Payne, a man in Martin's company, died this morning at 3:00 o'clock. He suffered severely, being unwell since we left Fort Laramie. Died of inflamation of the bowels, leaving a wife and four small children. He was decently interred on a rise of ground at the left of the road. Myself, with four others, went hunting and killed no game. About 2:00 o'clock in the afternoon we heard a loud, sharp report, seeming to be in the air directly above us, and resembling the report of a piece of heavy artillery. After the first report, there was a loud rumbling sound overhead. I never heard the like before, though such reports are said to be frequent in the mountains. At the time of hearing the noise, there were no clouds to be seen of any size. We came up to our company encamped on Sweet Water, in the evening, having traveled ten miles.

Saturday, August 5.—Traveled fifteen miles over very rough road. Several of us went hunting, killed one antelope, one groundhog and five sage hens. Crossed several small branches of good water. High mountains in sight. Nights very cold; middle of the day very warm. Trailed eighteen miles. Distance to Fort Laramie, 231 miles.

Sunday, August 6.—Traveled twelve miles. Passed Applegate's company and encamped on Sweet Water. Wind River Mountains in sight.

Monday, August 7.—Left Sweet Water this morning, it being the last water of the Atlantic that we see. Traveled six miles and nooned at the spring. In the afternoon, struck out across the twenty-mile barren, without wood, water or grass. Stopped half way, having traveled sixteen miles. Crossed the Divide August 7.

Tuesday, August 8.—After a considerable delay, in consequence of the cattle wandering off in quest of food, we gathered up and left camp about 9:00 o'clock. Traveled until about 2:00 o'clock a. m., across a plain of sand and sage, and encamped on Sandy, a small tributary of the Colorado. We now consider ourselves in Oregon Territory, and we consider this part of it a poor sample of the El Dorado. We encamped on Sandy, Applegate's and Martin's company having gone ahead. Traveled ten miles.

Wednesday, August 9.—I started on ahead to go to Fort Bridger, but stopped at Ham's Fork, and most of our company and men arrived at Fort Bridger, on Black's Ford, Monday, August 14.

Tuesday, August 15.—Cooper puts up his tools and does some work for the company. I will here remark, as I have not kept the separate day's travel and distances, that from Little Sandy to here the distance is sixty miles. On these days which I have neglected journalizing, there was nothing of importance occurred, except the death of Mr. Stevenson, which took place on August 9. He was buried on the banks of Big Sandy.

Wednesday, August 16.—Remained all day at the fort. Cooper trades large wagon and blacksmith's tools for a smaller one. A child of Mr. Carey's died yesterday and was buried this morning.

Tuesday, August 17.—Left the fort this morning, all the rest of the wagons having previously started. We struck out for Muddy Creek, where we arrived about noon, and proceeded up the creek about eight miles, making, in all, twenty miles travel today. This is the most barren country I have seen yet, as it is entirely destitute of grass, excepting occasionally a very little along the creek. In the evening, as we attempted to cross Muddy, our large wagon capsized, throwing all the loading into the water and wet all our clothing, blankets also. Our flour we saved without any material injury. After an hour's wading in water and mud waist deep, we succeeded in getting everything out, excepting the coupling pole broke. We replaced it with a new one after dark. Traveled twenty miles.

Friday, August 18.—Traveled twelve miles; overtook Waldo's company on the head of Muddy Creek.

Saturday, August 19.—Left the head of Muddy this morning. Crossed a large mountain. Found some of the cattle absent; myself and Major Hall went back in quest of them, but we ascertained at Stoughton's camp that they were driven ahead. We rode until midnight over very rough road before we overtook the company. Traveled fifteen miles.

Sunday, August 20.—Struck Bear River about noon, and traveled down it about ten miles over a fine level bottom. Course, Northwest. Traveled about twenty miles.

Monday, August 21.—Traveled twenty miles down Bear River and camped on the bank. Upset McHaley's wagon in Bear River.

Tuesday, August 22.—Seven wagons of us left camp this morning, leaving McHaley and Applegate to lay by. We leave the river and cross over a high mountain about three miles and come to the river at night. Traveled fifteen miles. Encamped on the river; caught some fine, large trout and chubs. Traveled eighteen miles.

Wednesday, August 23.—Lieutenant Freemont, of the U. S. Topographical Engineers, with his party, overtook us this morning. Myself and Mr. Otey go on ahead to get an ox of ours in the other company. Came up to a village of Snake Indians at noon. Did some trading. I bought a black horse. Camped on a small creek three miles from Bear River. Traveled fifteen miles.

Thursday, August 24.—Passed the Soda Springs about 2:00 o'clock. Camped on Bear River at a place where our trail leaves it. Trailed eighteen miles.

Friday, August 25.—Leave Bear River; traveled twenty miles over to a creek running into the Snake River, by the name of Portneuf. Saw to-day signs of volcanic eruptions. They appear to be numerous all along Bear River. The stones which lay about large sinks in the ground, have the appearance of melted clay, and ring like earthenware. Their appearance is very singular. However, the greatest curiosity in this part of the country are the soda springs, which boil up in level ground and sink again. They are quite numerous and have exactly the taste of soda water without the syrup. The springs are continually sparkling and foaming. Camped on Portneuf.

Saturday, August 26.—Trailed sixteen miles; camped at some springs. Kit Carson, of Freemont's company, camped with us, on his return from Fort Hall, having been on express.

Sunday, August 27.—Trailed twenty miles and camped to the left of the trail, near where we strike off for Snake River. Most of the country is very rough that we have passed to-day.

Monday, August 28.—Trailed twelve miles to—day and arrived at Fort Hall, Where we remained until Friday, September 1. Here the company had considerable trading with Grant, manager here for the Hudson's Bay Company. He sells at an exhorbitant price; flour, 25 cents per pint; sugar, 50; coffee, 50; rice, 33⅓. Part of the company went on with pack animals, leaving their wagons. Nothing of importance occurred, with the exception of a Mr. Richardson dying. Was buried August 31 at Fort Hall.

Friday, September 1.—Got under way this morning. Weather very cold and rainy, as it has been for the three days. Trailed down Snake River fifteen miles. Passed some fine mill sites. Camped on Snake River.

Saturday, September 2.—Road very rough to-day. Broke our wagon tongue. Trailed eighteen miles. Camped on a small branch about six miles from the river.

Sunday, September 3.—This morning, Jackson, Cooper's teamster, left and joined Zachary's mess. Trailed sixteen miles without wood, water or grass. Camped on a small branch with excellent grass.

Monday, September 4.—Got an early start this morning. Traveled ten miles to the river. Nooned on the river. Traveled down it and camped on the bank, making twenty miles to-day. The river here assumes a broad, placid, and beautiful appearance, the water being very clear, unlike any of the rivers in the Western states.

Tuesday, September 5.—Traveled twelve miles. Encamped on the bank of a creek, with but little water, and that in holes. Stopped about 2:00 o'clock and lay by in the afternoon, as it was raining. Two lodges of Nez Perees Indians, returning to Walla Walla from Fort Hall.

Wednesday, September 6.—Trailed eight miles and struck Rock Creek. Trailed eight down it. Encamped in the canyon at the crossing, making sixteen miles trailed. Rainy in the evening.

Thursday, September 7.—Left the canyon in the morning and traveled twenty miles over a country destitute of grass. Struck the river ten miles above the Salmon Falls. Encamped for the night. Trailed twenty miles.

Friday, September 8.—Trailed down five miles. Encamped on a creek with good grass. I went down to the falls and purchased some fine salmon. Had a fight in camp this evening. Old Zachary stabbed Mr. Wheeler with his knife.

Saturday, September 9.—Passed the falls and trailed twenty miles. Encamped on a big bluff without grass. White's ox fell down the bluff and broke his neck.

Sunday, September 10.—I took a trip down the river this morning in quest of animals. Overtook the wagons in two miles. Traveled eight miles. Encamped on an island in the river.

Monday, September 11.—Crossed the river this morning without difficulty. Trailed four miles. Encamped on a dry branch, water in holes.

Tuesday, September 12.—We were detained in camp this morning until 12:00 o'clock in consequence of an ox running off. Trailed five miles in the afternoon. Encamped on a small creek. Grass tolerable.

Wednesday, September 13.—Trailed fifteen miles. Passed the Hot Spring about noon. Water almost boiling. Camped on a small branch.

Thursday, September 14.—Traveled eight miles and lay by at a small creek in the afternoon. Weather fine.

Friday, September 15.—Lost my horse this morning, and trailed a-foot all day. Found my horse at camp, Cooper having brought him on and left me to walk all day. We traveled twenty miles. Country very rough. Camped on a small branch, eight miles West of the deep hole spring.

Saturday, September 16.—Trailed eighteen miles today, the country not quite so rough as we have had. Very little stone or sage. Encamped at night on Boise River.

Sunday, September 17.—Trailed down Boise on the South side. Traveled sixteen miles. Encamped on the bank of the river. Indians in camp this evening. We have seen them for the last four or five days. Every day they come to sell us dried salmon, and present a poor, squalid appearance, besides being d—d lousey.

Monday, September 18.—Tra11ed ten miles down the river and crossed. Trailed three miles down the North side and encamped early, making thirteen miles trailed to-day. Find the grass tolerably good on Boise River.

Tuesday, September 19.—Haggard and myself went to Fort Boise ahead of the wagons; distance ten miles. The wagons arrived in the afternoon. The wind blowing very hard from the Northwest, we found it impossible to ford the river, as the swells rolled very high. Encamped for the night just below the fort. Visited Monsieur Payette, the commandant; found him a very agreeable old French gentleman, and has been in this country, in the fur trade, since 1810, having left New York in that year and came around by sea to the mouth of the Columbia, in the employment of Mr. Astor. We spent a pleasant evening in his company and had a dance.

Wednesday, September 20.—Crossed the river this afternoon without any difficulty, water being about four feet six inches deep. Encamped on the south side of the river.

Thursday, September 21.—Left the river this morning. Traveled twelve miles and encamped on a creek called Malheur. Warm spring on the bank.

Friday, September 22.—Trailed seventeen miles and encamped on a small stream. Country very rough.

Saturday, September 23.—Trailed five miles and struck Snake River; said to be the last sight we get of it. Trailed four miles and struck Burnt River, making nine miles. Killed a beef in the evening. Provisions getting scarce.

Sunday, September 24.—Trailed ten miles over the roughest country I ever saw, Burnt River being hemmed in by hills on both sides. Encamped in the bottom.

Monday, September 25.—Trailed eight miles. Passed the forks of Burnt River. The roads rough and the country rougher still. Encamped near the head of the left hand fork of Burnt River. In the forenoon passed a fine grove of large timber, principally Balm of Gilead, close by a patch of fine black haws, which we devoured most voraciously.

Tuesday, September 26.—Trailed ten miles. Passed another fork of Burnt River, with an Indian village close by. Encamped at a place where the trail leaves Burnt River near the spring.

Wednesday, September 27.—Looney's wagon turned over this morning soon after leaving camp. We crossed the divide and encamped at the lone pine tree. Trailed twelve miles. Snow, that fell the night before last on the mountains, in sight all day. Weather drizzly and rainy.

Thursday, September 28.—Left the pine tree this morning. Trailed fourteen miles. Encamped on the third fork of Powder River. Had a fine view of the snow-topped mountains through the clouds. Raining below them.

Friday, September 29.—Trailed sixteen miles and encamped in Grande Ronde, a beautiful bottom prairie about six miles across and surrounded by mountains capped with snow. Had some difficulty in entering the Ronde in consequence of the big hill which it was necessary for us to descend. Soil today assumed a more fertile appearance than any I have seen west of the mountains, in some places covered with beautiful green grass, giving it the appearance of spring.

Saturday, September 30.—Trailed six miles across Grande Ronde. Encamped at the foot of the mountains, and lay by in the afternoon.

Sunday, October 1.—Started over the mountain's. Trailed twelve miles and encamped on a small dry creek in a deep ravine. To-day E. Otey and myself went hunting. Had a beautiful prospect of the Grande Ronde from the top of the mountains. Found the mountains covered with evergreen trees which remind me of the scenes of my childhood. They consist of pine, spruce, hemlock, fir, and tamarack or juniper. Mrs. Rubey died at Grande Ronde, and was buried October 1.

Monday, October 2.—Trailed twelve miles to-day over bad roads, in many places timber to be cut. I went in advance and cut timber all day. Encamped at night on a small stream of good water.

Tuesday, October 3.—Had some difficulty this morning in finding our oxen, some of them having lain down in the pine thickets. Started about ten o'clock. Trailed about three miles. Crossed a very bad ravine and encamped on the west side of it. Weather since we left Grande Ronde fine, warm and mild. Nights rather cool.

Wednesday, October 4.—Weather stormy; rain and hail. We got under way and traveled twelve miles down the west side of the Blue Mountains, when we struck the Umatilla River. Went three miles down it, and encamped near some Cayuse lodges. Cooper had the fore axletree of his wagon broken off this evening by two Indian bulls charging on the team, and causing them to run around. McDaniel, the driver, shot at one of them with a pistol, wounding him in the mouth.

Thursday, October 5.—Delayed some time in camp this morning in hunting cattle and horses, many of the later having wandered off and the Indian horses being so numerous made it difficult for us to find our own. Started about noon on the trail for Dr. Whitman's. Traveled eight miles and encamped for the night. Sticcas, a very friendly Indian who piloted us across the Blue Mountains, accompanied us to-day and camped with us tonight.

Friday, October 6.—This morning I joined with Otey and Haggard and went on with the carriages to Dr. Whitman's, where we arrived about two o'clock. We purchased one bushel of potatoes and a peck of corn, they having no flour. Traveled on four miles toward Walla Walla. Encamped before night close to the creek, making twenty miles to-day. Weather rainy and misty until evening, when the sun came out.

Saturday, October 7.—Left camp early this morning and followed down the Walla Walla until 3 o'clock, when we encamped for the night. I purchased some roots to-day from . an Indian, which they call kamash. It is a small root of oval form and of a dark color, has a very sweet taste. The Indians made bread of it, which is very palatable. A few Cayuse Indians encamped close by us, of whom we purchased some corn and potatoes, and they in return, stole a tin cup from us. They possess great faculties for business of this sort.

Sunday, October 8.—Left our Cayuse neighbors this morning in good season and started for Fort Walla Walla, where we arrived in three hours. It is situated at the mouth of the Walla Walla River, from which it takes its name. It commands a view of the Columbia River, otherways the prospect is dreary. Above and below are high bluffs, while near to the fort are sand banks not possessing fertility enough to sprout a pea, and in fact this is too much the case with all the far-famed Walla Walla Valley. There are some spots of good soil immediately on the streams, but from Dr. Whitman's to the fort, a distance of twenty-four miles, there is no timber except a little cottonwood, or a species of Balm of Gilead, and at the fort there is not a tree in sight on either side of the Columbia River. If this is a fair specimen of Oregon, it falls far below the conceptions which I formed of the country. At the fort we could procure no eatables. Could only get a little tobacco, and Mr. McKinley, the manager, was loth to part with that, in consequence of its being the Sabbath. The whole country looks poverty stricken. We went two miles below the fort, where we found a little grass and encamped there for the purpose of waiting until Monday to trade.

Monday, October 9.—This morning E. Otey and myself visited the fort. Bought some tobacco and corn and other small articles. Mr. McKinley visited our camp in the afternoon and we traded him the wagon and harness for a horse, concluding to pack from here on. Made some pack rigs today, and made arrangements for packing. Two Indians camped with us all night. Weather fine.

Tuesday, October 10.—Took the wagon to the fort this morning and got the horse which we traded for yesterday. Otey and myself made two pack-saddles. Several Indians encamped with us nearly all day, and one young fellow who camped with us last night seems to be inclined to remain, as he is yet in camp. Says he is going to the Methodist Mission, which is 120 miles on our route. Our camp is quite a picturesque place. Immediately under the high bluff of the far-famed Columbia, about one-half mile above are two rocks rising 100 feet above the level of the river. They are separated by a small space, and are nearly round, presenting the appearance of two towers. Mr. McKinley informed me that the Indians looked upon them with a great deal of veneration, and say that they are two Indian damsels, petrified. I must confess that their appearance does not correspond very well with the tradition. Some wagons arrive from Dr. Whitman's this evening. Night quite cool.

Wednesday, October 11.—Mr. Haggard went to the fort this morning to do some trading. After he returned, we packed all our effects on two mules and started about eight o'clock. Travel leisurely until evening down the river a distance of twelve miles. The river varies from one-half to one mile in width, has bars in the middle frequently; the water is quite clear and beautiful. High bluffs on both sides, not a tree in sight all day. Found a little green grass where we encamped at night, near Windmill Rock. Our trail leads immediately under the bluffs. Our Indian still remains with us.

Thursday, October 12.—Started in good season, traveled all day over a poor, sandy country. Not a tree in sight all day. Met Mr. McDonald and a small party from Fort Vancouver on his way to Fort Hall. He advises us to be on our guard for the Indians, as there are only three of us, and they are very saucy, having three days ago robbed five men of all they had, at the same time drawing their bows and arrows. and threatening to use them if the men did not give up the property. We traveled at least twenty-five miles to-day and camped a little before sunset, with but little grass for our jaded animals. Our Indian companion, Yeuemah, left us to-day, crossing the river. We passed some rocky rapids to-day in several places, but at our camp the river is beautiful, broad, clear, and placid, but the barrenness of the surrounding country affords but a dreary prospect to a man from the Western States. Were the banks of this noble river studded with fine timber and bordered with anything like good soil, its beauty would be unsurpassed. Weather fine.

Friday, October 13.—Packed up and started about eight o'clock. Traveled down the river over sandy plains. The surrounding country still retains an arid, barren appearance, without timber or grass, but the river in itself is most beautiful. Weather fine. Warm. days and cool, moonlight nights. Traveled about twenty miles. Camped early in a little ravine, where there is good grass, and is entirely surrounded by willows, in a quiet retired place, hoping that the Indians will not find us, as their company is anything but agreeable.

Saturday, October 14.—As we anticipated last night, we had an agreeable night's rest in consequence of the Indians not finding us. Started early and traveled until late, probably twenty-five miles, which is a hard day's ride over this country of sand and stone. A Cayuse Indian brought us some salmon which we purchased, giving him in return some powder and ball. Weather fine.

Sunday, October 15.—This morning our Indian paid us another visit. We gave him some breakfast, over which, to our astonishment, he asked a blessing in his own tongue. Today we traveled leisurely, crossed a small stream, and passed over some very rugged road, the pack trail in some places going along on the steep and almost perpendicular side of the bluffs 100 feet above the Columbia, and the rock rising 100 feet almost hanging over the trail. In fact, it was rather disagreeable riding along in some places to look down. In event of your horse making a mis-step, himself and rider would be thrown down an awful precipice and buried in the gulf below. Such leaps might suit Sam Patch, but the thought of them is enough for me. We found some good grass and camped early. Traveled about sixteen miles. The river maintains its beauty, in some places interrupted by high rocks rising in its center and strong rapids. Saw a few scrubby trees today. Weather beautifully mild and pleasant.

Monday, October 16.—In four miles' travel we the Deschutes River. Hired two Indians to conduct us across the ford, which we crossed without difficulty. Just below we passed the Dalles, quite a waterfall on the Columbia. Arrived at the Methodist Mission in the evening.

Tuesday, October 17.—Remained at the Mission all day. Otey and I looked for canoe timber. Weather drizzly.

Wednesday, October 18.—Ground some wheat in the evening. Some five or six arrived from above. I swapped my horse for a Chinook canoe.

Thursday, October 19.—Made some arrangements and started about two o'clock with an Indian pilot. Went five miles and camped. Weather fine.

Friday, October 20.—Paddled down the river all day; scenery wild and romantic. Encamped at night on the north side of the river with some Indians.

Saturday, October 21.—Made an early start with two Indian canoes in company. Arrived at the Cascades about ten o'clock. Spent the balance of the day in making the portage. On each side of the river at the Cascades are high mountains covered with dead timber, killed by a fire.

Sunday, October 22.—Got breakfast and started in good season with our pilot and another young Indian. They ran the rapids, which were rough in consequence of wind, and we walked around. Pulled down the river about eight miles and were obliged to encamp in consequence of headwind, which made rather too much swell for our canoe to ride in safety. We encamped on the north side of the river. The boys killed two pheasants. Weather fine and pleasant.

Monday, October 23.—The wind high this morning from the Southeast. Hoisted a sail on our canoe. We all got out to walk around a point while the Indians should run the canoe through, which they did and landed. The other boys missed the trail and kept back in the bluffs. I came to the canoe and waited for them until nearly sundown. Passed off the time in reading Shakespeare's "Merry Wives of Windsor." The wind continued high. I started at an hour by the sun and ran until some time after dark, when I discovered a fire on the north bank of the river, which the Indians said was "Boston fire," meaning white men. I ran for the fire and fired my pistols, which were soon answered by those at the fire. Upon coming up, I found them to be McDaniel, Haggard, and Otey, who had missed the trail in the morning, and having walked twenty miles, concluded to wait for the canoe.

Tuesday, October 24.—Arrived at the Hudson Bay Company's mill about seven miles above the fort, at twelve o'clock, where we met Waters, Tharp and Marten and Smith, taking up a barge to bring the families down from the Mission. Left the mill and soon arrived at Fort Vancouver, where we found the brigs, Vancouver and Columbia, and also one schooner. We were kindly treated by Dr. McLaughlin, in charge of the fort. Gave us a good dinner and showed us other courtesies. We passed down one mile below the fort and camped for the night.

Wednesday, October 25.—Took the wrong track. Encamped a little above the mouth of the Willamette.

Thursday, October 26.—Met the schooner Pallas. Camped on the north side of the Willamette.

Friday, October 27.—Arrived at Oregon City at the falls of the Willamette.

Saturday, October 28.—Went to work.

  1. For further information concerning the emigration of 1843, see articles which have been published in The Quarterly as follows: "The Oregon Trail," with map, December, 1900; "A Day with the Cow Column in 1843," December, 1900; "Document," December, 1900, page 898; "Documentary," June, 1901, page 187; "Documents," June, 1902, page 890; "Documents," June, 1903, page 168; "Recollections of an Old Pioneer," March, 1904, page 64; "Recollections of an Oregon Pioneer of 1843," March, 1906, page 56; "Route Across the Rocky Mountains," March, 1906, page 62.
  2. In his "Recollections of an Old Pioneer," published in The Quarterly for March, 1904, Mr. Peter H. Burnett gives the date of this election as being June 1. Reference to page 68 of the March, 1904, Quarterly will also furnish a short account of the happenings on the days omitted by Mr. Nesmith.
  3. Cf. Quarterly for December, 1900, page 402.
  4. Chamisso: A small evergreen shrub, of the genus Adenostoma, natural order Rossaceae, bearing clusters of small awl-shapped leaves, and a small white flower. In California, two species of the plant cover much of the dry area with a dense undergrowth, and are called locally chamisal. The plants ordinarily grow in scattered clumps, and are from four to eight feet high.