Oregon and Washington Volunteers/27
[Joint resolution of the legislative assembly of Oregon, with the report of the committee on military affairs pertaining thereto, relative to the service of Captain Jesse Walker’s company of mounted volunteers, adopted February 3, 1858.]
Your committee, to whom were referred the governor’s message and resolution No.—, relative to the protection of immigrants in 1854, with instructions to report, as far as practicable, the number, date, places, and names of persons killed by Oregon Indians and their allies in times of peace, and those killed in times of war by Indians supposed to be friendly, submit the following report:
The deadly hostility of the Indians inhabiting the extreme northern and southern portions of our Territory may be traced back to a very early period. As far back as 1834, a party of about thirty persons, under the control of Captain Smith, were massacred near the mouth of the Umpqua river.
In June, 1835, George Gay, Daniel Miller, Edward Barnes, Dr. Bailey, Mr. Sanders, John Turner, John Woodworth, and an Irishman called Tom, were attacked by Rogue River Indians near where Mr. Birdseye now lives in Rogue River valley, and Mr. Miller, Mr. Barnes, Mr. Sanders, and Tom were killed. The other four were badly wounded, but made their escape.
In August, 1838, as a party of citizens of Oregon were driving the first cattle from California to this Territory, they were attacked near the same spot where the party were attacked in 1835, by the same Indians, and Mr. Gay, who was of the party of 1835, was again wounded.
In the fall of 1846, a sick immigrant was killed on the southern Oregon immigrant road, near Lost river, by Modoc Indians.
On the 29th November, 1847, Dr. Whitman, a Protestant missionary, his wife, two orphan children, a Frenchman, and about eleven immigrants, were massacred at and near the mission in Walla-Walla valley by Cayuse Indians. This was the commencement of the Cayuse war.
In 1851, an exploring party of eight or ten men were attacked near the mouth of the Coquille river, in southern Oregon, and six of the number killed.
In 1851, two men were killed on Grave creek, and one or two more on Rogue river, by Rogue River Indians, for which they were chastised by Major Kearney, United States army. It was in some of Major Kearney’s engagements with these Indians that Captain Stewart, United States army, was killed.
May, 1851, Mr. Dilley was killed near Camp Stewart, in Rogue River valley, by Rogue River Indians; and
In October, 1851, Mr. Moffitt was killed near the same place by the same Indians.
In June, 1852, Calvin Woodman was killed in Scott’s valley, California, by Rogue River Indians.
In June, 1852, James L. Treaner, John Brando, “Cayuse” Jackson, and “Adobe” John, a Mexican, were killed by Pitt River Indians, in the valley of that name, while viewing a wagon road from Sacramento valley to the southern boundary line of Oregon.
In August, 1852, Mr. Coats, John Ornsby, James Long, and thirty-three immigrants, were murdered by the Modoc Indians on the southern Oregon emigrant road.
In December, 1852, William Gundage, Peter Hunter, James Bacon and brother, Mr. Bruner, William Allen, and Mr. Palmer, were massacred by Rogue River Indians on Rogue river, near the mouth of Galuse creek.
In 1853, August 4, Edward Edwards was killed, by Rogue River Indians, in his own house, on Stewart’s creek.
August 5, 1853, Thomas Wills was mortally wounded by Rogue River Indians within three hundred yards of the town of Jacksonville.
August 6, 1853, Richard Nolan was killed by Rogue River Indians on Jackson creek, one mile from the town of Jacksonville.
August 17, 1853, John Gibbs, William Hudgins, and three others whose names are not known, were killed in Rogue River valley by Rogue River Indians.
October 6, 1853, James C. Kyle was killed by Rogue River Indians two miles from Fort Lane and about six from Jacksonville. The actual murderer of Mr. Kyle, and those who murdered Edwards and Wills, were subsequently arrested, and were tried for their offences before the Hon. O. B. McFadden, in the spring of 1854, and were convicted and hung. These three Indians, with those chastised by Major Kearney in 1851, are the only ones ever punished for crime by either the civil or military authorities in southern Oregon.
In January, 1854, Hiram Hulen, John Clark, John Oldfield, and Wesley Mayden, were killed between Jacksonville and Yreka by Rogue River, Shasta, and Modoc Indians.
April 15, 1854, Edward Phillips was killed on Applegate creek, near Fort Lane, by Rogue River Indians.
June 15, 1854, Daniel Gage was killed while crossing the Siskiyou mountains, between Jacksonville and Yreka.
June 24, 1854, Captain McAmy was killed at DeWitt’s ferry, on Klamath river, by Shasta and Rogue River Indians.
August 20, 1854, Alexander Ward, his wife, and seven children, Mrs. White and child, Samuel Mulligan, Dr. Adams and brother, William Babcock, John Frederick, and Rudolph Shultz, Mr. Ames and a Frenchman, name unknown, were massacred by Snake Indians on the northern Oregon emigrant road, near Fort Boisé.
In September, 1854, Mr. Stewart was killed by Indians on the middle route to Oregon, via the plains.
May 8, 1855, Mr. Hill was killed on Indian creek by Rogue River Indians.
June 1, 1855, Jerome Dyer and Daniel McKero were killed by Rogue River Indians, on the road between Jacksonville and Illinois valley.
June 2, 1855, Mr. Philpot was killed in Deer creek valley by the same Indians next above mentioned.
July 27, 1855, Mr. Peters was killed on Humbug creek by Klamath, Shasta, and Rogue River Indians.
July 28, 1855, William Hennessey, Edward Parish, Thomas Grey, Peter Hignight, John Pollock, four Frenchmen, and two Mexicans, names unknown, were killed by the Indians next before referred to, at Buckeye bar, on Klamath river.
September 2, 1855, Mr. Keene was killed by Modoc Indians, on the southern emigrant road, near Rogue River valley.
In September, 1855, Mrs. Clark and a young man were killed in Yamhill county, by Coast Indians.
In September, 1855, Elisha Plummer and four others, names unknown, were killed at Grand Ronde, east of the Blue mountains, by Cayuse and Walla-Walla Indians.
In September, 1855, Indian Agent A. J. Bolen, —— Matteese, and two others, were killed by the Yakima Indians, east of the Cascade mountains.
September 24, 1855, Fields and Cunningham were killed by Rogue River Indians, on the Siskiyou mountains, between Jacksonville and Yreka.
September 25, 1855, Samuel Warren, killed by the same Indians next above referred to.
October 9, 1855, Mrs. J. B. Wagoner, Mary Wagoner, Mr. and Mrs. Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Haines and two children, George W. Harris, David W. Harris, F. A. Reed, William Gwin, James W. Cartwright, Mr. Powel, Bunch, Fox, Hamilton, and White, were killed by Umpqua and Rogue River Indians, near Evans’ ferry, on Rogue river. This is known as “the Wagoner massacre.”
October 10, 1855, Misses [sic] Hudson and Wilson, killed by Rogue River and Klamath Indians, on the road between Crescent City and Indian creek.
October 16, 1855, Holland Bailey was killed by Umpqua and Cow Creek Indians, in Cow Creek valley.
November 6, 1855, Charles Scott and Theodore Snow, killed on the road between Yreka and Scott’s bar, by messengers from the Rogue River to the Klamath Indians.
February 23, 1856, Captain Ben Wright, Captain John Poland, H. Braun, E. W. Howe, Mr. Wagoner, Barney Castle, George McCluskey, Mr. Lara, W. R. Tullus, James Seroc and two sons, Mr. Smith, Mr. Warner, John Grisell and three children, S. Heidrick, Patrick McCullough, and four others, whose names are unknown, were killed by Indians in charge of agent Captain Ben Wright, near the mouth of Rogue river.
March 26, 1856, George Griswold, Norman Palmer, Mr. and Mrs. Brown, Mr. Watkins, James St. Clair, and eleven others, names unknown, were killed by Cascade Indians. This is known as “the Cascade massacre.”
June, 1856, Charles Green and Thomas Stewart, killed on McKinney’s creek, near Fort Jones, by Shasta Indians.
January or February, 1857, Harry Lockhart, Z. Rogers, Adam Boles, D. Bryant, and “John,” a German, killed in Pitt River valley, by Pitt River Indians.
It will be seen by the foregoing list that prior to 1851, upwards of fifty citizens were murdered by Oregon Indians. Since 1851, upwards of one hundred and forty citizens have been murdered by the Indians of southern Oregon and their immediate allies; and about fifty by the Indians of northern Oregon and their allies, since 1851. Many more names could be obtained from papers and living witnesses, but your committee have not time to investigate any further.
Killed in 1834, thirty 30
Killed in 1835, four 4
Killed in 1846, one 1
Killed in 1847, sixteen 16
Killed in 1850, six 6
Killed in 1851, six 6
Killed in 1852, forty-seven 47
Killed in 1853, eight 8
Killed in 1854, twenty-seven 27
Killed in 1855, fifty-one 51
Killed in 1856, forty-three 43
Killed in 1857, five 5
Total, two hundred and forty-two 242
Your committee report the resolution back without amendment, and recommend that it be adopted.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs.
February 3, 1858.
Endorsed, the report of the Committee on Military Affairs.
Adopted by the council, February 3, 1858.
JOINT RESOLUTION relative to the payment of the volunteers called into service for the protection of emigrants in 1854.
Resolved by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon, That the Secretary of the Territory be, and he is hereby requested to transmit copies of his excellency’s the governor’s communication of the 18th of December last, and the accompanying documents, and copies of this resolution to his Excellency James Buchanan, President of the United States, and to the Hon. James B. Floyd, Secretary of War; also, to send copies of the same to Hon. Joseph Lane, delegate in Congress from Oregon, and that he be requested to present the same to Congress and urge an appropriation to pay the Oregon volunteers who were called into service for the protection of the emigrants in 1854, and all just and necessary expenses.
Adopted in the Council, February 3, 1858.
H. D. O'BRYANT,
President of the Council.
Adopted by the House, February 3, 1858.
IRA F. M. BUTLER.
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Territory of Oregon:
I, B. F. Harding, Secretary of the Territory of Oregon, do hereby certify that the foregoing is a true and perfect copy of the original now on file in my office.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto signed my name and affixed the seal of the Territory this thirtieth day of March, A. D. 1858.
B. F, HARDING,
Secretary of Oregon Territory.