Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/324

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ψ 49, before א); לָ֫מָּה, however, remains before ח. Before letters which are not gutturals, לָמָ֫ה is found in ψ 42, 43 (immediately after a tone-syllable).

 [m Rem. The divine name יְהֹוָה, which has not its original vowels (יַהְוֶה) but those of אֲדֹנָי (see § 17 c), except that the י has simple not compound Še, takes the prefixes also, after the manner of אֲדֹנָי, thus וַֽיהוָֹה, לַֽיהוָֹה, בַּֽיהוָֹה, מֵֽיְהֹוָה (since they are to be read וַֽאדֹנָי, לַֽאדֹנָי, בַּֽאדֹנָי, מֵֽאֲדֹנָי); for the א of אֲדֹנָי, as of אֲדֹנִי, אֲדֹנִים, &c. (see below), quiesces after the prefixes בַּ, כַּ‍, לַ, וַ, but is audible after מֵ‍ (for מִן), שֶׁ (no instance in the O.T.), and הָ (in הָֽאֲדֹנִים Dt 10, ψ 136, the article, not הַ interrog., is intended; the only example with ה intertog., Jer 8, is to be pointed הַֽיהוָֹה, i.e. הַֽאדֹנָי, not הַיְהֹוָה). Hence the rule, משֶׁה מוֹצִיא Moses brought out (i.e. מ‍, שׁ, ה make the א audible), וְכָלֵב מַכְנִיס and Caleb brought in, (i.e. ו, כ‍, ל, ב allow it to quiesce).[1]—As regards the other plural forms of אָדוֹן, elision of the א always takes place after בַּ, וַ, כַּ‍, לַ, except in the form אֲדֹנֵי, thus לַֽאדֹנָיו, לַֽאדֹנֶ֫יךָ, &c.; but לַֽאֲדֹנֵי, &c., לַֽאֲדֹנֵ֫ינוּ, &c., לַֽאֲדֹֽנֵיהֶם.

§103. Prepositions with Pronominal Suffixes and in the Plural Form.

 [a 1. As all prepositions were originally nouns (§ 101) in the accusative, they may be united with the noun-suffixes (§ 91 b–l), e.g. אֶצְלִי (prop. at my side) by me, אִתִּי (in my proximity) with me, תַּחְתָּם (in their place) instead of them, like the Latin mea causa, for my sake.

 [b Rem. 1. The preposition אֵת (usually אֶת־) near, with, is distinguished from אֵת (see below, and § 117 a, note 4), the sign of the definite accusative (§ 117 a), in its connexion with suffixes, by a difference of pointing, the former making אִתִּי, אִתְּךָ, in pause אִתָּךְ, 2nd fem. אִתָּךְ (Is 54 אִתֵּךְ), אִתּוֹ, אִתָּהּ, אִתָּ֫נוּ, אִתְּכֶם, אִתָּם (also in the later books, especially in Kings, and always in Jer. and Ezek., incorrectly אוֹתִי with me; מֵֽאוֹתָךְ from thee, 1 K 20; מֵֽאֹתוֹ from him, 1 K 22; אֹתָם with them), while the latter retains its ô (obscured from â) before the light suffixes, but before grave suffixes is pointed with Seghôl. This Seghôl is to be explained, with Praetorius, ZDMG. Iv. 369 f., as the modification of an ă which again was shortened from original â (in ʾâthî, ʾaîthô, &c.) in a closed syllable (ʾăth-hem, &c.). The same shortening and modification of the original â takes place before words in close connexion, hence אֶת־כֹּל, &c. When not in close connexion, the toneless אֶת becomes tone-long אֵת, e.g. אֵת הַשָּׁמַ֫יִם Gn 1. Hence the following forms arise:—

Sing. Plur.
1. אֹתִי me. אֹתָ֫נוּ us.
m. אֹֽתְךָ, pause אֹתָךְ אֶתְכֶם you.
2.  thee    
f. אֹתָךְ . . . . . . . . . . .
m. אֹתוֹ him. אֹתָם, rarely אֶתְהֶם them
f. אֹתָהּ her. אֶתְהֶן, rarely אֹתָן
  1. Another vox memor. is כָּל־בּוֹ נֶֽעֶלָם all is hidden in him.