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fined almost exclusively to Galicia and Bukovina; the former constituting 11'8 per cent, of the total population of the state, the latter OOl per cent. In addiReiigioa. £on^ Qfii Catholics are to be found scattered about, making up a total strength of 0'03 per cent, of the population of Austria. The Greek (i.e., Oriental or Orthodox, not the united) Church is represented in far its greatest strength in Bukovina (70 per cent.) and in Dalmatia (IG’S per cent.). The Protestants compose some 2 per cent, of the total population; nearly threefourths of them belong to the Augsburg or Lutheran Confession, one-fourth to the Reformed, Calvinistic, or Helvetian Confession. The Protestants are most numerous in Silesia, where they form 14 per cent, of the, population; next in Carinthia (5 per cent.), Moravia (2 7 per cent.), Bukovina (2'5 per cent.), and Bohemia (2’2 per cent.). The adherents to the Augsburg Confession are most strongly represented in Silesia (27 per cent, of their total strength), Bohemia (19 per cent.), Lower Austria (14 per cent.), and Galicia (12 per cent.). Of the adherents to the Reformed Confession, 55 per cent, are in Bohemia, 31 per cent, in Moravia, 6 per cent, in Lower Austria, and 4 per cent, in Galicia. Representatives of other Christian Confessions in Austria are Herrnhuters in Bohemia; Anglicans in Lower Austria, Trieste, Bohemia, and Galicia; Mennonites in Galicia; Unitarians in Lower Austria; Lippovanians in Bukovina. The Jews compose 4-8 per cent, of the entire population, and are in greatest strength in Galicia, where there are 67*5 per cent, of their total number in Austria; in Lower Austria, 11 "3 per cent.; in Bohemia, 8’3 per cent.; in Bukovina, 7'2 per cent.; in Moravia, 4 per cent. The provinces in which the Jewish ingredient in the total population is most pronounced are Bukovina, where they constitute 12‘8 per cent, of the total population; Galicia, 11‘7 per cent.; Lower Austria, 4'8 per cent. The Catholic Church has 7 Latin archbishoprics, 1 Greek and 1 Armenian archbishopric; 23 Latin and 2 Greek bishoprics. The Greek Oriental Church has 2 archbishoprics and 2 bishoprics. The Evangelical Church has 5 superintendents of the Augsburg, 3 of the Helvetian, and 1 of Mixed Confession. The Israelitish Confession has 545 religious communities, most of them in Galicia, Bohemia, and Moravia. The Roman Catholic Church rules over (1895) 488 monasteries with 8530 monks and 647 nunneries with 15,616 nuns. The Greek Oriental Church has 3 monasteries with 48 members. The capital stock of the Catholic Church is authentically estimated at 283,500,000 florins; that of the cloisters and other church establishments at 126,000,000 florins. Public instruction is organized in four groups of educational institutions, high schools, middle schools, technical Education sc^00^s’ anc^ elementary schools. There are eight universities :—Vienna, Graz, Innsbruck, Prague (German), and Czernowitz, in all which German is the language of instruction; Prague (Bohemian) with Czech, Cracow and Lemberg with Polish, as the language of instruction. Each university has four faculties Ypar i ear.

1875 1885 1895 1898

Ordinary Stuj Teaching „, & [ Ordinary lessors Proin Lectures. Students. dents among j Teaching Staff. the Students. 689 273 1091 7,616 9,227 1029 334 1541 13,069 11,361 1262 424 13,169 1925 16,560 1395 451 2086 17,322 13,624

— theology, law and political science, medicine, and philosophy. In Czernowitz, however, the faculty of medicine is wanting. The theological faculties are all Roman Catholic, except in Czernowitz, where the theo-

logical faculty is Greek-Oriental. The preceding table gives summary figures for all the eight universities during the winter sessions of the years specified. The figures of 1875, however, do not include the universities of Bohemian Prague and Czernowitz. There are seven technical high schools in Vienna, Graz, Prague, Briinn, in which German is the language of instruction; Prague and Briinn with Czech, and Lemberg with Polish, as the language of instruction. There is also one high school for agriculture in Vienna. At these high schools there are special technical departments :■—Engineering, building (above ground), machinemaking, technical chemistry, and a general department. The building department is wanting in Briinn (German), and the general department in Lemberg. The technical high school in Briinn (Czech) was founded in 1899. The high school for agriculture includes a school of husbandry, of forestry, and of technical culture. The attendance at these institutions during the winter sessions was as follows :— Ordinary ProOrdinary Stufessors in Lectures. Students. dents among Year. Teaching Staff. Teaching Staff. the Students. 441 3570 3152 102


287 846 2566 2399 120 372 i 1885 3144 678 2803 130 416 1895 692 4628 4136 135 449 1898 In addition there exist, in the character of high schools, 2 mining academies in Leoben and Pribram; 3 art schools in Vienna, Prague, and Cracow; 2 Catholic theological faculties at Salzburg and Olmutz; 1 evangelical theological faculty at Vienna; and 1 veterinary high school at Vienna. There are, further, 45 theological educational institutions; among them 1 Greek-Catholic and 1 Armenian-Catholic, as also a Greek-Oriental, educational institution. As middle schools there are gymnasia, real - gymnasia, and real - schools. Gymnasia are intended for humane (or classical) culture; the others for general culture. Their growth is shown in the following figures:— Real-Schools. Gymnasia and Real-Gymnasia. Year. Number. Teachers. Pupils. Number. Teachers. Pupils, 1302 21,552 74 1875 34,137 155 2527 16,969 80 1353 3512 54,288 1885 172 80 56,152 1610 23,600 1895 181 3756 1812 27,011 3962 59,980 93 1898 196 For the training of teachers of elementary schools, there are 50 institutions for male and 33 for female teachers. Further, there are 187 commercial schools and 940 industrial schools. Among the latter, 21 are national industrial schools and institutions of kindred character; 158 are technical schools for particular industrial branches, 11 are general trades schools, and 750 are industrial adult schools. There are, moreover, 137 schools of agriculture and of forestry, 6 lower-grade mining schools, 3 nautical schools, 8 veterinary and horse-shoeing schools, 15 midwifery schools, 509 schools for musical and dramatic culture, 612 schools for female hand-work and tailoring, and 802 other special teaching and educational institutions. Elementary instruction is given by the national schools ( Volhsschulen), and, in the larger towns, by the burgher schools. By virtue of a law passed in 1869 every community is, in general, bound to establish a public primary school. Apart from certain exceptions, attendance at school is obligatory on all, from the 6th to the 14th year of age. Side by side with the public schools, private schools are also allowed, which, if fulfilling the legal requirements, may