Page:1902 Encyclopædia Britannica - Volume 26 - AUS-CHI.pdf/615

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was abolished ; and, further, it was enacted that no one should in future be registered as an elector who could not sign his name and write his address and occupation. The total number of registered electors in 1898-99 was 109,888. The qualifications for a member of the Lower House, being the same as those for an elector, underwent the same modification as those for an elector ; those which must be possessed by a member of the Upper House remain as they wrere. Cumulative voting is still allowed in the election of members for the Upper House, but not in the election of members for the Lower House. The members of both Houses are paid for their services during session. By Act No. 6 of 1899 the provisions of the general electoral law were temporarily set aside in the case of persons accused of treason during the Boer war. Such cases were dealt with by the Special Tribunals created for the purpose. Local Government.—The colony is now divided into 79 fiscal divisions. The local affairs of each division are dealt with by a council elected every three years by the registered parliamentary voters, and presided over by a civil commissioner, who is usually also resident magistrate. The laws relating to municipalities, which now number 97, were consolidated and amended in 1882 ; each municipality is governed by a council (with a mayor at its head), a certain number of the members of •which are elected by the ratepayers every year. In 1881 there were also constituted Village Management Boards of three members for the smaller villages and hamlets. These Boards are elected annually by the registered parliamentary voters, and are now 82 in number. Justice and Crime: Pauperism.—The administration of justice is presided over by nine judges of the Supreme Court, who are divided into three Courts of three judges each. The first, called the Supreme Court, sits in Cape Town, and is presided over by the Chief Justice and two puisne judges ; the second, known as the Eastern District Court, sits at Grahamstown, and is presided over by a Judge President and two puisne judges ; and the third, known as the High Court of Griqualand, sits at Kimberley, and is also presided over by a Judge President and two puisne judges. From 1879 to 1886 there was a five-judges Court of Appeal for the colony, but in the latter year this Court was abolished, and its powers were vested in the Supreme Court. From this, whether sitting as a Court of Primary Instance or as a Court of Appeal (in which latter case there must not be less than three of the nine judges sitting), there is appeal only to the Privy Council. The judges of each of the three divisional Courts go on circuit twice a year, and since 1888 a special Court has been held at Kimberley for trying cases relating to illicit diamond buying (“I.D.B.”). This Court consists of two judges of the Supreme Court and one other member, hitherto the civil commissioner or the resident magistrate of Kimberley. The Transkeian territories, which fall under the jurisdiction of the Eastern District Court, are subject to a Native Territories Penal Code, which came into force in 1887. Besides the usual magistrates in these territories, there are two chief magistrates, one for Griqualand East, and the other for Tembuland (officially including Pondoland) and Transkei. At the end of 1898 the Cape Police Force comprised 68 officers, 1922 men, and 1572 horses ; the municipal and ordinary Police Force, 1401 men ; and the Gaol Establishment, 689 men. There were 1233 persons convicted before the special Justices of the Peace Courts in 1899 ; 52,904 before Magistrates’ Courts, and 804 before the Superior Courts ; at the end of the year there were 3348 males and 352 females in gaol. In the colony proper, in 1898, 1410 persons received indoor relief, and an average of 638 monthly received outdoor relief. Religion.—The following table classifies the inhabitants in 1891, according to religion :—


Education.—The University of the Cape of Good Hope, modelled on that of London, was granted a royal charter in 1877, and is governed by a chancellor, a vice-chancellor (who is chairman of the University Council), and a council of 33 members, of whom 15 are elected by the University Convention, 15 nominated by the Cape Government, and 3 nominated by the Governor to represent Natal—these last under a recent Act granting representation on the council to any other South African colony or state that agreed to give a grant to the University funds. The examinations are open to candidates irrespective of where they have studied, but under the Higher Education Act grants are paid to seven colleges that specially devote themselves to preparing students for the graduation courses. These, at which there were 658 students in 1898-99, are the South African College at Cape Town, the Victoria College at Stellenbosch, the Diocesan College at Rondebosch, St Andrew s College at Grahamstown, Gill College at Somerset East, the School of Mines at Kimberley, and the Huguenot Ladies’ College at Wellington. Several denominational colleges, receiving no Government aid, do the same work in a greater or less degree, the best known being St Aidan’s (Roman Catholic) College and Kingswood (Wesleyan) College, both at Grahamstown. Graaff Reinet College, Dale College, King William’s Town, and the Grey Institute, Port Elizabeth, occupy the place of high schools under the Education Department. The Theological Seminary at Stellenbosch prepares theological students for the ministry of the Dutch Church, and is not connected with University work—so long as the University does not grant degrees in Divinity. Primary education is under the Education Department, controlled by a SuperintendentGeneral of Education. The schools under the Education Department are classified into undenominational public schools of three classes—mission schools, poor schools, district boarding-schools, private farm schools, evening schools, and aborigines’ schools. In addition to these there are 3 art schools, 8 industrial schools for whites, 9 for aborigines, 5 training schools for whites, 11 for aborigines. Classes for adult teachers in drawing, needlework, and woodwork are held chiefly in Cape Town. In September 1899, just before the war broke out, there were in operation 2674 schools connected with the Education Department, taught by 4505 adult teachers, and having on their rolls 147,424 children, with an average attendance of 114,842. The total Government expenditure on education in 1899-1900 was £272,214. The standard of education is rapidly improving, but education is not compulsory, and it must be remembered that among the European population 28-82 per cent, of the males and 28 "02 per cent, of the females could neither read nor write in 1891. Finance.—The following table shows the revenue (including loans) and expenditure (including that under Loan Acts) of the colony in various financial years, from 1880 to 1900 :— Year ending SOth J une. 1880 1885 1890 1897 1898 1899 1900

Revenue. Total.


£3,556,601 £496,795 £3,814,947 5,571,907 1,141,857 7,389,966 7,327,975 675,750 8,781,212 2,317,434 6,565,752 128,376

Expenditure. £3,742,665 4,211,832 5,327,496 6,360,404 8,613,659 8,190,124 7,773,230

The principal items in the revenue and expenditure for 1900s were as follows :— Revenioe. Expenditure. PerDenomination. Whites. All Races. centage. Customs . £1,879,408 Public debt . . £1,415,685 Stamps and licenses 328,789 Railways . . 2,017,424 Postage . 302,091 Defence . . . 223,429 Protestants—Railways 2,864,880 Police and gaols . 564,395 Dutch Reformed Church 228,627 306,320 20-06 Telegraphs 164,001 Civil establishment. 191,347 Others 128,333 425,727 27-87 Science and education 278,071 Crown lands, forests, Total 356,960 732,047 47-93 irrigation, harbours, &c. . 244,554 Roman Catholics 14,853 17,275 1-13 Post office and teleMahommedans . 31 15,099 •99 graphs . . 495,498 Jews .... 3,009 3,007 •20 Native affairs . . 285,330 Various, including Un The estimated expenditure (under votes) for 1900-1 was put known and Unspecified 1,606 5,970 •39 down at £6,888,352. The colony had a public debt of £31,097,825 “ No Religion ” . 530 753,824 49-36 on 31st December 1900, including £3,483,878 raised for corporate bodies, harbour boards, but guaranteed in the general revenue. Grand Total . 376,987 1,527,224 100-00 Nearly the whole of the loans have been spent in public works— eighteen millions and a half sterling on railways alone. The total The general description in the ninth edition of the relative value of assessed property in the colony, excluding the Transkeian strengths of the various Protestant bodies still holds good. The Territories, in 1900 was returned at £54,591,7^6, excluding GovernMethodists have a larger number of coloured people in their ment property. The total revenue of the Divisional Councils in denomination than any other sect, but not a larger proportion. 1900 was £187,493, and expenditure £168,901. The total Municipal