Page:A Brief History of the Indian Peoples.djvu/133

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MUHAMMADAN KINGDOMS OF THE DECCAN. 1 29 of native-born Musalmans of Southern India, together with Abyssinian mercenaries, professing the Sunnf faith. The rivalry between these Musalmdn sects frequently imperilled the Bahmanf throne. The dynasty reached its highest power under Ald-ud-din II about 1437, and was broken up by its discordant elements between 1489 and 1525. Five Muhammadan States of the Deccan, 1489-1688. — Out of its fragments, the five independent Muhammadan king- doms in the Deccan were formed. These were — (1) The Adil Shahf dynasty, with its capital atBijapur, founded in 1489 by a son of Amurath II, Sultan of the Ottoman Turks; annexed by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1686-1688. (2) The Kutab Shahf dynasty, with its capital at Golconda, founded in 1512 by a Turkoman adventurer ; also annexed by Aurangzeb in 1687-1688. (3) The Nizam Shahf dynasty, with its capital at Ahmadnagar, founded in 1490 by a Brahman renegade from the Vijayanagar Court; subverted by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jah&n in 1636. (4) The Imad Shahf dynasty of Berar, with its capital at Ellichpur, founded in 1484 also by a Hindu from Vijayanagar; annexed to the Ahmadnagar kingdom (No. 3) in 1572. (5) The Barfd Shahf dynasty, with its capital at Bfdar, founded 1492-1498 by a Turkf or Georgian slave. The Bfdar territories were small and ill-defined ; and were independent till after 1609. Bfdar fort was taken by Aurangzeb in 1657. Fall of Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagar. — It is beyond my scope to trace the history of these local Muhammadan dynasties of Southern India. They preserved their independence until the firm establishment of the Mughal Empire in the north, under Akbar and his successors. For a time they had to struggle against the great Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar. In 1565 they combined against that power, and, aided by a rebellion within Vijayanagar itself, they overthrew it at T&likot in 1565. The battle of Talikot marks the final downfall of Vijayanagar as a great Hindu kingdom. But its local Hindu Chiefs or Nayaks kept hold of their respective fiefs, and the Muhammadan kings of the south were only able to annex a part of its dominions. From the Nayaks are descended the well-known