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92 A Chinese Biographical Dictionary

his sons the desirability of erring on the side of leniency.

223 Ch'ên Hsien |^ |t (T. ;^ 3^. H. gf ^). A,D. 1641-1722. Descended from an illustrious Chehkiang family, he graduated as Ma jen in 1672, and served as a Censor in Peking, offering many Taluable suggestions, especially on the conservation of the Yellow RiTer. Sent as Governor to Kneichon, he promoted the reclamation of waste lands, sericulture, and fruit-growing, besides doing much for location. After a term as Governor of Hupeh, he returned to Peking as President of the Board of Works, and retired in 1719. An indefatigable student, he left only scattered notes on the History and the Four Books. Canonised as ^ ^ .

224 Ch'ên Hsien-chang 陳獻章 (T. ^"f^). A.D. 1428-1500. A native of ^ ^ Po-sha near Canton, from which he is sometimes spoken of as ^ ]^ ^ ^. Of a studious disposition, he graduated as chu jen in 1447, but failed to take his chin shih degree. He then built himself a house, which he called |||r ^ ^, and shut himself up in it for several years, receiving no visitors and spending all his time over books. After this, he went to the capital to study in the Imperial Academy; and on one occasion, being ordered to write some verses after the style and on the subject of a poem by Yang Shih, he turned out a composition which the examiner declared to be superior to the original. This brought him to the notice of the Emperor, and he was recommended for official employment; but he declined to hold office, and retired into private life. He left no written work behind him, and his teachings encourage meditation rather than the study of books. Hence he was stigmatised by Hu Ghfl-jen as a Buddhist. He is said to have been a handsome man, though disfigured by seven black spots on his cheek. He was remarkable for his filial piety; and on one occasion when his mother was longing to see him, he felt a sympathetic throb in his heart. In 1584 he was canonised