A Chinese Biographical Dictionary 171
438 Chu Chien-shên A.D. 1439-1487. The eldest son of Chn Ch4-chdD, whom he succeeded in 1464 as eighth Emperor of the Ming dynasty. He removed his father's favourite ennnch, but was himself entirely under the influence of his concubine ^^ Wan, on whom he lavished untold wealth and who in return for heavy bribes appointed eunuchs to important posts. The reign was marked by weakness abroad, and by disturbances, floods, and drought at home. After 1471 no audience was given to Ministers, and the eunuch Wang Chih practically ruled the country. In 1475, for the first time, an embassy from the Manchus is recorded. The Heir Apparent died in 1472, and it was not until 1475 that the existence of another son by a concubine, whom the Lady Wan had ordered to be destroyed, was revealed to him. Canonised as ^ ^ 3^ M ^ •
439 Chu Chih-hsi (T. ^jl-^- It M)- ^•^- 1*^24- 1666. A native of |^ J^ I-wu in Chehkiang, who graduated as dtin nhih in 1646. In 1649 he was employed on the History of file Ming Dytiaety. In 1656 he was sent to the Yellow River; and in this post he laboured for ten years, introducing improved systems of conservation with the aid of dredgers, and getting rid of abuses and oppressive customs. In 1662, on the occasion of a serious breach in the embankments, he composed a short ditty which inspirited the men to labour with zeal. He was also the author of a popular work on river conservation. Constant exposure in all weathers, toj;;ether with want of rest and regular meals, caused his death. His devotion to the public weal led to bis being worshipped as a deity by the people along the river, and even prayed to by boatmen when in danger. Canonised as ^ ^f .
440 Chu Ch'in-ming (T. ^ ^J. Died A.D. 711. A native of ^pf ^ Shih-p'ing in Shensi, who rose to high ofiBce under the Emperor Chung Tsung of the T*ang dynasty, and