Much more important aid in the restoration of the text is given by the ancient versions. First among these in critical value as well as in age are the Greek versions. I say versions; for Lagarde has demonstrated in the most conclusive way, by printing them face to face through five chapters, that we have two Greek translations of Judges. It would probably be going too far to affirm that they are independent; the author of the younger of them may have known and used the older; but it is certain that his work is not a recension or revision of his predecessor's, but a new translation. One of these versions is represented by the great majority of manuscripts, including the uncials, Sarravianus (S), Alexandrinus (A), Coislinianus (P), Basiliano-Vaticanus (V), and many cursives. The latter form several well-defined groups, some of which may properly be designated as recensions. One of these (L) is represented in Judges by codd. 19, 108, 118 (Holmes and Parsons), the Complutensian Polyglot, and Lagarde's Librorum V. T. canonicorum pars prior, 1883; and is thought by many scholars to exhibit the recension of Lucian. The second (M) is a group whose most constant members are codd. 54,
in Kennicott's collations. For the Massora, besides Jacob ben Chayim's edition in the Venice Rabbinical Bible, I have chiefly consulted Frensdorff's edition of the Ochlawc-Ochla, 1864, and his Massoretisches Worterbuch, 1876: Ginsburg's huge work will be of little use until the volume of apparatus appears.
- Septuaginta Studien, 1892, p. 1–72. I had reached the same conclusion in a paper read at the meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature in May, 1890, before I learned, through a letter from Prof. Lagarde, that he was preparing this edition.
- In Holmes and Parsons' apparatus, IV and V. Hexaplar manuscript of the 4th or 5th century (Tischendorf) in Leyden, St. Petersburg, and Paris. Published by Tischendorf, Monumenta sacra inedita, iii.; the Paris leaves by Lagarde, Semitica, ii. Of Judges it contains: 948–106 153–1816 1925–2112.
- Holmes and Parsons, III. Of the 5th century, in London. Edited by Grabe and successors, 1707–1720, 4 vols. Type facsimile by Baber, 1812–1828, 3 vols. Photographic reproduction published by the Trustees of the British Museum, 1881–1883.
- Holmes and Parsons, X. Hexaplar; of the 7th century (Holmes). The collation in H.P. is to be controlled by that of Griesbach, in Eichhorn's Repertorium, ii. p. 194 ff.
- Holmes and Parsons, XI. Of the 9th century (Holmes), in Rome. In Judges it lacks 1417–181. For this MS., H.P. has been my sole dependence. No significance is to be attached, therefore, to the absence of V from an array in which it might be expected.
- Of these, 108 (Vaticanus 330) only is complete in Judges; the others have more or less extensive lacunæ. For this group I have cited Lagarde's edition.