when the root word, from which the word in question is formed, has long i: mit my (neut. of min), stri(d)t fought, prtcp. of stride, hvi(d)te to whitewash, derived from hvid white; b) before ld or lt: Sild hering, Milt milt; c) in some other words; Ex.: Kridt chalk, hid here (hither), Pisk whip, grisk greedy; d) in unstressed syllables; Ex.: Rival rival, imod against.
The orthographic sign of this vowel is i, except in de they, De you, where it is e.
19. aa (å) has a sound similar to English a in call, but closer. The long sound is as a rule written aa: blaa blue, Naade grace; but it is in some words denoted by o before v (except in diphthongs, see § 28) and g; Ex.: Bog book; Brog breeching, broget variegated, klog prudent, koge to cook, Krog hook, kroget crooked, love to promise, Svoger brother-in-law, Drog a good-for-nothing, Fjog booby, Sprog language, Tog expedition; unstressed in Orlog (naval) warfare, Orlov leave of absence (in the six last named words the vowel may be pronounced long and short); furthermore in hvor where, Torsdag Thursday, borte away, Vorte wart, vore ours, otte eight, (pron. å-te, but the ordinal ottende the eighth with short vowel), and unstressed Alvor earnest.
20. The short å-sound is as a rule denoted by the letter o; Ex.: Lod ½ ounce; Boble bubble, Borg castle, hoppe to jump, Krop body, lokke to allure, vor our.
The short sound of å is denoted by aa in some words formed by derivation or inflection of words with a long aa, and besides in some other words; Ex.: blaat blue (neut. of blaa), vaadt wet (neut. of vaad), Skaansel mercy (from skaane to treat with leniency), Aadsel corpse, Aand spirit, Aande breath, Baand ribbon, Flaad flux, Haand hand, Laad fleece, laadden fleecy, en Maatte a mat, Raad pus (but Raad council, long aa), saa so (when unstressed), Saald sieve (also written Sold), Vaand wand, Vaande jeopardy; and with secondary accent Undersaat a subject, usaattes on bad terms.
21. O is a sound peculiar to the Scandinavian languages, midway between English o in toe and oo in too, but nearer the latter ; and it is spoken with the same rounding of the lips