It is difficult to ascertain with anything like certainty the precise date of the invention of the bind, but it appears probable that it had its origin in the endeavours which were continually made by the earlier composers (before the 15th century) to give rhythmic variety to their counterpoint. Morley (Practical Music, 1597) describes two kinds of counterpoint, which he calls 'long and short' and 'short and long' in each of which a single note alternates with two notes bound together, the sign of the bind being formed thus , as in Ex. 4; and the fourth of the five orders of counterpoint established by Fux (1725), and adopted by all his successors, consists of syncopation—that is, of a non-accented note bound to the accented note of the next bar (Ex. 5).
A curved line similar to the bind, but placed between two notes of different names, denotes the slur or legato, and the possibility of confusion resulting from this resemblance induced Sir Sterndale Bennett to introduce a new sign for the bind, consisting of a rectilinear bracket, thus ⎴; he appears, however, to have thought the innovation not worth preserving, as he only employed it for a time in his op. 33 to 37 recurring afterwards to the usual curved line.
[ F. T. ]
BINI, Pasqualino, violinist. Born at Pesaro (Rossini's native place) about 1720. He was a favourite pupil of Tartini, to whom he was recommended at the age of fifteen by Cardinal Olivieri. Under Tartini he practised with such diligence that in three or four years time he overcame the chief difficulties of his master's music, and played it with greater force than the composer himself. On returning to Rome, under the protection of Cardinal Olivieri, he astonished the violinists by his performance, especially Montanari, the chief violin-player of the time at Rome, who was generally believed to have died of mortification at the superiority of Bini's talents. Hearing that Tartini had changed his style of playing, he returned to Padua and placed himself for another year under his old master; at the end of which time he is said to have played with wonderful certainty and expression. After his return to Rome Tartini recommended Mr. Wiseman, his English friend, to Bini in the following words, which speak as highly for master as for scholar:—'Io lo mando a un mio scolare che suona più di me, e me ne glorio per essere un angelo di costume e religioso'—'I recommend him to a scholar who plays better than myself, and I am proud of it, as he is an angel in religion and morals'.
[ E. H. D. ]
BIONI, Antonio, born in Venice 1700, a dramatic composer, pupil of Giovanni Porta, produced his first opera 'Climène' in 1721, his next, 'Udine,' 1722, and during the next nine years 24 more, of which 'Endimione' (1727) had the highest reputation. In 1730 he became director of the Italian theatre at Breslau, in 1731 the Elector of Mayence appointed him his chamber-composer, and in 1733 he probably returned to Italy. He conducted the performance of his 'Girita' at Vienna in 1738, which is the last fact known of him. Fétis gives a list of his works.
[ M. C. C. ]
BIRCHALL, Robert, music-publisher, etc., said to have been apprenticed to Randall, the successor of Walsh, established a musical circulating library about 1784, prior to which he had been associated in business with Beardmore and also with Andrewes, successively at 129, 133 & 140 New Bond Street. He managed the celebrated series of Antient Concerts and most of the Benefit Concerts of those golden days. Birchall published many of Beethoven's works, including the original English editions of 'The Battle Symphony,' dedicated to the Prince Regent, in 1816, the Sonata op. 96, the Trio op. 97, an adaptation for the Pianoforte of Symphony No. 7—the copyrights of which he purchased from the composer. Beethoven's letters arranging for these, in queer English, and still queerer French, will be found in Nohl's two collections, Briefe, and Neue Briefe. After amassing a large fortune Birchall died in 1819, and was succeeded by Lonsdale & Mills. Mr. Samuel Chappell, the founder of the well-known firm at 50 New Bond Street, was originally at Birchall's. The catalogue of the house contains the celebrated collections formed by Latrobe, Mozart's operas, and an immense collection of standard works by the greatest composers and performers of the day.
[ R. E. L. ]
BIRMINGHAM FESTIVAL. This Triennial Festival, which is now acknowledged to be the most important 'music meeting' in the provinces, was commenced in 1768 with a series of performances in St. Philip's Church and in the