he was born in October 1811 [App. p.548 "Oct. 20"]. At four years old he was taught by his father to play on a small violin which he had made for him, and at five years old he performed in public. His father bringing him to London he played in 1817 at Drury Lane Theatre in a performance called 'The Lilliputians,' and subsequently played in public daily at the Exhibition Rooms in Spring Gardens. In 1821 he was placed under the tuition of Spagnoletti, and on the opening of the Royal Academy of Music in 1823 he became one of its first pupils, François Cramer being his instructor. In 1824 he was awarded a silver prize medal for his proficiency. On the formation of Queen Adelaide's private band in 1830 Blagrove waa appointed a member, and continued so until 1837. In 1833 [App. p.548 "1832"] he went to Germany for the purpose of studying his instrument under Spohr, and remained there until November 1834. Blagrove was one of the most distinguished of English violinists, and for upwards of thirty years occupied the position of concerto player and leader in all the best orchestras. He died, after a lingering illness, December 15, 1872.
BLAHETKA, Leopoldine, born Nov. 15, 1811 (not 1809), at Guntramsdorf, Baden, Austria; an able performer on the piano and physharmonika; daughter of J. L. Blahetka and Babette Traeg. At five years of age she was so good a player that by Beethoven's advice she was placed under Jos. Czerny for education as a musician. She afterwards had instruction from Kalkbrenner and Moscheles. Her progress was so rapid that she was able to undertake concert tours in company with her mother, from which she obtained much reputation, though they exposed her to many calumnious attacks. In 1832 she published as op. 25 a concert-piece for piano and orchestra which deserves notice. In 1830 a romantic piece of hers, 'Die Räuber und die Sänger,' was produced at the Kärnthnerthor theatre, Vienna, with applause. A few years later she made another tour in France, and in 1840 settled in Boulogne, where she still resides (1876). A few words in Schumann's Gesammelte Schriftin, ii. 45, testify to her excellence as a player.
[ F. G. ]
BLAKE, Rev. Edward, D.D., prebendary of Salisbury Cathedral, and rector of St. Thomas's Church in that city, was composer of the admired anthem 'I have set God always before me,' and of some duets for violin and viola. He died June 11, 1765. [App. p.548 "he was born at Salisbury, was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, taking the degrees of B.A. 1733; M.A. 1737; B.D. 1744 ; and D.D. 1755. He was elected Fellow of Oriel in 1736, became curate of St. Thomas's, Salisbury, 1740, Vicar of St. Mary's, Oxford, in 1754, Prebendary of Salisbury and Rector of Tortworth, Gloucestershire, 1757."]
BLANCHARD, Henri Louis, born at Bourdeaux 1778, died in Paris 1858, studied the violin under Rodolphe Kreutzer, and composition under Beck, Méhul, and Reicha. From 1818 to 1829 he was musical director at the Variétés, and composed a number of vaudeville airs which attained popularity, and also trios and quartets for strings. These more solid works exhibit considerable talent. In 1830 he became director of the Théâtre Molière, where two of his plays were produced. A third had a great run at the Théâtre Français in 1831. His opera of Diane de Vernon was produced at the Nouveautés on April 4 in the same year. As a musical critic Blanchard was able and impartial. He contributed articles to 'L'Europe littéraire et musicale' (1833). 'Le Foyer,' 'Le Monde Dramatique,' and 'La Revue et Gazette.' His biographies of Beck, Berton, Cherubini, Garat, and others, which originally appeared in these journals, have been published separately.
[ M. C. C. ]
BLANCHE, i.e. 'white,' is the ordinary French word for the note which we call a minim. In the same manner the French call a crotchet, , noire.
BLANCHE DE NEVERS, an opera in five acts, founded on the 'Duke's Motto.' Libretto by John Brougham; music by Balfe. Produced at Covent Garden by Pyne and Harrison Nov. 21, 1863.
BLANCKENBURGH, Gerbrandt van, organist at Gouda, probably father of Q. v. Blankenburg, author of a work of historical importance, 'Onderwyzinge hoemen alle de Toonen en halve Toonen, die meest gebryckelyck zyn, op de Handt-Fluyt zel konnen t'eenemal zuyverblaezen' (Amsterdam, P. Matthysz, 1654). A reprint of this interesting work has been published at the Hague.
[ F. G. ]
BLANCKS, Edward, whom Francis Meres, in his 'Palladis Tamia, Wits Treasury,' 1598, classes among the 'famous English musicians' of the time, was one of the ten composers who harmonised the tunes for 'The Whole Booke of Psalmes, with their wonted Tunes as they are song in Churches, composed into foure parts,' published by Thomas Este in 1592, and reprinted by the Musical Antiquarian Society. Nothing more is known of him.
BLANGINI, Giuseppe Marco Maria Felice, celebrated tenor-singer, teacher of singing, and composer, was born Nov. 18, 1781. At the age of 9 he was admitted into the choristers' school of Turin Cathedral. He made rapid progress in music under the Abbate Ottani, a pupil of Padre Martini. By the time he was 12 he composed a motet and a Kyrie. His favourite instrument was the violoncello. His singing was so exquisite that he is said by it to have revived Baron Stackelberg the Russian ambassador at Turin after he had been given up by the physicians. When the war broke out in 1797 his family took refuge in France, but it was not till 1799 that Blangini went to Paris, where he soon became the fashionable composer of songs (Romances et nocturnes), and teacher of singing. In 1802 he was commissioned to complete Delia Maria's unfinished opera 'La fausse Duègne,' which was followed in 1803 by 'Chimère et Réalité,' both for the Théâtre Feydeau, and in 1806 by 'Nephtali ou les Ammonites,' for the Grand Opéra. In 1805 he was called to Munich, where he produced 'Encore un tour de Caliphe,' and composed 'Ines de Castro,' and 'Les Fêtes Lacédemoniennes,' which were not performed. In 1806 Napoleon's