for various instruments; 2 Octets for ditto; 1 Suite for Full orchestra; 20 Symphonies, including 8 Concertante; 1 Cello Concerto. In addition to the above his vocal works are:—A Stabat Mater for three voices, with quintet string accompaniment; a Mass for four voices and instruments; a Christmas Cantata for four Solo voices, Chorus, and Orchestra; Villancicos or Motets for Christmas-time for four Voices and Orchestra; an Opera or Melodrama, La Clementina; 14 Concert airs and Duets, with Orchestra. Of the vocal works the Stabat Mater alone is published (Paris, Sieber, op. 61).
There are also many other pieces which are either spurious or mere arrangements by Boccherini of his own works. See 'Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de Luigi Boccherini, suivie du catalogue raisonné de toutes ses œuvres, tant publiées qu'inédites, par L. Picquot,' 8vo. Paris, Philipp, 1851, with two portraits. (Printed at Bar le duc.)
[ C. F. P. ]
BOCHSA, Robert Nicolas Charles, composer and eminent harpist, born at Montmédi 1789 [App. p.549 "Aug. 9"], was the son of Karl Bochsa, a flute and clarinet-player. He played the piano and flute in public at an early age, and composed airs de ballet for the theatre while yet a child. Before he was sixteen his opera 'Trajan' was produced at Lyons in honour of the Emperor's visit. His family having removed to Bourdeaux he became a pupil of Franz Beck, under whom he wrote a ballet, and an oratorio, 'Le Déluge Universel.' In 1806 he entered the Conservatoire at Paris as a pupil first of Catel and then of Méhul. He studied the harp under Nadermann and Marin, but soon formed a style of his own. He was continually discovering new effects, even to the close of his life, and may fairly be said to have revolutionised harp-playing. In 1813 he was appointed harpist to the Emperor Napoleon, and three years later to Louis XVIII and the Duc de Berri. Eight operas from his pen were performed at the Opéra Comique between 1813 and 1816. He composed a requiem to the memory of Louis XVI, which was performed with great solemnity in Jan. 1816, but a year later he was detected in extensive forgeries, and fled from France never to return. He was tried in his absence, and condemned to 12 years imprisonment, with a fine of 4,000 francs. He took refuge in London, where his fine playing was universally admired, and so popular did the harp become that he was unable to satisfy all the applicants for lessons. Parish-Alvars and J. B. Chatterton were both pupils of Bochsa. In 1822 he undertook the joint management, with Sir George Smart, of the Lent oratorios, and in 1823 the entire direction of them. Here he produced Stadler's 'Jerusalem,' oratorios by Wade and Sir John Stevenson, and his own 'Déluge Universel.' On the institution of the Royal Academy of Music Bochsa was appointed professor of the harp and general secretary, but in 1827 was dismissed on account of public attacks upon his character which he was unable to deny. In 1826 he succeeded Coccia as conductor at the King's Theatre, and six years later was himself succeeded by Costa. Rossini's 'Comte Ory' was produced under his management. Bochsa gave annual concerts, the programme of which always contained some striking novelty, though not always in the best taste. For instance, at one of them Beethoven's 'Pastoral Symphony' was accompanied by acted illustrations. In 1839 he ran away with the wife of Sir Henry Bishop and undertook a concert tour, visiting every country of Europe (except France), America, and Australia, where he died of dropsy at Sydney in 1855. Immediately before his death he composed a requiem, which was performed at his funeral.
As a composer Bochsa was too prolific for his own fame. Some of his many compositions for the harp, including a 'Method' for that instrument, are still known to harp-players. As a man he was irregular and dissipated to the last degree.
[ M. C. C. ]
BOCKLET, Carl Maria von, pianoforte-player, born at Prague, 1801; learned the pianoforte from Zawora, the violin from Pixis, and composition from D. Weber. In 1820 he settled in Vienna as first violin in the Theatre 'an der Wien,' but shortly after resigned the violin and gave his whole attention to the piano. Beethoven took much interest in him, and at different times wrote him three letters of recommendation (Nohl, 'Beethovens Briefe,' Nos. 175, 176, 324). He was very intimate with Franz Schubert, whose piano compositions he was the first to bring into public notice, and for whom he had a romantic attachment. His great object in performance was to catch the spirit of the composition. Meeting with great success as a teacher he gradually withdrew himself from all public appearance; but in 1866, after a long interval, appeared once more to introduce his son Heinrich to notice. [App. p.549 "Date of death, July 15, 1881."]
[ F. G. ]
BOCKSHORN, Samuel, born 1629, was originally director of the music at the Dreifaltigkeits Church in Pressburg, and in 1657 Capellmeister to the Duke of Wurtemberg in Stuttgart. Died not later than 1669. Amongst other compositions may be named a dramatic cantata 'Raptus Proserpinæ,' 1662. His works were largely published, and even as late as 1708 a new edition of his Sonatas, Cappricci, Allemandes, etc., was published in Vienna.
[ F. G. ]
BODE, Johann Joachim Christoph, born at Barum in Brunswick 1730. He had a strange and varied life as bassoon and oboe-player, composer, newspaper editor ('Hamburger Correspondent'), printer (Lessing's 'Hamburgische Dramaturgie'), and translator (Burney's 'Present State of Music in Germany.') He died at Weimar Dec. 13, 1793.
[ M. C. C. ]
BODENSCHATZ, Erhard, born at Lichtenberg in the Erzgebirge about 1570, studied theology and music at Leipsic, in 1600 became Cantor at Schulpforta, in 1603 Pastor at Rehausen, and in 1608 Pastor at Gross-Osterhausen, near Querfurt, where he died in 1638. Bodenschatz's Magnificat (1599) and his 'General-