the last scion of a gifted race. Since then the business, though entirely in Hartel's hands, has been conducted under the well-known title of Breitkopf & Härtel.
Gottfried Christoph Härtel, son of Dr. Christoph Härtel, Burgomaster of Schneeberg, was born there Jan. 27, 1763. Having given up his former occupation, he applied himself with vigour to improve the business by undertaking the publication of musical works of the highest order. Thus he brought out the works of Mozart in 17 vols. (1798–1816); of Haydn in 12 vols. (1800–1806); of Clementi in 13 vols. (1800–1818); and of Dussek in 12 (1814–1818)—an undertaking which was the forerunner of many popular and critical collected editions. Härtel also started the 'Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung,' which long maintained its position as the best musical periodical, and advocated the interests of music from 1798 to 1848; he further published a literary paper, the 'Leipziger Literatur-Zeitung' (1812–1834), enlarged his stock of music and books, and made various practical improvements in printing. Amongst other things he introduced the system of engraving music on pewter plates, to which in 1805 he added a lithographic establishment, with the personal co-operation of Sennefelder, the inventor. Procuring workmen from Vienna, he next started the first factory of pianos in central Germany. Being a man of great cultivation and refinement, such constant absorption in business was not to his taste, but he accepted the task which fate had laid upon him, and executed it faithfully till his death on July 25, 1827.
Up to 1835 the business was carried on by his nephew Florenz Härtel. But at that date Hermann Härtel, the eldest son of Gottfried (born April 27, 1803), entered the house as head, in partnership with his younger brother Raymund, who had joined in 1832. Hermann's fine character had been improved by an excellent education; he read law, and took his doctors' degree in 1828, and his love of art had been cultivated by a two years' residence in Italy. Both in public and private life he was a man of noble disposition and true culture. The brothers lived to see a remarkable spread of taste, and to publish many works of Mendelssohn, Schumann, Chopin, and other eminent modern composers; they brought out new editions of Schubert, Weber, and Hummel. Their catalogue up to 1874 included over 14,000 works, extending over the whole range of music. In 1866 they began the issue of a series of cheap editions of classical works in red covers, which are now widely known. They assisted in the formation of the Bach-Gesellschaft, which, like the companion Handel Society, owes much to their energy, taste, and accuracy. In 1862 they projected a complete critical edition in score and parts of the works of Beethoven, which was completed in 1866, and is now (1876) being followed by a similar edition of Mendelssohn.
The list of their publications contains treatises by Kiesewetter and others on the history of music, important works by Tucher and Winterfeld on the church music of Germany; biographies, such as Bach by Spitta, Händel by Chrysander, Mozart by Jahn; thematic catalogues of Beethoven by Nottebohm, and Mozart by Köchel; works on the theory of music by Chladni, Hauptmann, Lobe, Köhler, Marx, Sechter, etc., as well as a long list of publications on literature, law, theology, medicine, natural philosophy, philology, archæology, etc., etc. The practical part of the business has increased so much that the Goldene Bär was in 1867 exchanged for a much larger building. By 1871 the printing had developed to such an extent that it became necessary to use the space formerly occupied by the pianoforte manufactory. Since the death of Hermann [App. p.562 "Aug. 4, 1875"], Raymund, youngest son of Gottfried (born June 9, 1810), has been at the head of the house, assisted by two grandsons of Gottfried's—Wilhelm Volkmann and Dr. Georg Oscar Immanuel Hase [App. p.562 "Raymund Härtel retired from business in 1880, leaving the two grandsons of Gottfried at the head of affairs" App. p.819 "Raymund died Nov. 10, 1888"]. It is for these gentlemen to complete the edition of Mendelssohn, and to crown the great undertakings already enumerated, by the edition of Mozart's great works in score which they have already announced (1876). [See Leipzig.]
[App. p.562 "Since the appearance of the article, the editions of Mendelssohn and Mozart, as well as an edition of Chopin, have been completed; editions, on the same scale, of Palestrina and Schumann, are in an advanced state, and a similar issue of the works of Schütz, Grétry, and Schubert has been undertaken. The 'Jahrbücher für Musikalische Wissenschaft' (see vol. ii. 30) were discontinued in 1867, after the appearance of the second volume; their place has been taken by a 'Viertel-jahrschrift für Musikwissenschaft,' edited by Dr. Chrysander, Professor Spitta, and Herr Guido Adler, which has been published quarterly since 1885. A supplementary volume to the complete edition of Beethoven's works is announced (1887)."]
(The above is taken by kind permission from papers in the archives of the firm.)
[ C. F. P. ]
BREMNER, Robert, born in Scotland about 1720. He practised for some years as a teacher of singing, and afterwards, about 1748, became a music-seller at Edinburgh, under the sign of the 'Harp and Hoboy.' He subsequently settled in London, and commenced business, with the same sign, 'opposite Somerset House in the Strand.' He arranged many collections of 'Scots Songs for Voice and Harpsichord.' He was also the author of 'Rudiments of Music, with Psalmody,' a work which went through many editions; 'Thoughts on the Performance of Concert Music'; 'Instructions for the Guitar,' etc. He died at Kensington, May 12, 1789.
[ E. F. R. ]
BRENDEL, Dr. Karl Franz, musical critic, born Nov. 25, 1811, at Stollberg in the Harz; educated at the Gymnasium of Freiberg in Saxony, where his father was Berg-Rath, and at the universities of Leipsic and Berlin. Music always formed his special pursuit, in which he was mainly assisted by Anacker and Wieck. He began his public career with lectures on the history of music, delivered in Freiberg and in Dresden. In 1844 he settled in Leipsic as proprietor of Schumann's 'Neue Zeitschrift,' which he edited from Jan. 1, 1845, at the same time teaching musical history and æsthetics in Mendelssohn's newly established Conservatorium. Here he delivered the public lectures on which he founded his most comprehensive work, 'Geschichte der Musik in Italien, Frankreich, und Deutschland' (1852; 4th edition 1867), an attempt to treat the various historical developments of the art from one practical point of view. More important however were his articles in the 'Neue Zeitschrift,' written as a strenuous advocate of modern ideas in music. His first efforts were devoted to the recognition of Schumann; but in