Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/36

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{ \time 4/4
 << \new ChoirStaff << \new Staff { \clef treble \key ees \major \relative e'' 
   << { ees4.^\markup { \italic "Gt. Organ, Bourdon, Stopped Diapason and Flute." } bes8 ees[ g16. f32] ees8[ d] |
        c c[ d ees] f2 ~ | f8[ bes16. d,32] ees8[ f]\trill g2 ~ |
        g8[ c16. e,32] f8[ g]\trill aes2 ~ | aes8[ g16 f] aes[ g f ees] d8[ ees16 c] ees8[ d] | ees4 }
      { g,8[ bes16. aes32] g8[ f] g2 | aes8[ c16. bes32] aes8[ g] f a] bes c_\trill] |
        d[ bes] ~ bes4 bes8 b[ c d] | ees[ c] ~ c4 ~ c8[ f16. ees32] d8_\turn[ ees16 c] |
        bes4. c8 bes[ c bes aes] | g4 }
    >> }
    \new Staff { \clef treble \key ees \major \relative b
      { bes4. f'8 ees2 ~ | ees4 f8[ bes,] ~ bes c[ d <ees a>] |
        << \relative b' { bes d,16.[ f32] ees8[ <aes d,>] <g ees> d[ ees f]\trill |
             ees[ e16. g32] f8[ <bes ees,>] <aes f>[ c16. bes32] aes8[ g] | }
           { bes'8 bes, ~ bes4 ~ bes8 d[ c b] | c2 ~ c4 s | } 
        >> f8[ d ees c] f[ aes g <f bes,>] | <ees bes>4 } } 
\new Staff { \clef bass \key ees \major \relative e
   { ees8[_\markup { \italic "Pedal 16 ft., with Great Organ coupled." } g16. f32] ees8[ d] c[ ees16. d32] c8[ bes] |
     aes[ aes'16. g32] f8[ ees] d[ f16. ees32] d8[ c] | bes[ bes'16. aes32] g8[ f] ees[ g16. f32] ees8[ d] |
     c[ c'16. bes32] aes8[ g] f[ aes16. g32] f8[ ees] | d[ bes ees aes] bes[ aes bes bes,] | ees4 }

The foregoing examples illustrate the manner in which English anthem solos and their symphonies, presenting as they do such varied outline, may be accompanied and filled up. But in the choral parts of anthems equally appropriate instrumental effects can also frequently be introduced, by reason of the improvements that have been made in English organs within the last thirty years. The introduction of the tuba on a fourth manual has been an accession of great importance in this respect. Take for illustration the chorus by Kent (1700–1776), 'Thou, O Lord, art our Father, our Redeemer,' the climax of which is, in the original, rather awkwardly broken up into short fragmentary portions by rests, but which can now be appropriately and advantageously united by a few intermediate jubilant notes in some such manner as the following—:

{ \time 3/2
 << \new ChoirStaff << \new Staff { \clef treble \relative e' 
   << { <g e>1^\markup { \italic "Great Organ with Double Diapason." } <e' g,>2 | <b g>1 r2 |
        r2 <c g> c | d c r | r <c g> c | <d b> c r | r r <e c> <d b>1 e2 ~ | e4 f <e c>2 <d b g> | <c g> <g e> }
      { c,1 c2 | d1 s2 | s e g | <b g> g s | s e g | g g s | s1 g2 | g1 <g c>2 | <c a> g f | e c }
    >> }
    \new Staff { \clef treble \relative g'
      { r1. | r | g_\markup { \italic Tuba } ~ | g2. g,4 c e | g1. ~ | g2. g,4 c e | g c, e g c2 | d1 c2 ~ | c g g4. g8 | g1 } } 
\new Staff { \clef bass \relative c
   { c1^\markup { \italic Ped. } e2 | g1 r2 | r c, e | f e r | r c e | f e r | r r c | g'1 c2 | f, g g, | 
     c1^\markup { \raise #2 \smaller etc. } }

Again, in Dr. Greene's anthem, 'God is our hope and strength,' occurs a short chorus, 'O behold the works of the Lord,' which, after a short trio, is repeated, in precisely the same form as that in which it previously appears. According to the modern rules of musical construction and development it would be considered desirable to add some fresh feature on the repetition, to enhance the effect. This can now be supplied in this way, or in some other analogous to it.

{ \time 3/4 \override Score .Rest #'style = #'classical 
 << \new ChoirStaff << \new Staff { \clef treble \key d \major \relative a' { <d a fis>2^\markup { \italic "Great Organ, with Double Diapason." } r4 | r <d a fis>4. <cis g e>8 | <d fis, d>2 r8 <d fis, d> | <d a d,>2 r8 <d a d,> | <d b d,>4 <cis g e>4. <d a fis>8 | <e cis a>2 r8 <cis a e> | <d fis, d>2 r8 <e a, g> | <fis a, fis>2 r8 <d a> | <d b d,>4 <d a d,> <cis a e>8 <d a d,> | <d a d,>2. \bar "||" } }
    \new Staff { \clef treble \key d \major \relative d'' 
      { <d d,>2^\markup { \italic Tuba } r4 | \autoBeamOff <a' a,>2 ~ <a a,>8 <a a,> | <fis fis,>4 <fis fis,>2 ~ | \autoBeamOn <fis fis,>4 <d d,>4. d8 | <b' d,>4 <g a,>4. <fis a,>8 | <e a,>4 <a a,>2 | r4 <a a,>2 | r4 <d d,>4. <a d,>8 | <g d>4 <fis d> <e a,>8 <d fis,> | <d fis,>2. | } } 
\new Staff { \clef bass \key d \major \relative c
   { d2 r4 | r d4. a8 | b2 r8 b'8 | fis2 r8 fis | g4 e4. d8 | a2 r8 a | b2 r8 cis | d2 r8 fis | g4 a a, | d2. | } }

The organ part to Dr. Arnold's collection of Cathedral Music, published in 1790, consists chiefly of treble and bass, with figures; so does that to the Cathedral Music of Dr. Dupuis, printed a few years later. Vincent Novello's organ part to Dr. Boyce's Cathedral Music, issued about five-and-twenty years ago, on the contrary, was arranged almost as exclusively in 'short score.' Thus after a period of three centuries, and after experiment and much experience, organ accompaniments, in the case of full choral pieces, came to be written down on precisely the same principle on which they were prepared at the commencement of that period.

Illustrations showing the way of interpreting figured basses could be continued to almost any extent, but those already given will probably be sufficient to indicate what may be done in the way of accompaniment, when the organ will permit, and when the effects of the modern orchestra are allowed to exercise some influence.

Chants frequently offer much opportunity for