regarded with interest, and gave his journalistic aid to, the theatrical creation of that enterprising composer the 'Bouffes Parisiens.'
[ F. H. ]
ADAM, Louis, born at Miettershelz in Alsace, 1758 [App. p.518 "Dec. 3"], died in Paris 1848 [App. p.518 "April 11, 1849"]; a pianist of the first rank; appeared in Paris when only seventeen as the composer of two symphonies-concertantes for the harp, piano, and violin, the first of their kind, which were performed at the Concerts Spirituels. Having acquired a reputation for teaching, in 1797 he was appointed professor at the Conservatoire, a post he retained forty-five years, training many eminent pupils, of whom the most celebrated are Kalkbrenner, Hérold, father and son, Chaulieu, Henri le Moine, and Mme. Renaud d'Allen, and last, though not least, his own more famous son, Adolphe Charles.
Adam was a remarkable example of what may be done by self culture, as he had scarcely any professional training, and not only taught himself the harp and violin, and the art of composition, but formed his excellent style as a pianist by careful study of the works of the Bachs, Handel, Scarlatti, Schobert, and later of Clementi and Mozart. His 'Méthode de doigté' (Paris, 1798) and 'Méthode Nouvelle pour le Piano' (1802), have passed through many editions.
[ M. C. C. ]
ADAMBERGER, Valentin. Singer, born at Munich July 6, 1743. Remarkable for his splendid tenor voice and admirable method. He was taught singing by Valesi, and at his instance went to Italy, where he met with great success under the Italianised name of Adamonti. He was recalled to Vienna by the Emperor Joseph, and made his first appearance in German opera at the Hof-und-National-Theater there on Aug. 21, 1780. In the interim however he had visited London, where he sang in Sacchini's 'Creso' at the King's Theatre in 1777. In 1789 he entered the Imperial Chapel. Later in life he became renowned as a teacher of singing. It was for him that Mozart composed the part of Belmonte in the 'Seraglio,' as well as the fine airs 'Per pietà,' 'Aura che intorno,' and 'A te, fra tante affanni' (Davidde Penitente). He also appeared in the 'Schauspiel-Director' of the same master. In 1782 he married Anna Maria [App. p.518 "Maria Anna"], daughter of Jacquet the actor, herself a noted actress. She died 1804. His daughter Antoine [App. p.518 "Antonie"], also a player, a woman of much talent and amiability, was betrothed to Körner the poet, but their union was prevented by his death in action, Aug. 26, 1813, after which, 1817, she married Jos. Arneth, trustee to the imperial cabinet of antiquities. Fétis and others give Adamberger's name Joseph, and his death as on June 7, 1803—both incorrect. He died in Vienna, Aug. 24, 1804, aged sixty-one. Mozart's letters contain frequent references to him, and always of an affectionate and intimate character. Through all the difficulties and vicissitudes of theatrical life, nothing occurred to interrupt their intercourse, though evidence is not wanting that Adamberger's temper was none of the best. Mozart took his advice on musical matters, and on one occasion names him as a man 'of whom Germany may well be proud.'
[ C. F. P. ]
ADAMI DA BOLSENA, Andrea. Born at Bolsena, 1663. On the recommendation of Cardinal Ottoboni (Corelli's patron) he was appointed master of the Pope's chapel, and acting professor of music. While in this post Adami wrote 'Osservazioni per ben regolare il Coro dei Cantori della Capella Ponteficia,' etc., (Rome, 1711), which is in reality a history of the Papal chapel, with twelve portraits and memoirs of the principal singers. He died, July 22, 1742, much esteemed both as a man and a musician.
[ C. F. P. ]
ADAMS, Thomas, was born Sept. 5, 1785. He commenced the study of music, under Dr. Busby, at eleven years of age. In 1802 he obtained the appointment of organist of Carlisle Chapel, Lambeth, which he held until 1814, in which year (on March 22) he was elected, after a competition in playing with twenty-eight other candidates, organist of the church of St. Paul's, Deptford. On the erection of the church of St. George, Camberwell, in 1824, Adams was chosen as its organist, and on the opening of the church (March 26, 1824), an anthem for five voices, 'O how amiable are Thy dwellings,' composed by him for the occasion, was performed. In 1833 he was appointed organist of the then newly re-built church of St. Dunstan-in-the West, Fleet Street, which post he held, conjointly with that of Camberwell, until his death. From their commencement Adams for many years superintended the annual evening performances on the Apollonicon, a large chamber organ of peculiar construction (containing both keys and barrels), and of great power, built by Flight and Robson, and first exhibited by them at their manufactory in St. Martin's Lane in 1817. For a period of upwards of a quarter of a century Adams occupied a very prominent position as a performer on the organ. Excelling in both the strict and free styles, he possessed a remarkable faculty for extemporising. His services were in constant requisition by the organ-builders to exhibit the qualities of their newly built organs, prior to their removal from the factories to their places of destination. On such occasions the factories were crowded by professors and amateurs, anxious of witnessing the performances, and Adams played from ten to twelve pieces of the most varied kind, including two or three extemporaneous effusions, not only with great effect, but often with remarkable exhibition of contrapuntal skill, and in a manner which enraptured his hearers. Even in so small a field as the interludes then customary between the verses of a psalm tune, he would exhibit this talent to an extraordinary degree. Adams was a composer for, as well as a performer on, his instrument. He published many organ pieces, fugues, and voluntaries, besides ninety interludes, and several variations on popular themes. He also published numerous variations for the pianoforte, and many vocal pieces, consisting of short