indefatigable pen. His active life closed on July 15, 1857, shortly after he had, with the help of his friend Dr. Leopold von Sonnleithner, disposed of his considerable fortune in a princely manner. Czerny was never married, and had neither brothers, sisters, nor other near relations. He was modest and simple in his manner of life, courteous and friendly in his behaviour, just and kindly in his judgment on matters of art, and helpful to all young artists who came in his way. His disposition was so gentle that he shrank from a harsh or coarse word even spoken in jest, which was partly the cause of his living so much in retirement. His industry was truly astounding. Besides his numerous printed works, which embrace compositions of every species for pianoforte he left an enormous mass of MS., now in the archives of the 'Gesellschaft der Musik-freunde' at Vienna. These compositions comprise 24 masses, 4 requiems, 300 graduales and offertoires, symphonies, overtures, concertos, string-trios and quartets, choruses, songs for one or more voices, and even pieces for the stage. His book 'Umriss der ganzen Musikgeschichte' was published (1851) by Schott of Mayence, and in Italian by Ricordi of Milan. His arrangements of operas, oratorios, symphonies, and overtures for 2 and 4 hands, and for 8 hands on 2 pianofortes are innumerable. As a special commission he arranged the overtures to 'Semiramide' and 'Guillaume Tell' for 8 pianofortes four hands each. An arrangement for pianoforte of Beethoven's 'Leonora,' which he made in 1805, was of great service in training Czerny for this kind of work. He says in his Autobiography, 'It is to Beethoven's remarks on this work that I owe the facility in arranging which has been so useful to me in later life.' His printed compositions amount to nearly 1000: of which many consist of 50 numbers or even more. A catalogue containing op. 1–798, with the arrangements and the MS. works, is given in his 'School of practical composition' (op. 600, 3 vols. Cocks and Co.). Czerny's pianoforte compositions may be divided into three classes, scholastic, solid, and brilliant. The best of all, especially if we include the earlier works, are undoubtedly the scholastic, op. 299, 300, 335, 355, 399, 400, and 500, published under the title 'Complete Theoretical and Practical Pianoforte School' (3 vols. Cocks). However worthy of admiration Czerny's industry may be, there is no doubt that he weakened his creative powers by over-production, and the effect has been that the host of lesser works have involved the really good ones in undeserved forgetfulness.
[ C. F. P. ]
CZERWENKA, Joseph, born at Benadek in Bohemia 1759, died at Vienna 1835, one of the finest oboists of hia time. In 1789 entered the private band of Count Schafgotsche at Johannisberg in Silesia. In the following year played in Prince Esterhazy's band, under Haydn, where his uncle played the bassoon. In 1794 he settled in Vienna as solo oboist in the Imperial band, and the Court Theatre, and professor at the Conservatorium. He retired in 1820.
[ M. C. C. ]
CANTABILE, i.e. singable, a direction placed against an instrumental phrase when it is to be 'sung' with feeling. Beethoven does not often use it, and when he does it is always with special intention, as in the 2nd subject of the Larghetto of the B♭ Symphony, and in the semiquaver figure in the working out of the first movement of the 9th Symphony:—
He has before marked it 'expressivo'—but now it is as if he said 'you may see no special melody in this group, but I do, and will have it played accordingly.'
D.The second note of the natural scale. In solfaing it is called Re. The scale of D major contains F♯ and C♯, and its relative minor is B; that of D minor contains B♭, and its relative major is F. The dominant of D is A.
Among the most important compositions in D major are the Missa Solennis and 2nd Symphony of Beethoven; Handel's Dettingen Te Deum; Mozart's Parisian Symphony. In D minor there are a noble Toccata and Fugue by Bach; the Choral Symphony, Schumann's Do. No. 4, Pianoforte Concertos by Mendelssohn and Brahms, etc.
DA CAPO, or D.C.—'from the beginning'—is placed at the end of the second part of an air, or chorus ('O the pleasure"), or scherzo and trio, or other movement in two portions, to show that