in 1864 at Covent Garden, when it lasted two nights only, killed by a joke of Ronconi's. It was followed by 'Martha' (Vienna, Nov. 25, 1847), which was remodelled from a ballet written in conjunction with Burgmüller and Deldevez in 1844, and in its new form quickly spread all over the world (London, Covent Garden, 1858). These two works Flotow has never surpassed, and of his later operas 'Die Grossfürstin' (1850), 'Indra' (1853), 'Rübezahl' (1854), 'Hilda' (1855), 'Der Müller von Meran' (1856), 'La Veuve Grapin' (1859), 'L'Ombre' (1869 [App. p.637 "1870"]), 'Naïda' (Milan, 73), 'Il Flor [App. p.637 "Fiore"] d'Harlem' (Turin, 76), the only ones which have attained any general popularity were 'Indra,' 'La Veuve Grapin,' and 'L'Ombre,' the last of which was enormously successful not only in Paris, but in Italy and Spain, and has been produced in London (Her Majesty's) Jan. 12, 1878, as 'The Phantom.' His 'Enchanteresse' is in rehearsal at the Italiens, and his 'Rosellana' is not yet complete (Feb. 1878).
In 1856 he was appointed Intendant of the court theatre at Schwerin, a post which he retained till 1863. The only important works he produced during this period, when he had so many inducements to compose, were a 'Fackeltanz' and some charming music to Shakspeare's 'Winter's Tale.' After giving up the management of the theatre in 1863 he returned to Paris, and in 1868 removed to the neighbourhood of Vienna, where he still resides. His remaining compositions, overtures, songs, and chamber music, are little known, and call for no remark. In 1864 Flotow was elected corresponding member of the Institut de France. [App. p.637 "he died at Wiesbaden, Jan. 24, 1883."]
The great success of 'Stradella' and 'Martha' must be mainly ascribed to the melody which pervades them, and to their light and attractive character. Flotow' s comic talent is considerable, and he has great natural instinct for the stage. His early French experience taught him the virtue of lively and well-accentuated rhythm, and gave him dexterity in the construction of extended pieces, to which he writes pleasing harmony and piquant orchestration. On the other hand, his music has rarely anything below the surface, his rhythm frequently degenerates into that of mere dance-tunes, his modulations are poor, and he is prone to sentimentality, which, though popular in our days, is none the less morbid. In the scientific part of composition he too often betrays the amateur. On the whole the conclusion is forced upon us that, in spite of his popularity, Flotow will not live in the history of dramatic music.
[ A. M. ]
FLOWERS, George French, Mus. Doc., son of Rev. Field Flowers, Rector of Partney, Lincolnshire, born at Boston 1811, studied music in Germany under C. H. Rinck and Schnyder von Wartensee, and was for some time organist of the English Chapel in Paris. Returning home he became organist of St. Mark's Church, Myddelton Square. In 1839 he graduated as Bachelor of Music at Oxford. For a period he was the music critic of the 'Literary Gazette.' In 1848 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Professorship of Music at Oxford, as he was in 1863 for that in Gresham College. In 1851 he established 'The British School of Vocalization' for teaching singing on new principles, and in the two years following gave concerts for the purpose of exhibiting the progress made by his pupils, the most notable of whom was Miss Featherstone, now Mrs. Howard Paul. In 1865 Flowers proceeded Doctor of Music. He wrote an 'Essay on the construction of Fugue, with an Introduction containing new Rules of Harmony,' and composed Fugues in the style of Sebastian Bach, and other organ music, and Tennyson's Ode on the death of the Duke of Wellington, and other vocal pieces. He was also a copious contributor to the musical periodicals. He died of cholera, June 14, 1873.
[ W. H. H. ]
FLÜGEL (a wing). The German appellation of a grand pianoforte or a harpsichord, from the wing shape common to both. See Goethe's pun on geflügelte Geister in 'Goethe and Mendelssohn,' p. 24. Stutz Flügel is a short grand pianoforte. [See Harpsichord, Grand Piano.]
[ A. J. H. ]
FLÜGEL HORN. The German name for instruments of the Bugle family. Originally, say the dictionaries, a hunting horn (Waldhorn, Jagdhorn), used by the huntsman whose duty it was to watch in the Flügeln, or paths cut through the wood, and give a signal on the approach of the game. The Flügel horn now used in the English and German armies is a B♭ cornet with pistons and a horn mouthpiece. The pistons have superseded a clumsy kind of keys, from which it used to be called Klappenhorn. The name is also applied to several instruments in the Alto, Tenor, and Bass clefs.
[ W. H. S. ]
FLUE-WORK. Organ-stops, in regard to the manner in which their sound is generated, are grouped in two great classes—Reed-work and Flue-work. All organ-stops in which the sound is produced by the wind passing through a fissure, flue, or wind-way, and striking against an edge above, belong to the Flue-work, whatever may be the shape, make, or tone of their pipes. The peculiarities of shape or proportion, make, and tone, lead however to a subsequent division into Principal-work, Gedact-work, and Flute-work.
[ E. J. H. ]
FLUTE (Germ. Flöte, Querflöte; Ital. Flauto, Flauto traverso; Fr. Flûte, Flûte traversière). An ancient instrument used in every part of the world. It has always had two principal forms, the direct flute or Flute à bec, now developed into the Flageolet, and the German flute or Flûte traversière, which appears to have superseded it about 1720. There is however evidence of an intermediate instrument, partaking of the characters of both, which will be described farther on.
The Flute, as now employed, consists essentially of a tube, conical from below upwards, terminating in the Head, and stopped at the top by a cork. In the side of the head is a large orifice with sharp edges, situated less than an inch below the cork, through which the breath is forced