public concerts, visited England and France in 1860.
[ A. W. T. ]
GALLENBERG, Wenzel Robert, Graf von, of an old Carinthian family, born at Vienna Dec. 28, 1783, died at Rome March 13, 1839, has his place in musical history as a prolific composer and in virtue of his indirect connexion with Beethoven.
His passion for music, manifested at a very early age, led him to forego the advantages of an official career and to devote himself to the art. His master in the science was Albrechtsberger. On November 3, 1803, being then not quite twenty, he married the Countess Julie Guicciardi, who had been the object of one of Beethoven's transient but violent passions. [Guicciardi.]
During the winter following, young Gallenberg made his appearance in Würth's Sunday Concerts as author of several overtures, which made no impression. In 1805 we find the youthful couple in Naples, where at the great festival of May 31, 1805, in honour of Joseph Bonaparte, Gallenberg prepared the music, which was mostly of his own composition—3 overtures, 8 pieces for wind band, and dances for full orchestra. It was greatly applauded, and was doubtless one cause of his being appointed a year or two later to the charge of the music in the court theatre. The ballet troupe was one of the finest in Europe, and Gallenberg embraced the opportunity of improving the Neapolitan school of instrumental music by giving frequent adaptations of the best German productions—complete movements from Mozart, Haydn, Cherubini, and others, which opened new sources of delight, and afforded young composers new standards of excellence. Thus what the Neapolitan school had done for opera in Germany during the last century, was in some degree repaid by Gallenberg in this.
When Barbaja undertook the management of the court theatre at Vienna (Dec. 21, 1821), he introduced Gallenberg to assist in the management an arrangement which, however, existed but two years. In Jan. 1829 Gallenberg himself became lessee of this theatre on a contract for 10 years, which, though at first successful, soon came to an end from want of capital. From the autumn of 1816 to the spring of 1838 we again find him in Naples employed by Barbaja as ballet composer and director; and in March, 1839, we read of his death at Rome at the age of 56.
Gallenberg wrote from forty to fifty ballets, but the local records alone retain even the names of most. We add the titles of a few which in their day were reported as of some interest to the general musical public.
'Samson' (Naples and Vienna, 1811); 'Arsinoe and Telemaco' (Milan, 1813); 'I Riti Indiani' (Do. 1814); 'Amleto' (Do. 1815); 'Alfred der Grosse' (Vienna, 1820); 'Joan d'Arc' (Do. 1821); 'Margereta' (Do. 1822); 'Ismaana Grab' (Do. 1823); La Caravana del Cairo' (Naples, 1824); Ottavio Pinelli' (Vienna, 1828); 'Das befreite Jerusalem' (Do. Do.); 'Caesar in Egypten' (Do. 1829); 'Theodosia' (Do. 1831); 'Orpheus und Eurydice' (Do. Do.); 'Agnes und Fitz Henri' (Do. 1833); 'Biancas Wahl' (Do. 1835); 'Latona's Rache' (Do. 1838).
[ A. W. T. ]
GALLI, Cornelio, a native of Lucca, one of the Gentlemen of the Chapel to Queen Catharine in the time of Charles II. Mr. Berenclow told Humfrey Wanley, that he was a great master of the finest manner of singing, and was one of the first who introduced it into England.
[ J. M. ]
GALLI, Filippo, was born at Rome in 1783. Though destined for the clerical profession, young Galli's strong taste for music proved insurmountable. When only ten, he had developed a musical talent beyond his age, and was remarked as a player and accompanyist. His voice, when formed, was a fine tenor. At the age of 18 he married. Compelled by circumstances to choose a career, he selected that of Opera, and made his début, in the carnival of 1804, at Bologna. He met with a brilliant success, and became one of the first of Italian tenors; but six years afterwards a serious illness changed his voice completely, and made it a bass. Paisiello persuaded him to cultivate his new voice, and profit by the change. This he did, and became one of the greatest bassi cantanti that his country has produced. His first appearance in his new quality was in the carnival of 1812 at S. Mosè in Venice, in the 'Inganno Felice' of Rossini. He sang next at Milan, and then at Barcelona. Rossini wrote for him the parts of Fernando in 'La Gazza Ladra' and of 'Maometto.' Galli appeared for the first time at Paris, Sept. 18, 1821, in the former, and, though singing out of tune in the first act, achieved a considerable success on the whole. He returned to Paris in 1825, and made a great sensation: but his vocalisation had become rather slow and heavy. This defect was noticed when he came to London. Ebers engaged him with Zuchelli for the season of 1827, and his salary was fixed at £870. He made his first appearance, as usual, in 'La Gazza Ladra.' His voice was less flexible than Zuchelli's, but its tone was deep and full, and, according to Rossini, he was the only singer who ever filled the part of Assur satisfactorily. In 1828 Galli went to Spain; thence to Rome and Milan in 1830. In the following year he went to Mexico, and remained attached to the Opera in that city from 1832 to 1836. In 1839 and 40 he was singing at Barcelona and Milan, but was at length obliged to accept the place of chorus-master at Madrid and Lisbon. Amiable and cultivated, Galli had but one fault, that of boundless extravagance. At the end of 1842 he arrived at Paris in the greatest want, and, as a charity, obtained a professor's place at the Conservatoire. His chief income was derived from a yearly benefit concert, at which the Italian singers performed. Of this he was deprived in 1848. He then fell into great misery, and died June 3, 1853.
[ J. M. ]
GALLI, Signora, a mezzo-soprano, who made her début in Galuppi's 'Enrico,' Jan. 1, 1743, in London. She and Frasi, 'after transplantation