servations sur le traité historique et critique de M. Fournier, etc.' (Paris 1766), with the view of showing that Ballard's process was an imitation of Breitkopf's. It contained, amongst others, specimens of 6 pieces of ancient music printed by Ballard, and a Psalm by Roussier in Gando's own characters, and printed by his process, the notes and the lines requiring a separate impression, and the effect resembling copper plate. Fournier replied (see his 'Manuel typographique,' pp. 289–306), criticising the Gandos and their type, which was however superior to his own, though inferior to those of Breitkopf in their own day, and still more to those of Duverger and others since. The father died in 1767, the son in 1800, both in Paris.
[ M. C. C. ]
GANZ. A musical family of Mayence.
1. Adolf, born Oct. 14, 1796, a violinist, studied harmony under Hollbusch; conductor at Mayence (1819), Capellmeister to the Grand Duke of Hesse Darmstadt (1825); composed a melodrama, overtures, marches, Lieder, and choruses for men's voices.
2. His brother, Moritz, a cellist of the old school, born 1804 [App. p.645 "Sept 13, 1806"], was first cello under Adolph at Mayence, and (1826) in the royal band at Berlin, where he succeeded Duport and Romberg. In 1833 he visited Paris and London, returning to the latter in 37, when he and his brother Leopold played at the Philharmonic on May 1. In 1845 he led the violoncellos at the Beethoven Festival at Bonn. His tone is full and mellow, and his execution brilliant, though his style is of the old school. His compositions for his instrument are numerous, but few only have appeared in print. [App. p.645 "date of death, Jan. 22, 1868."]
3. The third brother, Leopold, violinist, was born at Mayence 1806 [App. p.645 "Nov. 28, 1810"], played much with Moritz in the style of the brothers Bohrer, whom they succeeded in the royal band at Berlin (1826). Leopold was well received at the Hague, Rotterdam, and Amsterdam, and in 1837 visited England with his brother. They published the duets in which their polished and brilliant execution had excited so much admiration. Leopold died in Berlin in 1869. Two sons of Adolf are known in the musical world—Edward, born at Mayence April 29, a pianoforte-player and pupil of Thalberg, died Nov. 26, 1869; and William (born 1830), who is well known in London as a teacher and accompanyist. [App. p.645 "William (more correctly Wilhelm) Ganz was conductor of the New Philharmonic Concerts during their last season of 1879, after which they were carried on till June 17, 1882, as 'Ganz's Orchestral Concerts.'"]
[ M. C. C. ]
GARAT, Pierre Jean, born at Ustaritz, April 75, 1764, died in Paris March 1, 1823, the most extraordinary French singer of his time. He was the son of an avocat, and destined for the bar, but early manifested a passion for music, which he studied under Franz Beck, composer and conductor at Bourdeaux. He seems however never to have gone deeply into the subject, for he was a poor reader, and owed his success to his natural gifts and the opportunity he enjoyed of hearing Gluck's works and of comparing the artists at the French and Italian operas in Paris. He possessed a fine-toned expressive voice of unusual compass, including both baritone and tenor registers, an astonishing memory, and a prodigious power of imitation, and may fairly be said to have excelled in all styles; but his great predilection throughout his life was for Gluck's music. Having been the favourite singer of Marie Antoinette, who twice paid his debts, he fled from Paris during the Terror, and with Rode took refuge at Hamburg, where the two gave very successful concerts. On his return to France he appeared at the 'Concert Feydeau' (1795) and the 'Concert de la rue Cléry' with such brilliant success that he was appointed professor of singing at the Conservatoire in 1799. Among his pupils were Roland, Nourrit, Despéramons, Ponchard, Levasseur, Mmes. Barbier-Walbonne, Chevalier-Branchu, Duret, Boulanger, Rigaut, and Mlle. Duchamp, whom he married when he was 55. He retained his voice till he was 50, and when that failed him tried to attract the public by eccentricities of dress and behaviour. He composed several romances, 'Bélisaire,' 'Le Ménestrel,' 'Je t'aime tant,' etc., extremely popular in their day, but now so monotonous and uninteresting as to make it evident that the style in which Garat sang them alone ensured their success.
[ G. C. ]
GARCIA, a Spanish family of musicians, who have been well characterised as 'representative artists, whose power, genius, and originality have impressed a permanent trace on the record of the methods of vocal execution and ornament' (Chorley). The founder of the family, Manuel del-Popolo-Vicente, was born at Seville Jan. 22, 1775. Beginning as a chorister in the Cathedral at the age of 6, at 17 he was already well known as composer, singer, actor, and conductor. By 1805 he had established his reputation at home, and his pieces—chiefly short comic operas—were performed all over Spain. He made his début in Paris, Feb. 11, 1808, in Paër's 'Griselda,' singing in Italian for the first time. Within a month he had become the chief singer at that theatre. In 1809 he produced his 'Poeta calculista,' originally brought out at Madrid in 1805. In 1811 he set out for Italy. At Naples Murat appointed him (1812) first tenor in his chapel. There he met Anzani, one of the best tenors of the old Italian school, by whose hints he profited largely. There also, still combining the rôles of singer and composer, he produced his 'Califo di Bagdad,' which obtained an immense success. In 1815 Rossini wrote for him one of the principal rôles in 'Elisabetta,' and in 1816 that of Almaviva. About the end of 1816 he returned from Naples to England, and thence to Paris, where he revived his 'Califo,' and produced 'Le Prince d'occasion,' and sang in Catalani's troupe, where he made a great hit as Paulino in the 'Matrimonio Segreto.' Annoyed by Catalani's management, he left Paris for London about the end of 1817. In the ensuing season he sang in the 'Barbiere' with Mme. Fodor, and in other operas, with much éclat. In 1819 he returned to Paris, and sang in the 'Barbiere,' not till then heard there. There he remained till 1823, performing in 'Otello,' 'Don Giovanni,' etc., and composing 'La mort du Tasse' and 'Florestan' for the