monic Society's concerts. She taught the Piano to Princess, now Queen, Victoria and her children. She died Dec. 24, 1878.
[ W. H. H. ]
ANDRE, Johann, the head of an extensive musical family, was born at Offenbach, A.M. on March 28, 1741. His father was proprietor of a silk factory, and the boy was intended to carry on the business. But the love of music was too strong in him ; he began by teaching himself, until in 1761 he happened to encounter an Italian opera company at Frankfort, which added fresh food to his desire. His first comic opera, 'Der Töpfer' (the Potter), was so successful as to induce Goethe to confide to him his operetta of 'Erwin und Elmire,' (1764) which had equal success, as had also some songs produced at the same time. After this André received a call to act as director of the music at the Dobblin Theatre in Berlin, which he obeyed by settling in Berlin with his family, after handing over the factory (to which since 1774 he had added a music printing office) to his younger brother. Here he enjoyed the instruction of Marpurg, and composed a quantity of songs, dramas, and other pieces for the theatre. Not being able however, owing to the distance, to give the necessary attention to the printing-office, he returned to Offenbach at the end of seven years, and resided there in the pursuit of his business and his music till his death on June 18, 1799. Before that date his establishment had issued the large number of 1200 works, and he himself had composed, in addition to many instrumental pieces, some thirty operas and dramas, and a vast number of melodious songs and vocal pieces, many of which became popular, amongst them the still favourite Volkslied 'Bekränzt mit Laub.' Among his operas was one by Bretzner in four acts, 'Belmonte und Constanza, oder die Entführung aus dem Serail,' produced in Berlin on May 26, 1781, and often repeated with applause. Shortly afterwards, on July 12 [App. p.523 "16"], 1782, appeared Mozart's setting of the same opera, with alterations and additions to the text by Stephanie. A paper war followed between the two librettists, during which André took occasion to speak nobly on the side of Stephanie, notwithstanding his having assisted Mozart in the preparation of an opera which had far surpassed his own. After André's death the business was carried on by his third son, Johann Anton, the most remarkable member of the family. He was born at Offenbach, Oct. 6, 1775, and while almost an infant showed great predilection and talent for music. He was an excellent player both on the violin and piano, and a practised composer before entering at the University of Jena, where he went through the complete course of study. He was thus fully competent on the death of his father in 1799 to assume the control of the business, and indeed to impart to it fresh impulse by allying himself with Senefelder the inventor of lithography, a process which he largely applied to the production of music. In the same year with his father's death he visited Vienna, and acquired from Mozart's widow the entire musical remains of the great composer, an act which spread a veritable halo round the establishment of which he was the head. André published the thematic catalogue which Mozart himself had kept of his works from Feb 9, 1784 to Nov. 15, 1791, as well as a further thematic catalogue of the whole of the autographs of the master which had come into his possession. André was equally versed in the theory and the practice of music ; he attempted every branch of composition, from songs to operas and symphonies, with success. Amongst other things he was the author of 'Proverbs,' for four voices (op. 32), an elaborate joke which has recently been the object of much dispute, owing to its having been published in 1869 by Aibl of Munich as a work of Haydn's. As a teacher he could boast of a series of distinguished scholars. His introduction to the violin and his treatise on harmony and counterpoint were both highly esteemed. So also were the two first volumes of his unfinished work on composition. André was dignified with the title of Hofrath, and by the accumulation of musical treasures he converted his house into a perfect pantheon of music. He died on April 8, 1842. An idea of the respect in which he was held may be gained from various mentions of him in Mendelssohn's letters, especially that of July 14, 1836, and a very characteristic account of a visit to him in Killer's 'Mendelssohn,' chapter i. Of his sons mention may be made of August, the present proprietor of the establishment, and publisher of the 'Universal-Lexikon der Tonkunst' of Schladebach and Bernsdorf; of Johann Baptist, pupil of Aloys Schmitt and Kessler, and afterwards of Taubert and Dehn, a resident in Berlin [App. p.523 "died Dec. 9, 1882"]; of JULIUS, who addicted himself to the organ, and was the author of a 'Practical Organ School,' which has gone through several editions, and of various favourite pieces for that instrument, as well as of four hand arrangements of Mozart's works [App. p.523 "died Apr. 17, 1880"]; lastly of Karl August, who in 1835 undertook the management of the branch establishment opened at Frankfort by his father in 1828, adding to it a manufactory of pianos, and a general musical instrument business. He named his house 'Mozarthaus,' and the pianos manufactured there 'Mozartfliigel,' each instrument being ornamented with a portrait of the master from the original painting by Tischbein in his possession. In 1855, on the occasion of the Munich Industrial Exhibition, he published a volume entitled 'Pianoforte making: its history, musical and technical importance ('Der Klavierbau,' etc.).
[ C. F. P. ]
ANDREOLI, Giuseppe, a celebrated contrabassist, born at Milan in 1757, died in 1832; member of the orchestra of La Scala and professor of his instrument at the Conservatorio of Milan; also played the harp with success.
[ T. P. H. ]