ARCADELT, Jacob, one of the most prominent among the distinguished band of Netherland musicians who taught in Italy in the 16th century and saw the fruit of their labours in the foundation of the great Italian school. He was singing-master to the boys at St. Peter's, Rome, during the year 1539, and was admitted to the college of papal singers in 1540. Many masses and motets of Arcadelt are among the manuscripts of the papal chapel, but those of his works which were published during his life in Rome were entirely secular, and consisted chiefly of the famous madrigals which placed him at the head of the so-called "Venetian school" of madrigal writing. Five books of madrigals, each containing forty or fifty separate numbers, were printed in Venice, and many editions of these were published with great rapidity. An excellent copy of the first four books is in the library of the British Museum, and in the same library may be found a few of the many collections of madrigals which contain compositions by Arcadelt. In the year 1555 he entered the service of Cardinal Charles of Lorraine, duke of Guise, and went with him to Paris, where he probably ended his life. In Paris three books of his masses were published in 1557, and other sacred works appear in collections printed since he left Italy. It seems probable therefore that he devoted this second or Parisian period of his life to church composition, but it is as a madrigal writer that his name is most celebrated. Thus Pitoni, in speaking of the first book of madrigals, says that their exceedingly lovely and natural style caused them still to be sung in his time (1657–1743). Burney gives one, 'II bianca,' in his 'History' (iii. 303); and two to Michel Angelo's words 'Deh dimm' Amor,' and 'Io dico che fra voi,' will be found in Gotti's 'Vita di M.' (1875). An Ave Maria has been edited by Sir Henry Bishop and other English musicians, is quoted by Mr. Hullah in his musical lectures, and has been printed in the 'Musical Times' (No. 183); but the authorship is disputed. A Pater noster for 8 voices is given by Commer, 'Collectio,' viii. 21. [App. p.523 "See also ii. 188, where the beginning of 'Il bianco e dolce cigno' is given."]
[ J. R. S.-B. ]
ARCHLUTE (Fr. L'Archiluth; Ital. Arciliuto; Ger. Erzlaute). A large theorbo or double-necked lute, large especially in the dimensions of the body, and more than four feet high;—that in the figure is 4 ft. 5 in. over all. The double neck contains two sets of tuning pegs, the lower—in the subjoined example in South Kensington Museum—holding 14, and the upper 10. The strings of catgut or metal were often in pairs, tuned in unison, and comprised a compass of about two octaves from G below the bass clef. The archlute is described by Mersenne ('Harmonie Universelle,' 1636) and Kircher ('Musurgia,' 1650), but not being named in Luscinius (1536) it may be assumed to be of later introduction than that date. It was used in the 17th century in common with the chitarrone and violone (bass viol) for the lowest part in instrumental music and accompaniments, particularly in combination with the clavicembalo for the support of the recitative. Early editions of Corelli's Sonatas had for the bass the violone or arciliuto, and Handel also employed the archlute. The sound-board, pierced with from one to three ornamental soundholes, was of pine, and the vaulted back was built up of strips of pine or cedar glued together. The frets adjusted along the neck to fix the intervals were of wire or catgut, examples differing. A wealth of ornament was bestowed upon the necks and backs of these beautiful instruments, in common with other varieties of the lute and cither. The chitarrone had a smaller body and much longer neck, and differs so much as to require separate description. In the photographs published by the Liceo Comunale di Musica of Bologna, the application of the names archlute and chitarrone is reversed. (See Chitarrone, Lute, Theorbo.)
[ A. J. H. ]
ARCO, Italian for 'bow.' As a musical term 'arco' or 'col arco' is employed whenever after a pizzicato passage the bow is to be used again.
[ P. D. ]
ARDITI, Luigi, born at Crescentino in Piedmont. July 16, 1825 [App. p.523 "Paloschi gives July 22, 1822, as the date of his birth."]; studied music at the Conservatorio at Milan, and began his career as a violin player. In 1840 he produced an overture, and in the Carnival of 1841 an opera 'I Briganti,' at the Conservatorio. In 1842 he followed these by a second Overture and a 'Sovenir di Donizetti.' He made his debut as director of the opera at Vercelli in 1843, and was made honorary member of the Accademia Filarmonica there. In 1846 he left Italy with Bottesini for the Havannah, where he composed and produced an opera 'Il Corsaro.' He made frequent visits to New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, and amongst other things conducted the opera at the opening of the Academy of Music in New York, and produced a new opera of his own 'La Spia' (1856). The same year he left America for Constantinople, and finally settled in London in