Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/167

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Duke of Newcastle, who had represented the English Court at the coronation. There[1] Lobkowitz is said to have lived in a house of the Duke's for two years, and it was during this time that Gluck produced his operas at the King's Theatre, and appeared in public in the strange character of a performer on the musical glasses. [See Gluck, vol. i. 601a; Harmonica, 662a.] A story is told by Burney of his having composed a symphony bar by bar alternately with Emanuel Bach. The feat was an absurd one, but it at least shows that he had considerable practical knowledge of music. He died at Vienna, Jan. 11, 1784, and was succeeded by his son Josef Franz Maximilian, born Dec. 7, 1772. This is the prince whose name is so familiar to us in connection with Beethoven. He seems, notwithstanding the temptations of his immense early wealth, to have been an exemplary character, with no vices, and with no fault but an inconsiderate generosity rising to prodigality, which ultimately proved his ruin. He married Princess Marie Caroline Schwarzenberg, Aug. 2, 1792. His taste for music was an absorbing passion. He played both violin and cello, and had a splendid bass voice, which he cultivated thoroughly and with success. He maintained a complete establishment of orchestra, solo and chorus singers, with Wranitzky and Cartellieri at their head, for the performances of masses, oratorios, operas, symphonies, etc. When Beethoven arrived at Vienna in Nov. 1792, Lobkowitz was twenty, and the two young men soon became extremely intimate. True, beyond the frequent mention of his name in Ries's Recollections, there is not much definite proof of this[2]; but it is conclusively shown by the works dedicated to him by Beethoven; for we must remember that the dedication of a work by this most independent of composers, was, in nineteen cases out of twenty, a proof of esteem and affection. The works are these—and excepting those inscribed with the name of the Archduke Rudolph they form the longest and most splendid list of all his dedications: 6 Quartets, op. 18 (1801); Sinfonia Eroica, op. 55 (1806); Triple Concerto, op. 56 (1807) 5 tne 5th and 6th Symphonies—in C minor and Pastorale (1809)—shared by Lobkowitz with Rasumowsky; Quartet in E♭, op. 74 (1810); and the Liederkreis, op. 98 (1816). We must not suppose that the course of such a friendship as this betokens was always smooth; the anecdote told on p.167 of vol. i. of this work, shows that Prince Lobkowitz, like all the intimates of Beethoven, and other men of genius, had occasionally a good deal to put up with. No doubt the Prince was a kind and generous friend to the composer. It was he who advised him to apply for the position of composer to the opera, and promoted two profitable concerts for him in his own palace and with his own band in 1807. Two years later he joined Kinsky and the Archduke in subscribing to Beethoven's annuity, contributing 700 florins (paper) per annum. On Jan. 1, 1807, an association of noblemen, with Lobkowitz at its head, took charge of the Court theatres, and during 1810, 11, and 12, the Prince had the sole direction of the opera. The anecdotes by eyewitnesses of his tact and generosity in this position are many, but we have no room for them here. Nor are others wanting to testify to his enlightened zeal in reference to other musicians beside Beethoven. He was one of the promoters and founders of the great 'Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde' in Vienna, and sang the bass solos at the second performance of Alexander's Feast, Dec. 3, 1812 [See Vol. i. p. 591 ]. He had Haydn's 'Creation' translated into Bohemian, and performed it at Raudnitz. In addition to his great expenditure on music, he, like Kinsky, raised, equipped, and maintained a body of riflemen during the campaign of 1809. At length came the depreciation in the Austrian currency, the bankruptcy of the Government, and the Finance-patent of 1811. Lobkowitz was unable to change his habits or reduce his expenditure, and in 1813 his affairs were put into the hands of trustees, and he left Vienna for the smaller spheres of Prague and Raudnitz. By the Finance-patent Beethoven's 700 florins were reduced to 280 flor. 26 kr. in Einlösungsscheine—all that the trustees had power to pay. Beethoven was clamorous, and his letters are full of complaints against the Prince—most unjust as it turned out, for early in 1815, through the Prince's own exertions the original amount was restored with arrears. Beethoven acknowledged this by the dedication of the Liederkreis. On Jan. 24, 1816, the Princess Lobkowitz died, and in less than a year, on Dec. 16, 1816 was followed by her husband.[3]

[ A. W. T. ]

LOCATELLI, Pietro, a celebrated violinist, was born—like Lolli and Piatti—at Bergamo in 1693, and was still very young when he became a pupil of Corelli at Rome. Very little is known of his life, but he appears to have travelled a good deal, and finally to have settled at Amsterdam, where he established regular public concerts, and died in 1764.

There can be no doubt that Locatelli was a great and original virtuoso. As a composer we must distinguish between a number of caprices and études—which he evidently wrote merely for practice, to suit his exceptional powers of execution, and which have no musical value—and the sonatas and concertos, which contain very graceful and pathetic movements, and certainly prove him to have been an excellent musician. In these serious works he certainly shows himself as a worthy disciple of his great master. All the more striking is the contrast when we look at his caprices and études. Here his sole aim appears to have been to endeavour to enlarge the powers of execution on the violin at any price, and no doubt in this respect he has succeeded only too well; for, not content with

  1. Comp. Burney, Hist. iv. 452.
  2. Beethoven nicknames him 'Prince Fitzli Futzli' but then he nicknames every one.
  3. For fuller details of the Lobkowitz family the reader is referred to a paper by Mr. Thayer in the Musical World of May 17, 21, 31, 1879.