writer (1798); Reg. Spofforth, the glee-writer, and Robert Cooke, master of the Westminster choristers (1802); W. Beale (1805); Dr. Callcott (1806); W. Hawes and W. Linley (1809); G. E. Williams, organist of Westminster Abbey (1814); Sir J. L. Rogers, bart., and T. Greatorex, organist of Westminster Abbey (1819); J.T. Cooper (1825); Jonathan Nield, Rev. W. J. Hall (1828); P.J. Salomons (1829); Vincent Novello and Thomas Oliphant, afterwards secretary (1830); J.W. Hobbs, J. Calkin (1831); G. Cooper, deputy organist of St. Paul's, James Turle, organist of Westminster Abbey (1832). The present members include Dr. Stainer, organist of St. Paul's Cathedral; J. Turle; Dr. Bridge; E. J. Hopkins; W. Chappell, F.S.A.; Dr. W. Pole; Otto Goldschinidt; Dr. John Hullah, and Rev. T. Helmore. Up to 1820 the members presided in rotation, but in that year it was resolved to appoint Sir J.L. Rogers as permanent president. The office has since been filled by Lord Saltoun, 1842–53; Sir George Clerk, Bt., 1853–66; Prince Dhuleep Singh, 1867–71; Thomas Oliphant, 1871–73; Hon. and Rev. H. Legge, 1874–77. It is now vacant. [App. p.708 "in 1878 the Right Hon. Earl Beauchamp was appointed."] The Librarians have been:—J.P. Street, 1792–1848; John Bishop, 1849–70; C.D. Budd, 1871–78; J.C. Meek, 1879. The conductors or musical directors permanently appointed since W. Hawes, 1809–46, have been: James Turle, 1846–49; James King, 1849–54; Cipriani Potter, 1855–70; Otto Goldschmidt, 1871–77; Dr. John Stainer, 1878. [App. p.708 "in 1887 Dr. Stainer was succeeded as director of the music by Dr. J. F. Bridge and Mr. Eaton Faning."] Dr. John Hullah and Dr. J. F. Bridge have been assistant conductors since 1878. Under the present rules the Society consists of forty members, elected by ballot, the subscription (including dinner fees) being five guineas, and for professional members three guineas. [App. p.708 "Since 1881 two prizes of £10 and £5 respectively, have been awarded annually for the two best madrigals. From the list of present members all names except those of Drs. Stainer and Bridge, and Mr. Otto Goldschmidt, are to be omitted."] The following was the programme at the Society's last Festival, June 19, 1879:—100th Psalm, arranged by Dr. W. Pole (8 parts); 'Come, shepherds, follow me' (Bennet); 'Sister, awake' (Bateson); 'Cynthia, thy song' (Croce); 'Die not, fond man' (Ward); 'Fair Oriana' (Hilton); 'O say, ye saints' (Sir J. Rogers); 'Stay one moment, gentle river' (Oliphant); 'Shall I, wasting in despair' (G.A. Osborne); 'Take heed, ye shepherd swains' (Pearsall); 'Lady, your eye' (Weelkes); 'Lady, see on every side' (Marenzio); 'Nymphs are sporting' (Pearsall); 'Fa-la-la.' Mr. J. Edward Street is the present secretary; and Mr. Kellow J. Pye the treasurer.
[ C. M. ]
MAELZEL, Johann Nepomuk, born Aug. 15, 1772, at Ratisbon, son of an organ builder. In 1792 he settled in Vienna, and devoted himself to teaching music, and to constructing an automaton instrument of flutes, trumpets, drums, cymbals, triangle, and strings struck by hammers, which played music by Haydn, Mozart, and Crescentini, and was sold for 3000 florins. His next machine was the Panharmonicon, like the former, but with clarinets, violins, and cellos added. It was worked by weights acting on cylinders, and was exhibited in Vienna in 1804. Maelzel then bought Kempelen's Chessplayer; and took it with the Panharmonicon to Paris. The Chessplayer he afterwards sold to Eugene Beauharnais. He next constructed a Trumpeter, which played the Austrian and French cavalry marches and signals, with marches and allegros by Weigl, Dussek, and Pleyel. In 1808 he was appointed court mechanician, and about that time made some ear trumpets, one of which Beethoven used for years. In 1812 he opened the 'Art Cabinet,' among the attractions of which were the Trumpeter and a new and enlarged Panharmonicon; and soon afterwards made public a musical chronometer, an improvement of a machine by Stöckel, for which he obtained certificates from Beethoven and other leading musicians. Maelzel and Beethoven were at this time on very friendly terms. They had arranged to visit London together, and Maelzel had meantime aided the great master in his impecuniosity by urging on him a loan of 50 ducats in gold. In order to add to the attractions of the Panharmonicon, which they proposed to take with them, Maelzel conceived and sketched in detail the design of a piece to commemorate the Battle of Vittoria (June 21, 1813), which Beethoven composed for the instrument. While it was being arranged on the barrel, Maelzel further induced him to score it for the orchestra, with the view to obtain funds for the journey; and it was accordingly scored, and performed at a concert on Dec. 8, 1813, the programme of which consisted of the Symphony No. 7; the marches of Dussek and Pleyel, by the automaton, and the Battle-piece. The concert was repeated on the 12th, and the two yielded a net profit of over 4000 florins. At this point Beethoven took offence at Maelzel's having announced the Battle-piece as his property, broke completely with him, rejected the Trumpeter and his marches, and held a third concert (Jan. 2, 1814) for his own sole benefit. After several weeks of endeavour to arrange matters, Maelzel departed to Munich with his Panharmonicon, including the Battle-piece, and also with a full orchestral score of the same, which he had obtained without Beethoven's concurrence and caused to be performed at Munich. Beethoven on this entered an action against him in the Vienna courts, and it is his memorandum of the grounds of the action, as prepared for his advocate, which is usually entitled his 'deposition.' He further addressed a statement to the musicians of London, entreating them not to countenance or support Maelzel. The action came to nothing, and Maelzel does not appear to have gone to London. He stopped at Amsterdam, and there got from Winkel, a Dutch mechanic, the idea of employing a new form of pendulum as a metronome. He soon perfected the instrument, obtained a patent for it, and in 1816 we find him in Paris established as a manufacturer of this metronome, under the style of 'Mälzl et Cie.' Winkel claimed it as his invention, and the claim was confirmed, after examination, by the Dutch Academy of Sciences, A wish to
- Moscheles, note to his Schindler, i. 154.
- Schindler. Thayer iii. 465.
- Thayer iii. 467.