Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/24

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where they are capable of further reduction they are called 'diminished,' as diminished thirds and sevenths; and when of further enlargement as 'augmented,' as augmented sixths. With intervals which have only one normal form the terms 'major' and 'minor' are not used; thus fifths and fourths lose their consonant character on being either enlarged or reduced by a semitone, and in these forms they are called respectively 'augmented' and 'diminished' fifths and fourths. The interval of the augmented sixth is indifferently called 'superfluous' or 'extreme sharp' sixth; and the same terms are applied to the fifth; the term 'false' is also used for diminished in relation to the fifth and for augmented in relation to the fourth.

The term 'Imperfect' is used in two senses in relation to Intervals. In the classification of Consonances it was common to divide them into perfect and imperfect, or perfect, middle and imperfect; but as the classification varied at different times reference must be made for details to the article Harmony (vol. i. pp. 669—685). On the other hand, when an interval is commonly known in its normal condition as perfect, such as a fourth or a fifth, it is natural per contra to speak of the interval which goes by the same name, but is less by a semitone, as 'imperfect.'

For further details on the subject see Temperament.

INTONATION (Lat. Intonatio). I. The initial phrase of a Plain Chaunt melody: usually sung, either by the Officiating Priest, alone, or, by one, two, or four leading Choristers. Some of the most important Intonations in general use are those proper to the Gregorian Tones. Though differing widely in character and expression, these venerable Chaunts are all constructed upon the same general principle, and all exhibit the same well-marked combination of four distinct elements—the Intonation, the Reciting-Note, the Mediation, and the Cadence. The first of these, with which alone we are now concerned, consists of a few simple notes, leading upwards—except in one peculiar and somewhat abnormal case—to the Dominant of the Psalm about to be sung, and thus connecting it with its proper Antiphon. [See Antiphon.] Now, as each Mode has a fixed Dominant upon which the greater part of every Psalm is recited, it follows, that each Tone must also have a fixed Intonation, to lead up to that note: and this principle is so far carried out that two Tones, having a common Reciting-Note, have generally, though not always, a common Intonation—as in the case of Tones I and VI, III and VIII. This rule, however, is broken, in the case of Tone IV; which, though its Reciting Note is identical with that of Tone I, has a peculiar Intonation of its own.[1] Almost all the Tones have one form of Intonation for the Psalms, and another for the Canticles; while some few add to these a third variation, which is used only for the second part of the Introit. [See Introit.] The subjoined forms are taken from the editions of the Roman Vesperal, and Gradual, lately published at Ratisbon; in the former of which, the Intonation assigned to the Magnificat, in the Sixth Tone, varies widely from the more usual reading given in the Mechlin edition. The forms used for the Introit so nearly resemble those for the Canticles, that we have thought it necessary to give those of the Fourth and Sixth Tones only.

For the Psalms.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone I." \cadenzaOn f'\breve g'1( a') \bar ":" a'\breve \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone II." \cadenzaOn c'1 d' \bar ":" f'\breve \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone III." \cadenzaOn g'1 a' \bar ":" c''\breve \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone IV." \cadenzaOn a'\breve g'1( a') \bar ":" a'\breve \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone V." \cadenzaOn f'1 a' \bar ":" c''\breve \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone VI." \cadenzaOn f'\breve g'1( a') \bar ":" a'\breve \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone VII." \cadenzaOn c''1( b') c''( d'') \bar ":" d''\breve \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone VIII." \cadenzaOn g'1 a' \bar ":" c''\breve \bar "||" }

For the 'Magnificat.'

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone I." \cadenzaOn f'1 g'( a'\breve) \bar ":" a' \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone II." \cadenzaOn c'1( d') c'( f'\breve) \bar ":" f' \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone III." \cadenzaOn g'1 a'\breve( c'') \bar ":" c'' \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone IV." \cadenzaOn a'1( g') g'( a'\breve) \bar ":" a' \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone V." \cadenzaOn f'1 a'\breve( c'') \bar ":" c'' \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone VI." \cadenzaOn f'1 g'1( a'\breve) \override Score.Stem #'stencil = ##f g'4 f'1 \bar ":" a'\breve \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone VII." \cadenzaOn g'\breve c''( b'1) c''( d''\breve \bar ":" d'' \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone VIII." \cadenzaOn g'1( a') g'\breve( c'') \bar ":" c'' \bar "||" }

For the Psalm 'In Exitu Israel.'
Irregular or Peregrine Tone.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \cadenzaOn a'1( bes') \bar ":" a'\breve \bar "||" }

For the Introit.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone IV." \cadenzaOn a'1( g' a'\breve) \bar ":" a' \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \tempo "Tone VI." \cadenzaOn f'1( g' f' g' a') \bar ":" a'\breve \bar "||" }

The Intonation is usually sung to the first verse, only, of each Psalm, but, to every verse of the Magnificat and Benedictus. When sung before the first verse only, whether of Psalm or Canticle, it is assigned either to the Officiating Priest, or to the two leading Choristers. Before the remaining verses of the Magnificat, and Benedictus, it is sung by the whole Choir.

The opening phrases of the Antiphon, the antiphonal portion of the Introit, the Gradual, and many other Plain Chaunt Anthems and Hymns, are also sung, as Intonations, either by a single Priest, or by one, two, or four leading Choristers.

  1. Though constructed of similar Intervals, the Intonations of Tones II and III are not identical. By no permissible form of transposition, could the G, A, C of the latter be substituted for the C, D, F of the former.