l'anima' from 'Lauso e Lidia.' In 1802 he became maestro di capella of Santa Maria Maggiore in Bergamo, and was so much attached to his work there, that he declined not only invitations to London, Paris, Lisbon, and Dresden, but also the post of Censor to the Conservatorio of Milan, his appointment to which had been signed by the Viceroy of Italy in 1807. As professor of composition in the musical Institute of Bergamo,—founded in 1805, reorganised in 1811—he exercised great and good influence, Donizetti was one of his pupils there. He was the founder of two institutions for decayed musicians and their widows, the 'Scuola caritatevole di Musica,' and the 'Pio Institute di Bergamo.' He had been blind for some years before his ' death, which took place on Dec. 2, 1845. The city of Bergamo erected a monument to him in 1852, and in 1875 his remains and those of Donizetti were removed with much ceremony to the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. The most celebrated of his operas are 'Lodoïska' (1795 [App. p.715 "1800"]), 'Ginevra di Scozia' (1801), 'Medea' (1812 [App. p.715 "1813"]), and 'Rosa bianca e Rosa rossa' (1814). He also set the libretto of Cherubini's 'Deux Journées.' He is said to have been the first to introduce the crescendo of the orchestra to which Rossini owes so much of his fame. He wrote a small book on Haydn (1809), a biography of Capuzzi the violinist, and poems on his death in 1818; also 'La Dottrina degli elementi musicali' still in MS. in Bergamo.
[ F. G. ]
MAYNARD, John, a lutenist, published in 1611 'The XII Wonders of the World, Set and composed for the Violl de Gamba, the Lute, and the Voyce to sing the Verse, all three jointly and none severall: also Lessons for the Lute and Base Violl to play alone; with some Lessons to play Lyra-waye alone, or if you will to fill up the parts with another Violl set Lute-way.' The work contains 12 songs severally describing the characters of a Courtier, Divine, Soldier, Lawyer, Physician, Merchant, Country Gentleman, Bachelor, Married Man, Wife, Widow and Maid; and 12 pavans and galliards for the lute. A curious canon. 'Eight parts in one upon the Plaine Song,' is on the title page. The composer described himself as 'Lutenist at the most famous Schoole of St. Julian's in Hartfordshire,' and dedicated his work 'To his ever-honoured Lady and Mistris the Lady Joane Thynne, of Cause Castle in Shropshire.' Some organ pieces by one Maynard (presumably the same) are contained in a MS. in the library of the Sacred Harmonic Society.
[ W. H. H. ]
MAYSEDER, Joseph, violinist and composer, son of a poor painter, born in Vienna, Oct. 26, 1789. Beginning at 8, he learnt the violin from Suche and Wranitzky. Schuppanzigh took a great interest in the lad, and entrusted him with the second violin in his quartets. In 1800 he gave his first concert in the Augarten with brilliant success. He rapidly made his way with the court and nobility, and among musicians. In 1816 he entered the court chapel, in 1820 became solo-violin at the court theatre, and in 1835 was appointed chamber-violinist to the Emperor. The municipality awarded him the large gold 'Salvator Medal' in 1811, and presented him with the freedom of the city in 1817. In 1862 the Emperor bestowed on him the order of Franz-Joseph. In 1815 he gave, with Hummel (afterwards replaced by Moscheles) and Giuliani, the so-called 'Dukaten-concerte.' He also gave concerts with Merk the cellist, but after 1837 he never appeared in public. He never played abroad; even on his visit to Paris in 1820, he would only play before a select circle of artists, including Kreutzer, Baudiot, Cherubini, Habeneck, Lafont, and Viotti. He took a great interest in the string-quartet party which met at Baron Zmeskall's house (where Beethoven was often present), and afterwards in that at Prince Constantine Czartoryski's (from 1843 to 56). His many pupils spread his name far and wide. His tone was peculiarly fascinating, and his execution had great breadth and elevation of style. With the exception of a grand mass he composed only chamber music of a style similar to his playing. He published 63 works, including concertos, polonaises, variations, 5 quintets and 8 quartets for strings, études and duets for violin, 4 trios, sonatas, etc. for P.F., trio for violin, harp, and horn, etc. Mayseder died universally respected Nov. 21, 1863.
[ C. F. P. ]
MAZAS, Jacques-Féréol, French violinist and composer, was born in 1782 [App. p.715 "Sept. 23"] at Beziers. He entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1802, and after having studied for three years under Baillot, obtained the first prize for violin-playing. He had great success at Paris, especially with his performance of a violin-concerto by Auber at the Conservatoire. He travelled through a very large part of Europe, and returned in 1829 to Paris, without however gaining his former success. In 1837 he left Paris again, and accepted the directorship of a music-school at Cambrai. He died in 1849.
Mazas wrote a large number of brilliant violin pieces, quartets, trios, and duets for stringed instruments (the latter still much valued for teaching purposes), an instruction-book for the violin, and one for the viola. Fétis mentions also two operas, two violin-concertos, and an overture.
[ P. D. ]
MAZURKA, Mazourka, Masurek, or Masure, a national Polish dance, deriving its name from the ancient Palatinate of Masovia. Mazurkas were known as early as the 16th century; they originated in national songs accompanied with dancing. They were introduced into Germany by Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland (1733–1763), and after becoming fashionable in Paris, reached England towards 1845. The Mazurka was naturalised in Russia after the subjugation of Poland, but the Russian dance differs from the Polish in being performed by an indefinite number, while the latter is usually danced by four or eight couples. The
- This feature it has retained. Chopin, in a letter of Aug. 2, 1829, says, 'the thought fortunately struck Maciejowski to write four stanzas for a Mazurka, and I set them to music.' (Karasowski, i. 80.)