Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/353

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varieties; twelve of which remained, for many centuries, in constant use, distinguished by the names of their Greek prototypes, though not really identical with them; while two were rejected, as impure, and practically useless.

Into the laborious process by which these scales were evolved from the complicated mysteries of the Greek Canon we need not enter. To us, their construction is simple enough, when regarded from our own point of view. We have only to imagine a series of the natural notes of the modern Diatonic Scale, extending, upwards, from A, the first space in the bass, to C, the third space in the treble. By dividing this grand scale into sections, each consisting of eight notes, and each beginning with a different sound, we shall obtain the entire set of fourteen Modes, in the most complete form possible.

The Modes are separated into two classes: Authentic, (from αὐθεντέω, to govern) and Plagal, (from πλάγιος, oblique). The compass of the former extends from the Final (equivalent to the Tonic, or Key-note, of modern theory,) to the Octave above. That of the latter, from the Fourth below the Final, to the Fifth above it. Consequently, the Final is the lowest note of the Authentic Modes; and (very nearly) the middle note of Plagal ones. Every Plagal Mode is derived from an Authentic original, from which it is distinguished, in name, by the prefix, Hypo-: the same Final being common to both forms; and the compass of the derived Mode lying a Fourth below that of the original scale. In the following table, the Final of each Mode is indicated by the letter F; and, the position of the semitones, by a slur.

Mode I.
The Dorian Mode.
Mode II.
The Hypodorian Mode.
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \clef bass \cadenzaOn d1^"F" e( f) g a b( c') d' \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \clef bass \cadenzaOn a,1 b,( c) d^"F" e( f) g a \bar "||" }
Mode III.
The Phrygian Mode.
Mode IV.
The Hypophrygian Mode.
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \clef bass \cadenzaOn e1(^"F" f) g a b( c') d' e' \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \clef bass \cadenzaOn b,1( c) d e(^"F" f) g a b \bar "||" }
Mode V.
Lydian Mode.
Mode VI.
The Hypolydian Mode.
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \clef bass \cadenzaOn f1^"F" g a b( c') d' e'( f') \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \clef bass \cadenzaOn c1 d e( f)^"F" g a b( c') \bar "||" }
Mode VII.
The Mixolydian Mode.
Mode VIII.
The Hypomixolydian Mode.
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \cadenzaOn g1^"F" a b( c') d' e'( f') g' \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \clef bass \cadenzaOn d1 e( f) g^"F" a b( c') d' \bar "||" }
Mode IX.
The Æolian Mode.
Mode X.
Hypoælian Mode.
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \cadenzaOn a1^"F" b( c') d' e'( f') g' a' \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \clef bass \cadenzaOn e1( f) g a^"F" b( c') d' e' \bar "||" }
Mode XI.
The Locrian Mode (rejected).
Mode XII.
The Hypolocrian Mode (rejected).
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \cadenzaOn \tiny b1(^"F" c') d' e'( f') g' a' b' \bar "||" }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \clef bass \cadenzaOn \tiny f1 g a b(^"F" c') d' e'( f') \bar "||" }
Mode XIII (or XI).
The Ionian Mode.
Mode XIV (or XII).
The Hypoionian Mode.
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \relative c' { \cadenzaOn c1^"F" d e( f) g a b( c) \bar "||" } }
{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \relative g { \cadenzaOn g1 a b( c)^"F" d e( f) g \bar "||" } }

Each of these Modes is divisible into two members, a Pentachord, and a Tetrachord. The notes which compose the Pentachord are contained within the compass of a Perfect fifth, (Diapente): those of the Tetrachord, within that of a Perfect Fourth, (Diatessaron). In the Authentic Modes, the Fifth is placed below the Fourth: in the Plagal, the Fourth lies below the Fifth. The former is called the 'Harmonic,' and the latter, the 'Arithmetical Division.'[1] In both cases, the highest note of the lower member corresponds with the lowest of the upper: thus—


{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \clef bass \cadenzaOn d1 e^\markup { \italic Pentachord. } f g a ~ \bar "|" a b^\markup { \italic Tetrachord. } c' d' \bar "||" }


{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \clef bass \cadenzaOn a,1 b,^\markup { \italic Tetrachord. } c d ~ \bar "|" d e^\markup { \italic Pentachord. } f g a \bar "||" }
  1. Vide Morley's 'Plaine & easie Introduction to Practical Musicke. (London 1597.)