has indicated that the note a semitone above or below that in the diatonic series of C major is to be taken, the introduction of a Natural indicates that the unaltered note is to be resumed; and hence a naturalised note is always a white key on the pianoforte or organ, unless it be combined with a sharp or flat, as ♮♯ or ♮♭, to cancel a chromatic double-sharp or double-flat, and indicate the corresponding note of the diatonic series indicated by the existing signature.
Naturals do not occur in the signatures of keys, except when it is necessary to cancel all or part of a previous signature, at a change of key in the course of a piece of music; as at the change from C minor to C major in the Marcia Funébre of the Eroica Symphony, or the change from E♭ minor to E♭ major at the end of the Introduction of Spohr's Overture to Jessonda. Where a complete change is made from a sharp key to a flat key, or vice versâ, the naturals are often indicated, but with very little reason, as the mere statement of the new signature must cancel the former one.
[ C. H. H. P. ]
NAU, Maria Dolores Benedicta Josefina, was born of Spanish parents at New York, March 18, 1818. Having entered the Conservatoire at Paris, July 23, 1832, she became a pupil of Mme. Damoreau-Cinti, and soon developed a clear and flexible voice. This, with a large share of intelligence, musical feeling, and application, enabled her to take the first prize at the concours of 1834.
On March 1, 1836, at the age of 18, Mlle. Nau made her first appearance at the Opera, in the character of the Page in the 'Huguenots,' and achieved a success, in spite of her inexperience. She remained six years at that establishment, but playing only secondary parts, which did not allow her real worth to appear; and at the end of that time her engagement was not renewed. Mlle. Nau determined, therefore, to travel in the provinces and abroad, where she soon was appreciated much more highly than in the French capital; and in Brussels, particularly, her excellent vocalisation and phrasing produced a marked impression. During 1843 and 44 she continued her travels, impersonating Mme. Damoreau's chief characters. In October and November, 1844, she sang in London. Her foreign successes now opened the eyes of the Opera-managers at Paris, where she was re-engaged at thrice her former salary. She re-appeared there in December, receiving a warm welcome; and continued to sing on that stage till the end of 1848, with unabated éclat. Her farewell was on Oct. 11 of that year, in 'Lucia'; after which she went to London, and thence to the United States, where she had a triumphal progress. Returning to London, she sang at the Princess's Theatre for nearly 18 months, with great success; and thence betook herself once more to the Opera at Paris, where she remained during 1851, 52, and 53. Mlle. Nau re-visited her native country in 1854, and received extravagant adoration. She returned to Paris again in 1856, when she finally quitted the stage.
[ J. M. ]
NAUDIN, Emilio, born at Parma Oct. 23, 1823, was taught singing by Giacomo Panizza of Milan, made his début at Cremona in Pacini's 'Saffo,' and afterwards sang at the principal theatres of Italy, at Vienna and St. Petersburg. He made his first appearance in England June 2, 1858, at Drury Lane, as the Duke in 'Rigoletto,' and remained for the season, playing Edgardo, Ernesto, and Arturo, and singing in concerts. In the winter he went to Madrid, and passed two seasons there, playing at Turin in the summer of 1859.
Sig. Naudin reappeared in England May 30, 1862, at Mrs. Anderson's farewell concert at Her Majesty's, and on the 3ist acted Manrico at the same theatre. On April 7, 1863, he appeared at Covent Garden as Masaniello, and remained there every season up to 1872 inclusive, except 1865, when, at the instance of Meyerbeer, he was engaged at the Académie de Musique, and created Vasco di Gama, on the production of 'L' Africaine,' April 28. During all these seasons he undertook several characters in addition to the above, viz. Don Ottavio, Raoul, Vasco, Danilowitz, Fra Diavolo, Horace de Massaréna, Carlo, etc., as well as Phœbus, on the production of Campana's 'Esmeralda,' June 14, 1870; Silvio, in Prince Poniatowski's 'Gelmina,' June 4, 1872; Don Carlos, on the production of Verdi's opera of that name in England, June 4, 1867; and was always acceptable on account of his careful singing and acting. In 1873 he sang in concerts only. In 1874 he sang at Drury Lane for the season, adding Henrique de Sandoval to his already extensive list, and in 1875 returned to Covent Garden. In the autumn of that year he played Lohengrin for the first time in the English provinces. Since then he has not appeared in England.
The rest of the year, when not in this country, Sig. Naudin has sung either in opera or concerts in France, Germany, Spain, or Russia. In Moscow he played Tannhäuser, on its reproduction, there in 1877. More recently (1879) he has sung at Barcelona, and was at Milan in June of last year.
[ A. C. ]
NAUMANN, Johann Gottlieb (or Giovanni Amadeo), well-known composer in his day, born April 17, 1741, at Blasewitz near Dresden. Though the child of a peasant he was educated at the Kreuzschule in Dresden, and intended for a schoolmaster. He studied music by himself, until a Swedish musician resident in Dresden named Weestroem, happening to visit his home was struck by seeing Bach's (probably Emmanuel's) sonatas on the harpsichord, and determined to take him on a professional tour. Starting in May 1757, they first went to Hamburg, where they were detained 10 months by Weestroem's ill health, and then to Padua where Weestroem took lessons from Tartini, in which he did not allow Naumann to share. His treatment was altogether so bad that the young man left him, but was able to proceed with his training, as