which are still occasionally performed. Mozart also wrote one for G. Ferlandi, of the Salzburg band, which was on several occasions played by Ramm; the composer himself in a letter noting its performance for the fifth time in 1778, and playfully terming it 'Ramm's cheval de bataille.' The score was formerly in the possession of Andre, but appears to have been lost or mislaid, as no trace of it can now be found. Kalliwoda wrote for his friend Reuther a concertino (op. 110) of considerable length and difficulty. Schumann contributes three romances for 'Hoboe, ad libitum Violine oder Clarinet," which seem better known under the latter instruments. Beethoven has (op. 87) a trio for the singular combination of two oboes and English Horn, an early composition in symphony form with four complete movements.
Six concertos of Sebastian Bach for trumpet, flute and oboe, with a sextet of strings, were first published from the original MSS. in the library at Berlin by Dehn in 1850. Two oboes, with a like number of clarinets, horns, and bassoons, take part in several ottets by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. They have been already referred to under Clarinet.
It is however in the great symphonies, oratorios, and masses that its full value must be appreciated. Bach indeed uses chiefly the more ancient form of the oboe d'amore. [See Oboe D'amore.] But the scores of Handel abound with fine passages for it. Indeed, it seems at his period to have been almost convertible with the violins as the leading instrument. This fact probably accounts for the large number in proportion to the strings which, as named above, were present at once in the orchestra. The oboe is distinctly anterior in use to its bass relative the bassoon, although this also often figures as reinforcing the violoncellos and basses in a similar manner. Haydn's works are equally liberal in its use. With him it appears as a solo instrument, usually in melodies of a light and sportive character. It may be noted that in a large number of his symphonies the minuet and trio are assigned to this instrument, often answered by the bassoon. Probably its pastoral tone and history pointed it out for use in a dance movement. There is however a fine adagio for it in the oratorio of 'The Seasons,' as well as a long and difficult solo passage (No. 11) in which the crowing of the cock is imitated, and which is a perfect study of minute realism in notes.
Berlioz quotes several instances of the use of the oboe by Gluck. It is moreover probable that the 'chalumeau' which occurs in his scores was some form of this instrument.
No writer has made more frequent and varied use of the oboe than Beethoven. It takes a prominent part in many of his symphonies, in the opera of Fidelio, and in his church music. In the two last, it is hardly necessary to name the air of Florestan, and passages in the Masses in C and in D. In the Symphonies it leads the wind band in the funeral march of the Eroica, has a singular little cadenza of six notes and a turn in the first movement of the C minor, and the reprise of the Trio in the Finale; a long rustic melody preceding the storm in the Pastoral, several effective passages in the 7th, and the scherzo in the Choral Symphony.
Mozart is in no wise behind Beethoven in the prominence he awards to the oboe; indeed, the fact that many of his greatest works, such as the Jupiter Symphony, several of his masses, and even of his operas, were written for limited bands in which all the wind-instruments were not represented at once, gives this, which except in the E♭ Clarinet Symphony is almost always present, a still more marked predominance.
It is perhaps from the increase and greater development of the wind band that later writers, such as Weber and Mendelssohn, appear to make less use of the oboe than their forerunners. The former of these writers, however, evidently had a predilection for the clarinet and horn, as is shown by his concerted music; the latter has used the oboe most effectively in St. Paul, Elijah, the Hymn of Praise, and elsewhere.
Hummel, in his fine Mass in E♭, assigns it the subject of the 'Et incarnatus,' which as being less familiar to many readers may deserve quotation.
He has also left as op. 102 a series of variations for oboe with orchestra.
Solos etc. for Oboe.
Handel.—Six Concertos for Oboe.
Mozart.—Grand Quintet in A for Oboe, 2 Violins, Tenor and Violoncello, op. 108.
Beethoven.—Trio for two Oboes and Cor Anglais, op. 87.
Hummel.—Variations, with Orchestra, op. 102.
Kalliwoda.—Concertino in F with Orchestra, op. 110.
Kreutzer.—Trio for Oboe, Tenor, and Bassoon.Schumann.—Drei Romanzen, etc., op. 94.
[ W. H. S. ]
OBOE D'AMORE (Fr. Hautbois d'amour). An instrument of exactly the same compass and construction as the ordinary oboe, except that it stands a minor third lower than that, being in the key of A. It has also a hollow globular bell instead of a conical one, which renders the tone more veiled and pathetic. In this respect