yet by tuning a semitone higher, it presents no peculiar difficulty. This was the case in his first Concerto, where the band played in E♭, and he in D.
He did not much use the slow staccato of Rode and Spohr, which is produced by a distinct movement of the wrist for every single note, but made his staccato by throwing the bow violently on the string and letting it spring with great rapidity. Another peculiarity of his playing was the frequent introduction of pizzicato passages for the left hand. [See Pizzicato.] His performances on the G-string alone never failed to make a great sensation. For these he tuned a very thin G string up to B♭ or B, and by the use of harmonics attained a compass of three octaves.
As a composer Paganini was not without originality. The 24 Caprices, op. 1, and a few other movements, such as the famous 'Moto perpetuo' and the Rondo 'La Clochette,' have not yet lost their charm. Schumann found it worth while to transcribe the Caprices for piano (op. 3, 10); Liszt has done the same (op. 66, 83); and Brahms has written 28 variations on a subject of Paganini's (op. 35). The majority of his works, however interesting from a technical point of view, are now thoroughly antiquated. The following list is taken, like most of the facts related in this article, from Fétis's excellent monograph on Paganini:—
- Ventiquattro Capricci per Violino solo, dedicati agli astisti, op. 1.
- Sei Sonati per Violono e Chitarra, op. 2.
- Sei Sonati per Violono e Chitarra, op. 3.
- Tre gran Quartetti a Violouo, Viola, Chittarra e Violoncello, op. 4 and 5.
These are the only works which Paganini published during his lifetime. He only carried with him on his travels the orchestral parts of the pieces he played. Long after his death were published:—
- Concerto in E♭ (D), op. 6, the first movement of which is still occasionally performed by Wilhelmi and others.
- Concerto in B minor (Rondo a la Clochette), op. 7.
- Le Streghe (Witches' Dance), a set of variations on an air of S. Mayer.
- Variations on 'God save the King,' op. 9.
- Le Carnaval de Venise. Burlesque variations on a popular air, op. 10.
- Moto perpetuo. Allegro de Concert, op. 11.
- Variations on 'Non più mesta,' op. 12.
- Variations on 'Di tanti palpiti,' op. 13.
- Sixty variations in all keys on the air, Barucaba.
There exists a whole literature on Paganini, both as a man and an artist. Fétis gives a long list of such publications. The most important contribution towards an appreciation of Paganini's peculiar treatment of the violin is that by Guhr 'On Paganini's art of Playing the Violin' (1831), English translation by Sabilla Novello; London, Novello.
[ P. D. ]
PAGE, John, a tenor singer, was elected a lay clerk of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, Dec. 3, 1790. He resigned the appointment Nov. 9, 1795, having for some time previously officiated as deputy at the Chapel Royal and St. Paul's. In 1800 he edited and published 'Harmonia Sacra; a collection of Anthems in score, selected from the most eminent masters of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries,' 3 vols. fol.; an excellent work, supplementary to the collections of Boyce and Arnold. On Jan. 10, 1801, upon the resignation of Richard Bellamy, he was appointed a vicar choral of St. Paul's. In 1804 he issued 'A Collection of Hymns by various composers, with 12 Psalm tunes and an Ode composed by Jonathan Battishill.' Also 'Festive Harmony; a collection of the most favourite Madrigals, Elegies, and Glees, selected from the works of the most eminent composers.' In 1806 he published 'The Burial Service, Chant, Evening Service, Dirge and Anthems appointed to be performed at the funeral of Lord Nelson, 9th January, 1806, composed by Dr. Croft, Purcell, Dr. Greene, Attwood, and Handel.' In 1808 he joined William Sexton, organist of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, in the publication of a selection from Handel's Chandos Anthems, in a mutilated form. He died in Aug. 1812. The following are the contents of the 'Harmonia Sacra':—
Croft, Blessed is the people.
Do. Deliver us, O Lord.
Weldon, I will lift up mine eyes.
Boyce, Let my complaint.
Purcell, Out ot the deep.
Kent, Lord our Governor.
Croft, Praise the Lord.
Greene, Ponder my words.
Clark. The Lord is my strength.
Dupuis, The Lord, even the most.
Kent, The Lord is my shepherd.
Arnold, Who is this that cometh.
Full Anthems with Verses.
Battishill, Call to remembrance.
Aldrich, God is our hope.
Stroud, Hear my prayer.
Dupuis, I cried unto the Lord.
Goldwin, I will sing.
Reynolds, My God, my God.
King, be joyful.
Attwood, Teach me, Lord.
Boyce, Burial Service.
Farrant, Lord for Thy tender.
Tucker, O give thanks.
Richardson, O how amiable.
King, Unto Thee, Lord.
Handel, As pants the hart.
Purcell, Blessed is he.
Clark, Bow down Thine ear.
Battishill, How long wilt Thou.
Greene, Hear my crying.
Purcell, I was glad.
S. Wesley, I said, I will take heed.
King, I will alway give thanks.
C. Wesley, My soul hath patiently.
Croft, O Lord, Thou hast searched.
Marcello, Lord our Governor.
Goldwin, O praise God.
Hine, Rejoice in the Lord.
Greene, Save me, God.
Croft, The Lord is king.
Greene, The Lord is my strength.
Full Anthems with Verse.
Nares, Blessed be the Lord God.
Blake, I have set God.
Baildon, Behold, how good.
Travers, Keep, we beseech Thee.
Wood, Lord of all power.
Clark, Lord God of my salvation.
Blow, Sing we merrily.
Croft, Sing praises to the Lord.
King, The Lord is full.
Holmes, Arise and shine.
Handel, Behold, I tell you.
Linley, Bow down Thine ear.
Henley, Hear my prayer.
Greene, I will alway give thanks.
Boyce, I will magnify Thee.
Hine, I will magnify Thee.
Greene, O look down from heaven.
Handel, There were shepherds.
Croft, The Lord is my light.
Handel, Thou art gone up on high.
Full Anthems with Verse.
Battishill, Behold, how good.
Handel, Behold the Lamb of God.
Battishill, I will magnify Thee.
Handel, Moses and the Children.
Busby, O God, Thou art my God.
Banks, O Lord, grant the King.
Greene, Bow down Thine ear.
Battishill. Deliver us, O God.
Tye. From the depth I called.
Rogers, Lord, who shall dwell.
Marsh, O Lord, who hast taught.
Marenzio, Save Lord, hear us.
[ W. H. H. ]
PAINE, John Knowles, born at Portland, Maine, U.S.A., Jan. 9, 1839. His earliest teacher in piano, organ, and composition was Hermann Kotzschmar, of Portland. He made his first appearance in public as an organist, in his native city, June 25, 1857; and on Jan. 1, 1858, was intrusted with the organ accompaniments to 'The Messiah,' without the assistance of an orchestra. In the same year he went to Berlin for three years, and studied the organ, composition, instrumentation, and singing, under Haupt, Wieprecht, and Teschner, giving several organ concerts during his stay. He returned to the United States in 1861, and gave a number of