'Iste Confessor,' which are very widely known in modern times. In the same year he wrote and dedicated to Gregory XIV a book containing sixteen arrangements of the 'Magnificat.' Eight of these were upon the first, third, fifth, seventh, and ninth, and eight upon the alternate verses of the canticle. The second of them especially took the fancy of Dr. Burney, who gives it very high praise. In 1593, to Antonio Abbot of Baume in Tranche Comte, who had taken refuge in Rome during the troubles in France and Germany, he dedicated a series of 'Offertoria,' for five voices, for the whole year. Baini and Burney both join in extolling these; Burney especially selecting the first of the second portion ('Exaltabo te Domine') to illustrate the superiority of Palestrina over all other ecclesiastical composers. In the same year too he published a volume of 'Litanies,' for four voices, and his sixth volume of Masses for four and five voices, which he dedicated to Cardinal Aldobrandini who had made him director of his concerts. But the end of this indefatigable life was at hand. In January 1594 he issued his last publication. It was a collection of thirty 'Madrigali spirituali,' for five voices, in honour of the Virgin, dedicated to the young Grand-Duchess of Tuscany, wife of Ferdinand de' Medici. Of this volume Baini says that it is in the true style of his motetti on the Song of Solomon; and Dr. Burney once more echoes the praises of his Italian biographer. He had also begun to print his seventh volume of masses to be dedicated to Clement VIII, the last of the Popes who had the honour of befriending him. But while the work was still in the press he was seized with a pleurisy, against the acuteness of which his septuagenarian constitution had no power to contend. He took to his bed on January 26, 1594, and died on February 2. When he felt his end approaching he sent for Filippo Neri, his friend, admirer, counsellor, and confessor of many years, and for Igino, the sole and wretched inheritor of his name. As the saint and the scapegrace stood by his bed, he said simply to the latter, 'My son, I leave behind me many of my works still unpublished; but thanks to the generosity of my benefactors, the Abbot of Baume, the Cardinal Aldobrandini, and Ferdinand the Grand Duke of Tuscany, I leave with them money enough to get them printed. I charge you to see this done with all speed, to the glory of the Most High God, and for the worship of His holy temple.' He then dismissed him with a blessing which he had not merited, and spent the remaining twenty-four hours of his life in the company of the saintly Neri. It was in his arms that he breathed his last, true, even upon the brink of death, to that sympathy with piety and purity which had drawn him during half a century to devote to their illustration and furtherance all the beauties of his fancy and all the resources of his learning.
The foregoing account will have prepared the reader for the immense number of Palestrina's works. The list appended to the prospectus of the complete critical edition of Messrs. Breitkopf & Härtel contains 93 Masses, of which 12 have never yet been printed. Of these, 39 are for 4 voices, 28 for 5, 21 for 6, and 5 for 8 voices. In addition to these there are 63 motets for 4 voices, 52 for 5, 11 for 6, 2 for 7, 47 for 8, and 4 for 12 voices. A large number of these have a second part of equal length with the first. The Hymns for the whole year, for 4 voices, are 45 in number; and the Offertories, for 5 voices, are 68. Of Lamentations for 4, 5, and 6 voices, 3 books are announced; of Litanies for 4 and 6 voices, 3 books; of Magnificats for 4, 5, 6, and 8 voices, 2 books; of Madrigals for 4 voices, with Ricercari, 3 books; and of Madrigals for 5 voices, 2 books.
Alfieri's edition, forming part of his Raccolta di Musica Sacra (lithographed, in large folio, at Rome) is in 7 vols.—vol. i. 9 Masses; vol. ii. Motets for 5 voices; vol. iii. Hymni totius anni; vol. iv. Lamentations, 3 books; vol. v. Offertoria totius anni; vol. vi. Motets for 6, 7, and 8 voices; vol. vii. Motets and Magnificats.
The Musica Divina of Proske and Pustet contains 9 Masses (including 'Assumpta,' 'Tu es Petrus,' 'Dum complerentur'), 19 motets, 1 Magnificat, 4 Hymns, 3 Lamentations, 1 Miserere, 1 Improperia, 1 Benedictus, and 1 Litany. [See vol. ii. p. 411.]—5 Masses and 20 Motets, edited by Lafage, are published in 8vo. by Launer of Paris. A large volume, edited by J. M. Capes and published by Novello in 1847 contains 4 Masses, 3 Lamentations, 3 Chants, 5 Motets, and 2 Hymns.—The volumes of the Motett Society contain 15 motets, with English words. [See Motett Society, vol. ii. p. 376.]—Numerous pieces are included in the Collections of Choron, Hullah, the Prince de la Moskowa, Rochlitz, Schlesinger, and others.
The materials for this article have been derived from the Histories of Burney and Hawkins; Fétis's 'Biographie des Musiciens'; but especially from Baini's 'Memorie storico-critiche della vita e dell' opere di Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina,' etc. (2 vols. 4to, Rome, 1828), with the useful résumé of Kandler and Kiesewetter (Leipzig 1834). The head of Palestrina given on the preceding page—the only contemporary portrait known—is an exact facsimile of a portion of the frontispiece of his 'First book of Masses' (Rome, 1572), representing the great musician handing his book to the Pope, engraved from the copy of that work in the British Museum.
The characteristics of Palestrina's music, and its relations to his predecessors and successors, will be examined under the head of School.
[ E. H. P. ]
- Divided into two parts, the first containing 40 Offertories, from Advent Sunday to the 10th Sunday after Pentecost; the second 28, for the rest of the ecclesiastical year.
- The publication of this edition was begun in 1862, with a volume of 6-part motets edited by Th. von Witt, and 6 volumes were published at intervals. But In January 1879 a complete systematic Prospectus was issued by the firm, and the work is now proceeding with vigour. It will be a noble monument to the enterprise and accuracy of the house which has published the complete editions of Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and Mozart, and the magnificent series ot the Bach and Handel Societies.