twice, a straine they make to containe 8, 12, or 16 semibreues as they list, yet fewer then eight I haue not seene in any pauan.… After euery pauan we vsually set a galliard.' And Butler ('Principles of Music,' 1636), speaking of the Doric mode, has the following: 'Of this sort are Pavins, invented for a slow and soft kind of Dancing, altogether in duple Proportion. Unto which are framed Galliards for more quick and nimble motion, always in triple proportion, and therefore the triple is oft called Galliard-time and the duple, Pavin-time.' Amongst the best known of these forerunners of the Suite, we may mention John Dowland's 'Lachrymae or Seauen Teares, figured in seauen passionate Pauans with diuers other Pauans, Galliards, and Almands' (1605); and Johann Ghro's 30 Pavans and Galliards 'nach teutscher art gesetzet' (1604).
The Spanish Pavan, a variety of the original dance which came from Spain (where it was called the Grand Dance), was of a more elaborate character than the original. Judging from the frequent occurrence of its air in the early English Lute and Virginal Books, it must have become very popular in England. The following is the tune which Tabourot gives for it: it is not the same as that which is found in the English books.
[App. p.745 "For another description of the dance see Bishop Earle's 'Microcosmographie,' ed. by Bliss (Nares's Glossary).]
[ W. B. S. ]
PAXTON, Stephen, a composer of vocal music in the latter part of the 18th century, produced several graceful and elegant glees, 9 of which, with 2 catches, are printed in Warren's Collections. The Catch Club awarded him prizes for the following glees; 'How sweet, how fresh,' 1779; 'Round the hapless Andre's urn,' 1781; 'Blest Power,' 1784; and 'Come, O come,' 1785; and for a catch, 'Ye Muses, inspire me,' 1783. He published 'A Collection of two Songs, Glees and two Catches,' and 'A Collection of Glees.' Two masses by him are printed in Webbe's Collection. He died in 1787 [App. p.745 "Aug. 18, 1787, aged 52, and was buried in St. Pancras old churchyard"].
His brother, William, was a violoncellist, who composed several sets of solos and duets for his instrument. He gained prizes from the Catch Club for 2 canons, 'O Lord in Thee,' 1779, and 'Israel, trust in the Lord,' 1780. He died in 1781.
[ W. H. H. ]
PEABODY CONCERTS, given under the auspices of the Conservatory of Music of the Peabody Institute, Baltimore, Maryland. Beginning in 1865, eight concerts have been given every season, each being preceded by a public rehearsal, the director of the Conservatory officiating as conductor. The programmes have been made up of symphonies, suites, overtures, concertos and vocal solos, nearly everything presented being of classic in style. Many important compositions have been performed for the first time in America in the course of these concerts. Under Mr. Asger Hamerik's direction (since 1871) especial attention has been given to the production of works by American, English and Scandinavian composers.. The orchestra has generally included 50 musicians. The institution elicited the warm approbation of Von Bülow (1875–76) for its exceptionally fine performances. [See 'Peabody Institute,' under United States.]
[ F. H. J. ]
PEACE, Albert Lister, Mus. Doc., is a native of Huddersfield. He exhibited in his childhood precocity hardly exceeded by that of Crotch or even Mozart; naming with unerring accuracy individual notes and combinations of notes when sounded, before attaining his fifth year. At the age of nine he was appointed organist of the parish church of Holmfirth, and subsequently of other churches in that neighbourhood. In 1866, at the age of 21, he removed to Glasgow, to fill the office of organist to Trinity Congregational church, and soon afterwards, along with other posts, that of organist to the University. In 1870 he graduated as Bachelor, and in 1875 as Doctor of Music in the University of Oxford.
Dr. Peace is one of a school of organists which has come into existence in this country only within the last half century, and which may be said to owe that existence to the late S. S. Wesley. Its distinguishing characteristic may be said to be the employment of the feet as a third hand, concurrently with the extension of the pedal-board downwards, from G to C below it, and also upwards, to the E or F, two octaves and a third or fourth above it. This extension enables the performer to lay out harmonies after the manner of the 'harmonic chord,' in which the largest intervals are found between the lowest notes. More than this, it has brought within his reach, what on the old G pedal-board was obviously outside it, the organ compositions of J. S. Bach and his school. Fifty years ago, or even later, there were probably not half a dozen Englishmen who could have played one of the Organ Fugues of that great master; certainly there were not as many organs on which they could have been played. Both C organs and players competent to use them may now be reckoned by hundreds. Of this school of performers Dr. Peace is one of the most distinguished members living. His mechanical powers enable him not merely to deal with everything as yet written expressly for his instrument, but to realise upon it compositions designed for all the combinations of the modern orchestra. This he does with unsurpassed taste and readiness. Dr. Peace's published
- In Starter's 'Friesche Lust Hof' (1634), it is called 'Engelsche indraeyende Dans Londesteyn.'
- In the programmes of the numerous organ recitals of the late Thomas Adams, the organist par excellence of the first half of this century, it is highly probable, if not certain, that no one of these compositions ever appeared. One of Adams's most favourite showpieces was the Fugue in D in the 1st book of the 'Well-tempered Clavier.' But this—though Mendelssohn also played it—is not one of Bach's pedal-fugues.