ravie,' and 'La Musique Ancienne.' Perne left most of his notes and MSS. to the library of the Institut; and his books and annotated catalogues, bought in 1834 by Fétis, are now in the Royal Library at Brussels. His unpublished sacred works also passed into the hands of Fétis, but the library of the Conservatoire possesses the autographs of his choruses for 'Esther,' performed in 1821 by the pupils of the Ecole Royale de Musique (Conservatoire), his 'Messe de Ste. Cécile' (1800), his mass 'Vivat Rex,' for 4 voices (1816), a 'Veni Creator' for 3 voices, and the 'Offices,' arranged in 3 parts with the Plain-Song.
[ G. C. ]
PERRIN, Pierre, called 'l'Abbe' Perrin,' though he was neither ordained nor held a benefice, was born at Lyons about 1616, and died in Paris 1676. He succeeded Voiture as 'introducteur des Ambassadeurs' to Gaston Duke of Orleans, a post which brought him into relations with several great personages, including Mazarin, who became his patron, and the musician Cambert, for whom he wrote the words of 'La Pastorale,' 5 acts, produced first at Issy (1659), and then at Vincennes before the king. After the deaths' of Gaston d'Orléans and Mazarin, Perrin was reduced to living upon his wits; and fancied himself on the sure road to fortune when he obtained from Louis XIV the privilege of founding an Académie de Musique (Nov. 10, 1668), and letters patent securing him the management of the theatre (June 28, 1669). Unfortunately the management of an opera requires capital, and the Abbé Perrin was a poor poet in all senses of the word. His partners quarrelled among themselves, and in spite of the success of Cambert's 'Pomone' (March 19, 1671) he was compelled to resign his privilege just as his 'Ariane' was about to be produced. The patent, revoked on the 30th of March, 1672, was transferred to Lully, who came out of the transaction with anything but clean hands. Perrin's 'Œuvres de Poésie (Paris, 1661, 3 vols.) contain, besides his operas, translations—of the Æneid amongst others—and 'Jeux de poésie sur divers insectes,' the least bad perhaps of all his verses, which even in that licentious day drew forth the rebukes of Boileau and Saint Evremond, and are now quite unreadable.
[ G. C. ]
PERRY, George, born at Norwich in 1793, was a chorister of Norwich Cathedral under Dr. Beckwith. On leaving the choir he learned to play on the violin, and in a few years became leader of the band at the theatre. Whilst resident in Norwich he produced his oratorio, 'The Death of Abel.' In 1817 he composed an overture for 'The Persian Hunters,' produced at the English Opera House, and in 1818 a short oratorio, 'Elijah and the Priests of Baal.' In 1822 he settled in London and was appointed director of the music at the Haymarket Theatre, for which he composed the opera of 'Morning, Noon, and Night' (1822), and numerous songs for introduction into various pieces. He also held the post of organist of Quebec Chapel. In 1830 he produced his oratorio, 'The Fall of Jerusalem.' On the establishment of the Sacred Harmonic Society in 1832 Perry became leader of the band, an office which he retained until the end of 1847. On the removal of Surman from the conductorship of the Society early in 1848, Perry assumed the baton until the end of the season, but not being elected conductor, he shortly afterwards resigned his leadership and quitted the Society. On Feb. 10, 1836 he produced a sacred cantata, 'Belshazzar's Feast,' and in 1847 a short oratorio, 'Hezekiah.' In 1846 he resigned his appointment at Quebec Chapel and became organist of Trinity Church, Gray's Inn Road, He composed some anthems, including two with orchestra on the accession of Queen Victoria (1837) and the birth of the Princess Royal (1840), and additional accompaniments to several of Handel's oratorios and other pieces. He died March 4, 1862. His 'Death of Abel' and 'Fall of Jerusalem' were performed by the Sacred Harmonic Society. Perry was a man of considerable ability. He was in the constant habit of doing that which in the case of Mozart is usually spoken of as a remarkable effort of memory—namely, writing out the separate parts of a large work without first making a score. One, at least, of his oratorios was committed to paper in this way.
[ W. H. H. ]
PERSIANI, Fanny, one of the most accomplished and artistic singers of this century, was born at Rome on Oct. 4, 1812. She was the second daughter of Tacchinardi, who made her begin to study at a very early age. He had fitted up a little theatre for the use of his pupils at his country house, near Florence, and here, at eleven years of age, Fanny played a prima donna's part. While still quite young, she sang on several occasions in public, with success, but had then no intention of adopting the stage as a profession.
In 1830 she married the composer, Giuseppe Persiani (1804–1869), and in 1832 made her début at Leghorn, in 'Francesca da Rimini,' an opera by M. Fournier, where she replaced Madame Caradori. Her success was sufficient to lead to her subsequent engagement at Milan and Florence, then at Vienna, where she made a great impression, afterwards at Padua and at Venice. Here she played in 'Romeo e Giulietta,' 'Il Pirata,' 'La Gazza Ladra,' 'L' Elisire d'Amore,' and 'Tancredi,' in the last two of which she performed with Pasta. Her success was complete. In 1834, at Naples, Donizetti wrote for her his 'Lucia di Lammermoor,' which always remained a favourite part with her.
When she first appeared at the Opera in Paris (in Lucia, Dec. 12, 1837), she was much admired by connoisseurs, but her talents hardly met with the recognition they deserved until after her excellent performance of the part of Carolina in the 'Matrimonio Segreto.' From that time not even Grisi herself enjoyed such unbounded favour with Parisian audiences as did Madame Persiani.
Her first appearance in London (1838) was as Amina in the 'Sonnambula,' and, although she had been preceded in the part by Malibran and Grisi, she achieved a success which