Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/737

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Benda (1748–1836) composed 6 sonatas and 6 adagios; the latter to be recommended as teaching-pieces. The 3 sonatas and other smaller pieces of the Abbé Johann Franz Xaver Sterkel (1750–1817), are pleasing and not devoid of a certain elegance. Nicolas Joseph Hullmandel (1751–1823), a pupil of Emanuel Bach, composed 6 sonatas (op. 6), and a grand sonata (op. 11); the latter contains sufficient matter of interest. Muzio Clementi (1752–1832) composed 64 sonatas, 6 sonatas for four hands, and 1 for 2 pianofortes, 12 monferines (op. 49), 100 studies ('Gradus ad [1]Parnassum'), 50 lessons, preludes, etc. The great value and importance of Clementi's pianoforte compositions are universally recognised; indeed his 'Gradus' and some of his sonatas are indispensable for the student who desires to learn pianoforte-playing thoroughly. Leopold Kozeluch (1753–1814 [App. p.748 "1754"]) wrote 11 concertos, 12 solo sonatas, 1 concerto for 4 hands, and i collections of smaller pieces; some of the latter have been republished in London, and possess a certain quaint charm. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791) wrote 22 solo sonatas, 4 sonatas, 2 fantasias, a fugue, and a set of variations, all for 4 hands, a sonata and fugue for 2 pianofortes, 21 books of variations, 3 rondos, 3 fantasias, an overture (suite) in Handel's style, an adagio, march, gigue, minuet and waltz for piano solo, 25 concertos for one piano, one for 2, and one for 3 pianos, also 2 rondos for piano and orchestra, very recently published by Breitkopf & Härtel in their complete edition of Mozart. The graceful, sweet, affectionate expression of these compositions, their irresistible charm, perfect workmanship, and wonderful union of deep science and spontaneous invention, render them quite unique. The Abbé Joseph Gelinek (1757–1825 [App. p.748 "1758") was one of the most prolific composers for the pianoforte. He wrote [2]110 books of variations, 8 potpourris, and 10 rondos. Among the variations, Nos. 21, 29, 33, 36, and 67 (see André's catalogue), were in their time the most popular, and are even now not undeserving of recognition. Ignaz Pleyel (1757–1831), a pupil of Haydn's, composed 2 concertos, 6 sonatas (op. 15) and 12 sonatinas, 5 sets of variations, 5 rondos, 48 short easy pieces, and 57 lessons (studies). Of these the sonatinas are still highly esteemed, and their light, cheerful, and agreeable character is very pleasing to young students. Emanuel Aloys Förster (1757–1823 [App. p. "1748"]) composed 18 sonatas, 6 sonatinas, and 5 books of variations. It is mentioned in Köchel's thematic catalogue of Mozart's works (p. 530), that the well-known ten variations on an allegretto from Sarti's opera, 'I finti eredi,' are by Förster, and not by Mozart. Louis Adam (1758–1848) is best known by his 'Méthode de Pianoforte du Conservatoire,' but has also written a sonata (op. 31), polonaises, and rondos, an introduction and variations, and several smaller pieces, all to be found in his 'Méthode.' Giacomo Goffredo Ferrari (1759–1842) has left 3 sonatinas (op. 30), and 15 longer sonatas (op. 14 and op. 31), 3 solos, a concerto in C (op. 6), and 12 smaller pieces. Luigi Cherubini (1760–1842) wrote 6 sonatas and 1 fantasia. The great importance and fame which Cherubini obtained by his operas and sacred compositions would not have been procured by these sonatas. Johann Ludwig Dussek (1761–1812) wrote, according to Breitkopf & Härtel's and Whistling's catalogue, 32 sonatas, 12 concertos, and a great number of airs with variations, fugues, lessons, etc. Of the sonatas, Nos. 21, 27, 29, and 31 of Breitkopf's new edition have obtained the greatest popularity; and among the smaller pieces, Queen Hortense's favourite romance, 'Partant pour la Syrie,' 'La Consolation,' 'Les Adieux,' all with variations, are still very popular. [See for detailed catalogue, under Dussek, vol. i. p. 477.] Johann Christian Ludwig Abeille (1761–1832) became in his time well known by his Sonata and 9 Variations in the style of Mozart; less known were his 4 sonatas composed in 1789. We have of his also a concerto in B♭ and a concerto for 4 hands. Adalbert Gyrowetz (1763–1850), once well known and liked in London, composed 3 concertos, and sonatas op. 62 and 63; which, like all his compositions, are pleasing and melodious. Daniel Steibelt (1764–1823) wrote no less than 81 sonatas and sonatinas, 117 rondos, 7 concertos, of which No. 3 contains the well-known 'Storm' rondo, while No. 6 is called 'Voyage au mont Saint Bernard,' and No. 7 is the so-called 'Concert militaire' with the accompaniment of two orchestras. Steibelt was fond of descriptive pieces, and we find among his fantasias one describing 'the battle of Neerwinde' (1793), the 'destruction of Moscow' (1812), a journey from Paris to Petersburg, and last, not least, 'Les Adieux de Bayard à sa Dame.' The only pianoforte pieces by Steibelt at present played are the really pretty rondeau 'Le Berger et son troupeau,' the 'Storm,' and his 50 studies. Franz Seraphinus Lauska (1764–1828), to whom Weber dedicated his second sonata, in A♭, left 18 sonatas—of which op. 4 and op. 20 are the best—4 books of variations, different rondos and polonaises. Friedrich Heinrich Himmel (1765-1814)—more celebrated by his 'Fanchon' (1809), his now national songs 'An Alexis' and 'Es kann ja nicht immer so bleiben,' than by his pianoforte compositions,—wrote only 5 pieces, among which the 12 variations on the air 'Ich klage Dir' were once exceedingly popular. Anton Eberl (1766–1807), a fluent and easy writer, composed 2 concertos, one for 2 pianos, 6 sonatas, and 3 sets of variations. It must be mentioned that the well-known variations attributed to W. A. Mozart, 'Zu Steffan sprach im Traume,' and those on Dittersdorf's Andante, 'Freundin sanfter Herzenstriebe,' are in reality by Eberl, and are not among the three books just mentioned. Ignaz Anton Franz

  1. Five of these, Nos. 13, 14, 23, 40, 45, have been taken from other works.
  2. André of Offenbach has published a thematic catalogue of Gelinek's variations, Nos. 1–100.