Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/102

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��vibrating tongue beats, rather than to the vibra- tor itself.

Reeds are divided into the Free and the Beating ; the latter again into the Single and the Double forms. The Free reed is used in the harmonium and concertina, its union with Beat- ing reeds in the organ not having proved success- ful. [See FREE-REED, vol. i. p. 562.] The vibra- tor, as its name implies, passes freely through the long slotted brass plate to which it is adapted ; the first impulse of the wind tending to push it within the slot and thus close the aperture. In 'percussion' harmoniums the vibrator is set suddenly in motion by a blow from a hammer connected with the keyboard. [See HARMONIUM, vol. i. p. 667 6.] The Beating reed is that of the organ and clarinet. In this the edges of the vibrator overlap the wind- passage so as to beat against it. In the organ reed, how- ever, the brass tongue is burnished backwards so as to leave a thin aperture between it and the point of the channel against which it strikes ; this the pressure of wind at first tends to close, thus setting it in vibration. In the clarinet, the reed is flat and spatula-like (hence the German name Bldtt opposed to Eohr in the oboe and bassoon), the mouthpiece being curved backwards at the point to allow of vibra- tion. [See CLARINET.] The Double reed has already been described under oboe and bassoon [See OBOE ; BASSOON.] It is possible to replace it in both these instruments by a single reed of clarinet shape, beating against a small wooden mouthpiece. The old Dolcino or Alto-fagotto was so played in the band of the Coldstream Guards by a great artist still living, Mr. Henry Lazarus, when a boy. The double reed, however, much improves the quality of tone, and gives greater flexibility of execution to both the instru- ments named above. [W.H.S.]

REEDSTOP. When the pipes controlled by a draw-stop produce their tone by means of a vibrating reed, the stop is called a Reedstop; when the pipes contain no such reeds, but their tone is produced merely by the impinging of air against a sharp edge, the stop is called a Flue- stop. Any single pipe of the former kind is called a Reed-pipe, any single pipe of the latter kind, a Flue-pipe. Pipes containing Free reeds are seldom used in English organs, but are occasionally found in foreign instruments under the name of Physharmonika, etc. [See REED.] The reedstops consisting of ' striking-reeds ' are voiced in various ways to imitate the sounds of the Oboe, Cor Anglais, Clarinet, Bassoon, Horn, Cornopean, Trumpet, etc., all of which are of 8ft. pitch (that is, in unison with the diapason). The Clarion 4-ft. is an octave-reedstop. The Double Trumpet i6-ft. is a reedstop one octave lower in pitch than the diapason ; it is also called a Contra-posaune, or sometimes a Trom- bone. Reedstops of the trumpet class are often placed on a very high pressure of wind under such names as Tuba mirabilis, Tromba major, etc. ; such high-pressure reedstops are generally found on the Solo-manual ; the reedstops of the


Great organ being of moderate loudness ; those on the Choir organ altogether of a softer cha- racter. A very much larger proportion of reed- stops is usually assigned to the Swell organ than to any other manual, owing to the brilliant crescendo which they produce as the shutters of the swell-box open. Reedstops are said to be 'harmonic' when the tubes of the pipes are twice their normal length and perforated half- way with a small hole. Their tone is remarkably pure and brilliant. The best modern organ builders have made great improvements in the voicing of reedstops, which are now produced in almost infinite variety both as to quality and strength of tone. [J.S.]

REED, THOMAS GERMAN, born at Bristol June 27, 1817. His father was a musician, and the son first appeared, at the age of ten, at the Bath Concerts as a PF. player with John Loder and Linclley, and also sang at the Concerts and at the Bath Theatre. Shortly after, he appeared at the Haymarket Theatre, London, where his father was conductor, as PF. player, singer, and actor of juvenile parts. In 1832 the family moved to London, and the father became leader of the band at the Garrick Theatre. His son was his deputy, and also organist to the Catholic Chapel, Sloane Street. German Reed now entered eagerly into the musical life of London, was an early member of the Society of British Musicians, studied hard at harmony, counterpoint, and PF. playing, composed much, gave many lessons, and took part in all the good music he met with. His work at the theatre consisted in great measure of scoring and adapting, and getting up new operas, such as 'Fra Diavolo' in 1837. ^ n l ^^ he became Musical Director of the Haymarket Theatre, a post which he retained till 1851. In 1838 he also succeeded Mr. Tom Cooke as Chapel- master at the Royal Bavarian Chapel, where the music to the Mass was for long noted both for quality and execution. Beethoven's Mass in C was produced there for the first time in England, and the principal Italian singers habitually took part in the Sunday services. At the Haymarket, for the Shakespearian performances of Macready, the Keans, the Cushmans, etc., he made many ex- cellent innovations, by introducing, as overtures and entractes, good pieces, original or scored by himself, instead of the rubbish usually played at that date. During the temporary closing of the theatre Reed did the work of producing Pacini's opera of 'Sappho' at Drury Lane (April i, 1843 Clara Novello, Sims Reeves, etc.). In 1844 he married Miss Priscilla Horton, and for the next few years pursued the same busy, useful, miscel- laneous life as before, directing the production of English opera at the Surrey, managing Sadler's Wells during a season of English opera, with his wife, Miss Louisa Pyne, Harrison, etc., conduct- ing the music at the Olympic under Mr.Wigan's management, and making prolonged provincial tours.

In 1855 he started a new class of performance which, under the name of ' Mr. and Mrs. Germans Reed's Entertainment,' has made his name widely

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