Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/129

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same Versicle or Response will frequently take different 'accents' in the two languages. For example, the following Versicle takes in the Latin the medial accent ; but in the translation will require the moderate accent.

Latin form, "*~ I




��Ab Inlmlcli nostris defende nos ChrU - le. Eiujlish form.

��From our enemies defend us, O Christ.

It has been just stated that the early part of the Litany does not come under the above laws of ' accent.' The principle melodic progression is however closely allied to the above, it having merely an additional note, thus

��This is the old and common Response

��O ra pro no-bls

and to this are adapted the Responses, ' Spare us, good Lord ' ; 'Good Lord, deliver us ' ; ' We beseech Thee to hear us, good Lord ' ; 'Grant us Thy peace' ; 'Have mercy upon us'; '0 Christ hear us' (the first note being omitted as redundant) ; and 'Lord have mercy upon us ; Christ have mercy upon us.' At this point, the entry of the Lord's Prayer brings in the old law of medial and moderate accents; the above simple melody therefore is the true Response for the whole of the first (and principal) portion of the Litany. It is necessary however to return now to the preliminary sen- tences of the Litany, or the ' Invocations,' as they have been called. Here we find each divided by a colon; and, in consequence, the simple melody last given is lengthened by one note, thus :


��This is used without variation for all the Invo- cations. The asterisk shows the added note, which is set to the syllable immediately pre- ceding the colon. It happens that each of the sentences of Invocation contains in our English version a monosyllable before the colon ; but it is not the case in the Latin, therefore both Ver- sicle and Response differ from our use, thus


��God the 1 Father, of J

��. f have mercy upon ) .. . \ us, miser- J *


��Pater de cmlls De - us

��In the petitions of the Litany, the note marked with an asterisk is approached by another addition, for instead of

��we have

��with us for ever.

The whole sentence of music therefore stands thus

��(Petition chanted by Priest.)

��(Response by Choir and People.)

��We have now shortly traced the gradual growth of the plain-song of the whole of our Litany, and it is impossible not to admire the simplicity and beauty of its construction.

But the early English church-musicians fre- lently composed original musical settings of the whole Litany, a considerable number of which have been printed by Dr. Jebb ; nearly all however are now obsolete except that by Thomas Wanless (organist of York Minster at the close of the I7th century), which is occa- sionally to be heard in our northern cathedrals. The plain-song was not always entirely ignored by church-musicians, but it was sometimes in- cluded in the tenor part in such a mutilated state as to be hardly recognisable. It is gene- rally admitted that the form in which Tallis' responses have come down to us is very impure, if not incorrect. To such an extent is this the case that in an edition of the ' people's part ' of Tallis, published not many years since, the editor (a cathedral organist) fairly gave up the task of finding the plain-song of the response, ' We be- seech Thee to hear us, good Lord,' and ordered the people to sing the tuneful superstructure

��We be- seech Thee to bear us, good Lord. It certainly does appear impossible to combine this with

��We beseech Thee to hear us. good Lord.

But it appears that this ancient form existed

��Chris - to ex - au - dl DOS.

This, if used by Tallis, will combine with his harmonies ; thus

���(Plain-song in Tenor.)

Having now described the Preces, Versicles and Responses, and Litany, it only remains to say a few words on (i) Amens, (2) Doxology to Gospel, (3) Responses to the Commandments,

�� �