188 ROYAL SOCIETY OF MUSICIANS.
Birch, Miss Dolby, and Miss Mounsey (now Mrs. Bartholomew), in consequence of the Royal Society of Musicians having made no provision in their laws for the admission of female members. Practically it soon became evident that the co-existence of two separate societies with the same aim was resulting in considerable loss of sympathy and support ; and that one ex- penditure would suffice for the management of both institutions, if they could be amalga- mated. With the consent of the trustees and members this happy union was effected in 1866, and the two societies have now become one. [W.H.C.]
ROZE, MARIE, nee PONSIN, born March 2, 1846, at Paris; received instruction in singing from Molker at the Conservatoire, and in 1865 gained ist prizes in singing and comic opera. She made her debut Aug. 16 of that year at the Opera Comique as Marie, in Harold's opera of that name, and at once concluded an engagement for the next four years there, during which she appeared in ' L'Ambassadrice,' ' Joseph,' ' La Dame Blanche,' * Le Domino Noir,' ' Fra Dia- volo,' etc. She created the part of Djalma in <Le Premier jour de Bonheur' of Auber, at his request, on Feb. 15, 1868 ; also that of Jeanne in Flotow's 'L'Ombre/ July 7, 1870. She was greatly admired at the Ope'ra Comique for her sympathetic voice and natural charm of person and manner. Her next engagement was at the Grand Opera, where she played Marguerite in
- Faust.' At the outbreak of the war she left the
opera for the army, and served with zeal in the ambulance. After the war she sang for a season at the Theatre de la Monnaie, Brussels, and on April 30, 1872, first appeared in England at the Italian Opera, Drury Lane, as Marguerite, and as Marcelline in 'Les Deux Journees,' on its short-lived production, June 20, 1872. The en- suing seasons, until 1877, she passed at Drury Lane, where she made a distinct success, June 1 1, 1874, as Berengaria in Balfe's 'II Talismano,' at Her Majesty's, and in the provinces, singing both in Italian and English in opera or the concert- room. In the winter of 1877 she made a highly successful visit to America, returning in 1879 to Her Majesty's Theatre, where she is now (1881) engaged. Her parts include Donna Anna, Donna Elvira, Pamina, Susanna, Alice, Leonora (Verdi), Agatha, Mignon, Carmen, A'ida, Ortrud, etc., Madame Roze has been married, ist to Mr. Julius Perkins, an American bass singer of great pro- mise, who died in 1875 ; and 2ndly to Mr. Henry Mapleson. On April 17, 1880, at Mr. Ganz's orchestral concert, she revived with great success the ' Divinite's du Styx ' from Gluck's ' Alceste ' (last sung here in 1871 by Viardot Garcia), and an air from Mozart's 'II Re Pastore,' which was formerly a favourite with Madame Lind-Gold- schmidt. [A.C.]
RUBATO, lit. 'robbed' or 'stolen,' referring to the values of the notes, which are diminished in one place and increased in another. The word is used, chiefly in instrumental music, to indicate a particular kind of licence allowed in order to
emphasise the expression. This consists of a slight ad libitum slackening or quickening of the time in any passage, in accordance with the unchangeable rule that in all such passages any bar in which this licence is taken must be of exactly the same length as the other bars in the movement, so that if the first part of the bar be played slowly, the other part must be taken quicker than the ordinary time of the movement to make up for it. ; and vice versa, if the bar be hurried at the beginning, there must be a rallen- tando at the end. In a general way this most important and effective means of expression is left entirely to the discretion of the performer, who, it need scarcely be said, should take great care to keep it within due limits, or else the whole feeling of time will be destroyed, and the emphasis so desirable in one or two places will fail of its effect if scattered over the whole com- position. Sometimes, however, it is indicated by the composer, as in the ist Mazurka in Chopin's op. 6 (bar 9), etc. This licence is allowable in the works of all the modern ' romantic ' masters, from Weber downwards, with the single excep- tion of Mendelssohn, who had the greatest dis- like to any modification of the time that he had not specially marked. In the case of the older masters, it is entirely and unconditionally inad- missible, and it may be doubted whether it should be introduced in Beethoven, although many great interpreters of his music do not hesitate to use it. [See TEMPO.] [J.A.F.M.]
RUBINELLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, cele- brated singer, born at Brescia in 1753, made his first appearance on the stage at the age ot 1 8, at Stuttgart, in Sacchinfs 'Calliroe.' For some years he was attached to the Duke ot Wiirtemberg's chapel, but in 1774 he sang at Modena in Paisiello's ' Alessandro nelle Indie ' and Anfossi's ' Demofoonte.' His success was very great ; and during the next few years he performed at all the principal theatres in Italy. In 1786 he came to London, after a journey from Rome by no means propitious. The weather was unusually severe, and, in going through France, his travelling chaise was overturned at Macon; besides which, when approaching Dover, the boat that landed him was upset, and the unlucky singer remained for a time up to his chin in the water. In spite of these perils he made a successful debut in a pasticcio called ' Virginia,' his own part in which was chiefly composed by Tarchi. He next sang with Mara, in 'Armida,' and in Handel's 'Giulio Cesare/ revived for him, with several interpolations from Handel's other works. These are said to have been most admirably sung by Rubinelli. ' He possessed a contralto voice of fine quality, but limited com- pass. It was full, round, firm, and steady in slow movements, but had little agility, nor did he 'at- tempt to do more than he could execute perfectly. His style was the true cantabile, in which few could excel him ; his taste was admirable, and his science great; his figure tall and commanding, his manner and action solemn and dignified. In short he must be reckoned, if not the first, yet of