Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/330

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��It was easier for her to forgive an injury arising thus from excess of feeling, than to tolerate the inadequate support of a first tenor, 'half sponge, half wood '; or to allow the sleepy play of a prima donna to go unpunished : as when, in Romeo, she was guilty of tickling the feet of a too unemotional Giulietta, during the caresses of the last scene of Bellini's opera. (See also Mo- Bcheles* Life, i. 270.) An audience of ' lederne Seelen ' was her abhorrence, and the ignorance of fashionable London forty years ago tried her sorely. (Ib. 263.)

In his ' Modern German Music,' Chorley enters upon an analysis of some of Madame Schroder-Devrient's parts. He and Berlioz (the latter in letters to the Journal des DtSbats, 1843) concur in condemning the mannerisms which grew upon her as time went on. Rellstab has devoted an article to her ('Ges. Schriften,' ix.). A. von Wolzogen's ' Wilh. Schroeder-Devrient ' (Leipzig, 1863) is the best life, and gives a cir- cumstantial, impartial, and interesting account ; while Wagner's ' Ueber Schauspieler und San- ger ' eulogises her depth of feeling and power of interpretation. [L. M. M.]

SCHROETER, CHBISTOPH GOTTLIEB, born at Hohenstein, Saxony, Aug. 10, 1699, long enjoyed in Germany the honour of having invented the pianoforte. His claims, first published by himself in jVIitzlcr's *"M" rio i^ii a ^^ i TtiWiir\fTioL-* /'T^irvTir*


1738) and repeated in Marpurg's ' Kritische Briefe ' (Berlin, 1764) have been examined and set aside in favour of Cristofori. [See PIANOFORTE, vol. ii. p. 71 2.] We learn from Schroeter's auto- biography that at seven years of age he was placed as a chorister at Dresden, under Kapell- meister Schmidt, and that Graun was his com- panion. The clavichord early became his greatest pleasure. When he lost his voice he entered the Kreuz-schule to study thorough-bass, that is, accompaniment as then practised, and learned to quill and tune harpsichords, which led him to the monochord and systems of temperament. On the wish of his mother that he should study the- ology, he went to Leipzig for that purpose in 1 71 7, but after her death resumed music, returned to Dresden, and was accepted by Lotti to copy for him, and write his middle parts. It was at this time that he endeavoured to combine the charac- teristics of the harpsichord and clavichord, by inventing two hammer actions, the models of which he deposited at the Saxon Court in 1721 ; but immediately afterwards he left Dresden, taking service with a Baron whom he does not name, to travel in Germany, Holland, and England. In 1724 he went to the University of Jena and began writing upon musical subjects ; in 1726 he took the organist's place at Minden, removing in 1732 to Nordhausen, where he re- mained until his death in 1782. A complete list of his numerous writings is to be found in Gerber's Lexicon der Tonkiinstler (Leipzig, 1792), ii. 454-5- [A.J.H.]

SCHROETER, JOHANN SAMUEL, an esteemed pianoforte-player and composer for that instru- ment, was born in 1750 of German parents at


Warsaw, where his father, Johann Friedrich, was oboist in the royal orchestra. About 1 765 he accompanied his father and sister to Leipzig, and sang there in the Gewandhaus Concerts. On the breaking of his voice he devoted himself entirely to the piano, and travelled with his father, brother and sister, performing as they went, through Holland to London. There they made their ddbut in the concerts of Bach and Abel at the Thatched House, St. James's Street, May 2, 1772, Schroeter playing a concerto on the Forte Piano,' which J. Christian Bach had first performed in 1767, the brother John Henri on the violin, and the sister, Corona, afterwards a celebrated vocalist, singing. Bumey (in Rees's Cyclopaedia) says that 'he may be said to have been the first who brought into England the true art of treating that instrument.' After J. C. Bach's death in 1782, he succeeded him as music-master to the Queen. 'Six Sonatas for the harpsichord or piano forte' are an- nounced by W. Napier in the ' Public Adver- tiser' in 1776 as his op. I. This was followed in 1778 by op. 3, 'Six Concertos with an accom- paniment for 2 violins and a bass'; and this again by op. 5 (Berlin), op. 6 (Paris), op. 2, six trios (Amsterdam), op. 9 two ditto (Do.). The 'ABC Dario' (p. 144) says of him, 'He has composed the harpsichord parts of some con- certos ; the accompaniments are by Bach ; they are neither new nor very striking. He plays in an elegant and masterly style; his cadences are well imagined, and if his penchant was not rather to play rapidly than al core, he would excel on the pianoforte.' Burney, on the other hand (in Rees), says, 'He became one of the neatest and most expressive players of his time, and his style of composition, highly polished, resembles that of Abel more than any other. It was graceful and in good taste, but so chaste as sometimes to seem deficient in fire and in- vention.' He did not remain long before the public in consequence of his marriage with one of his pupils, a young lady of birth and fortune, after which he played only at the concerts of the Prince of Wales and a few others of the nobility. He died on Sunday, Nov. 2, 1 788, in his own house at Pimlico, having lost his voice some years before by a severe cold. His marriage was a clandes- tine one, and brought him into collision with his wife's family, the result of which was his sur- rendering all his rights for an annuity of 500. She is the lady who took lessons from Haydn during his residence in London, and fell violently in love with him. Haydn spoke of her many years after as a very attractive woman, and still handsome, though over sixty ; ' had I been free,' said the patriarch, 'I should certainly have married her ' she was then a widow. He dedi- cated to her three clavier trios (B. & H., Nos. i, 2, 6). [See vol. i. p. 711.] [C.F.P.]

SCHUBART, CHRISTIAN FBIEDRICH DANIEL, born at Obersontheim in Suabia, Nov. 22, 1743, and brought up, not as a musician, at Nord- lingen, Nuremberg, and Erlangen. In 1 768 we find him as organist at Ludwigsburg. His life

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